American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)
The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) is an organization designed to link state legislators with corporations and create templates for state legislation. Some corporations ALEC has worked with include Exxon Mobil, Koch Industries, Peabody Energy, and Reynolds Tobacco.
ALEC describes its mission as to “advance limited government, free markets, and federalism at the state level through a nonpartisan public-private partnership of America’s state legislators, members of the private sector and the general public.” 
“ALEC is not a lobby; it is not a front group. It is much more powerful than that. Through ALEC, behind closed doors, corporations hand state legislators the changes to the law they desire that directly benefit their bottom line. Along with legislators, corporations have membership in ALEC. Corporations sit on all nine ALEC task forces and vote with legislators to approve 'model' bills.
They have their own corporate governing board which meets jointly with the legislative board. (ALEC says that corporations do not vote on the board.) Corporations fund almost all of ALEC's operations. Participating legislators, overwhelmingly conservative Republicans, then bring those proposals home and introduce them in statehouses across the land as their own brilliant ideas and important public policy innovations—without disclosing that corporations crafted and voted on the bills.” 
- Civil Justice
- Commerce, Insurance, and Economic Development
- Communications and Technology
- Education and Workforce Development
- Energy, Environment and Agriculture
- Federalism and International Relations
- Health and Human Services
- Justice Performance Project
- Tax and Fiscal Policy
- *Public Safety and Elections task force (since disbanded) 
A Brookings Institution study looked at sample of 132 ALEC model bills that were introduced during the 2012 legislative season. Republicans sponsored over 90 percent of them. Their study found that the ALEC bills’ likelihood of passing was “strikingly high compared to the dismal rate at which all other bills are enacted into law.” 
In 2013, the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) found at least 77 ALEC bills that year opposing renewable energy standards, supporting fracking and the controversial Keystone XL pipeline, or otherwise undermining environmental laws. 
Stance on Climate Change
ALEC has released an official position statement on renewables and climate change: 
Climate change is a historical phenomenon and the debate will continue on the significance of natural and anthropogenic contributions. ALEC will continue to monitor the issue and support the use of sound science to guide policy, but ALEC will also incorporate economic and political realism. Unilateral efforts by the United States or regions within the United States will not significantly decrease carbon emissions globally, and international efforts to decrease emissions have proven politically infeasible and unenforceable. Policymakers in most cases are not willing to inflict economic harm on their citizens with no real benefit. ALEC discourages impractical visionary goals that ignore economic reality, and that will not be met without serious consequences for worldwide standard of living.
The following is taken from ALEC's model bill for “Energy Principles” (PDF):
Global Climate Change is Inevitable. Climate change is a historical phenomenon and the debate will continue on the significance of natural and anthropogenic contributions. ALEC will continue to monitor the issue and support the use of sound science. Regardless, the economy is becoming more energy efficient. Each year we emit less carbon dioxide per dollar of economic output. In fact, carbon dioxide emissions per dollar of GDP declined 41.3 percent between 1981 and 2005. This impressive improvement has taken place without greenhouse gas emissions regulations or taxes. 
Sandy Liddy Bourne, representing ALEC, said in 2004: “Carbon dioxide, the inescapable by-product of burning fossil fuels, is beneficial to plant and human life alike. The effort to regulate it as a greenhouse gas is an attempt to tax energy.” 
After Google parted ways with ALEC due to its inaction on climate change, the group refuted allegations that it denies climate change, saying: “ALEC recognizes that climate change is an important issue,” and “no ALEC model policy denies climate change.” , 
ALEC hosts conferences three times a year where they frequently invite prominent climate change skeptics.
Joe Bast: “There is no scientific consensus on the human role in climate change.” ALEC Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas August, 2014
Craig Idso: “CO2 is not a pollutant. It is a benefit. It is the very elixir of life.” ALEC Conference, December 2014
Marc Morano: “The idea that there is a “scientific consensus” [on climate change] does not hold up.” ALEC Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas August, 2014
Christopher Monckton: “The science [of climate change] is bad, the consensus is wrong.” ALEC Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia July, 2009
Lisa Nelson (ALEC CEO): Asked if she accepts CO2 emissions are the primary driver of climate change: “I don't know the science on that.” Interview with National Journal, published October 2, 2014.
Phil King (ALEC Board member): “I think the global warming theory is bad science.” TX House of Representatives Website, January, 2007.
John Piscopo (ALEC Board member): “The public has been hoodwinked…I have serious doubts about whether [climate change] is man made.” Connecticut Post, March, 2010.
“The case shows that legislators who deny open records requests and seek refuge behind improbable claims of immunity will be held accountable by the public, the media and the legal system,” said Brendan Fischer, General Counsel for the Center for Media and Democracy.
|American Petroleum Institute||$88,000|
|Castle Rock Foundation||$650,000|
|Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation||$419,958|
|Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation||$720,000|
|Donors Capital Fund||$201,000|
|Friedman Foundation For Educational Choice||$248,000|
|Jaquelin Hume Foundation||$270,000|
|John M. Olin Foundation||$215,000|
|Joyce and Donald Rumsfeld Foundation||$7,000|
|Scaife Family Foundation||$50,000|
|Searle Freedom Trust||$820,000|
|The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation||$503,000|
|The Randolph Foundation||$75,000|
|The Roe Foundation||$29,500|
|The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation||$75,000|
|The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation||$7,000|
|The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation||$28,500|
According to previous data from Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets, ALEC received $1,474,200 from ExxonMobil since 1998. 
- Rep. Phil King — National Chair (Texas)
- Sen. Leah Vukmir — First Vice Chair (Wisconsin - Incoming National Chair for December, 2015)
- Sen. Jim Buck — Second Vice Chair (Indiana)
- Sen. Wayne Niederhauser — Treasurer (Utah)
- Rep. Gary Banz — Secretary (Oklahoma)
- Rep. Linda Upmeyer — Immediate Past Chair (Iowa)
- Rep. Harold Brubaker — Chair Emeritus (North Carolina)
- Rep. Tom Craddick — Chair Emeritus (Texas)
- Rep. Noble Ellington — Chair Emeritus (Louisiana)
- Sen. Steve Faris — Chair Emeritus (Arkansas)
- Rep. Bobby Hogue — Chair Emeritus (Arkansas)
- Rep. Dolores Mertz — Chair Emeritus (Iowa)
- Sen. Joel Anderson — Board Member (California)
- Sen. Bill Cadman — Board Member (Colorado)
- Rep. Alan Clemmons — Board Member (South Carolina)
- Sen. Andre Cushing — Board Member (Maine)
- Rep. David Frizzell — Board Member (Indiana)
- Rep. Philip Gunn — Board Member (Mississippi)
- Rep. Joe Harrison — Board Member (Louisiana)
- Sen. Judson Hill — Board Member (Georgia)
- Speaker Bill Howell — Board Member (Virginia)
- Rep. Norine Kasperik — Board Member (Wyoming)
- Speaker Ray Merrick — Board Member (Kansas)
- Rep. Dawn Pettengill — Board Member (Iowa)
- Rep. John Piscopo — Board Member (Connecticut)
- Rep. Jason Saine — Board Member (North Carolina)
- Sen. Bill Seitz — Board Member (Ohio), also past Co-Chair of Civil Justice Task Force. 
- Rep. Blair Thoreson — Board Member (North Dakota)
- Rep. Curry Todd — Board Member (Tennessee)
- Sen. Susan Wagle — Board Member (Kansas)
Board of Scholars
- Dr. Arthur B. Laffer — Founder and chairman, Laffer Associates
- Victor Schwartz — Partner, Shook, Hardy, and Bacon, LLP
- Dr. Richard Vedder — Professor of Economics, Ohio University
- Bob Williams — Founder and Senior Fellow, Evergreen Freedom Foundation
Private Enterprise Advisory Council
“ALEC provides a forum to facilitate the exchange of policy ideas from a variety of perspectives. ALEC model policy and resolutions are developed by ALEC members and may or may not reflect the positions of any individual member, company, association, or non-profit.”
As of August, 2015, ALEC's Private Enterprise Advisory Council included the following members:
- Mr. Bill Carmichael (National Chair) — American Bail Coalition
- Ms. Cynthia Bergman — Exxon Mobil Corporation
- Ms. Sano Blocker — Energy Future Holdings
- Mr. Jeff Bond — PhRMA
- Mr. Josh Brown — Pfizer Inc.
- Mr. Steve DelBianco — NetChoice
- Ms. Marianne Eterno — Guarantee Trust Life Insurance Company
- Mr. Kenneth Lane — Diageo North America, Inc.
- Mr. Bill Leahy — AT&T
- Mr. Don Lee — K12 Inc.
- Mr. Kelly Mader — lobbyist for Peabody Energy 
- Mr. Stephen Moore
- Mr. Michael Morgan — Koch Companies Public Sector, LLC
- Mr. Chip Rogers — Asian American Hotel Owners Association
- Mr. Daniel Smith — Altria Client Services (formerly Phillip Morris)
- Mr. Roland Spies — State Farm Insurance Companies
- Mr. Pat Thomas — United Parcel Service
- Mr. Bob Williams — State Budget Solutions
- Mr. Steve Woods — National Federation of Independent Business
- Lisa B. Nelson — Chief Executive Officer, former lobbyist for VISA and AOL Time Warner. Also worked for Newt Gingrich and GOPAC. , 
- Amy Kjose Anderson — Director, Task Force on Civil Justice
- Michael Bowman — Vice President, Policy and Strategic Initiatives
- Bartlett Cleland — Director, Task Force on Communications and Technology/ Vice President, Center for Innovation and Technology
- Seth Cooper — Amicus Counsel
- John Eick — Director, Task Force on Energy, Environment, and Agriculture
- William Freeland — Research Analyst, Task Force on Tax and Fiscal Policy
- Jonathon Hauenschild — Legislative Analyst
- Brian Hawkins — Policy Coordinator
- Michael Hough — Director, Task Force on Commerce, Insurance and Economic Development and Justice Performance Project
- Karla Jones — Director, Task Force on International and Federal Relations
- Theodore Lafferty — Legal Research Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force
- Jon Russell — Director, American City County Exchange
- Lindsay Russell — Director, Task Force on Education
- Kati Siconolfi — Legislative Manager, Task Force on Tax and Fiscal Policy
- Daniel Turner — Legislative Analyst
- Jonathan Williams — Vice President, Center for State Fiscal Reform / Director, Task Force on Tax and Fiscal Policy
- Ben Wilterdink — Research Manager, Task Force on Tax and Fiscal Policy
- Bill Meierling — Vice President, Communications and Public Affairs
- Christine Phipps — Director, Art and Creative
- Ashley Varner — Director, Strategic Communications
- Molly Fuhs — Director, Media and Public Relations
- Shana Sally — Coordinator, Media and Public Affairs
- Rek LeCounte — Manager, Digital Media
- Jeff Lambert — Vice President, Membership and Development
- Sarah McManamon — Director, Events
- Marie Vulaj — Director, Nonprofit and Corporate Relations
- Laurel Buckley — Director, Development and Midwestern Relations
- Courtney Cook — Coordinator, Events
- Spencer Chretien — Coordinator, Membership Services
- Alex McGee — Development Coordinator
- Lisa Bowen — Vice President, Finance and Administration
- Genneya Briscoe — Manager, Finance and Administration
- Jose ‘Pepe’ Fernandez — Office Manager
- Jimmy Wall — Executive Assistant to the CEO
- Sandy Liddy Bourne — Past “Environment, Natural Resources, and Agriculture Task Force Director.” 
Past Board Members
- Rep. Noble Ellington — 2011 National Chairman.
- Rep. Dave Frizzell — 2012 National Chairman.
- Rep. John Piscopo — Second Vice Chairman.
- Rep. Linda Upmeyer — Treasurer.
- Rep. Liston Barfield — Secretary.
- Rep. Tom Craddick — Immediate Past Chairman.
- Sen. Curt Bramble
- Rep. Harold Brubaker
- Sen. Jim Buck
- Sen. Kent Cravens
- Rep. Jim Ellington
- Sen. Billy Hewes III
- Speaker Bill Howell
- Sen. Owen Johnson
- Sen. Michael Lamoureux
- Rep. Steve McDaniel
- Sen. Ray Merrick
- Sen. Dean Rhoads
- Sen. Chip Rogers
- Sen. William Seitz
- Rep. Fred Steen II
- Rep. Curry Todd
- Sen. Susan Wagle
Past Board of Scholars
- Arthur B. Laffer — Founder and chairman of Laffer Associates. Co-chair of the policy council for the Free Enterprise Fund (FEF).
- Stephen Moore — Senior economics writer, The Wall Street Journal. Past founder and president of the Club for Growth.
- Victor Schwartz — Partner, Shook, Hardy, and Bacon LLP. Co-chairs ALEC’s Civil Justice Task Force.
- Richard Vedder — Professor of Economics at The Ohio University in Athens, Ohio.
- Bob Williams — Founder and Senior Fellow of the Evergreen Freedom Foundation.
- Ron Scheberle — Executive Director since January, 2010.
- Michael Bowman — Senior Director, Policy and Strategic Initiatives.
- Meaghan Archer — Research Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force.
- Seth Cooper — Amicus Counsel.
- Christine Harbin — Research Manager, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force.
- Christie Herrera — Director, Health and Human Services Task Force.
- Michael Hough — ALEC Resident Fellow, Public Safety.
- Karla Jones — Director, International and Federal Relations.
- Amy Kjose — Director, Civil Justice Task Force.
- Stephanie Linn — Policy and Intern Manager.
- David Myslinski — Director, Education Task Force.
- Courtney O’Brien — Director, Commerce, Insurance, and Economic Development & Public Safety and Elections Task Forces.
- Sean Riley — Legislative Analyst, Health and Human Services Task Force.
- Kati Siconolfi — Legislative Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force.
- John Stephenson — Director, Telecommunications and Information Technology Task Force.
- Cara Sullivan — Legislative Analyst, Public Safety and Elections Task Force.
- Kailee Tkacz — Research Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force.
- Bryan Weynand — Legislative Analyst, Civil Justice & Energy, Environment, and Agriculture Task Forces.
- Jonathan Williams — Director, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force.
- Todd Wynn — Director, Energy, Environment and Agriculture Task Force.
Past Private Enterprise Board
- W. Preston Baldwin — (National Chairman) Centerpoint360.
- Sandra Oliver — (First Vice Chairman) Bayer Corp.
- John Del Giorno — (Second Vice Chairman) GlaxoSmithKline.
- David Powers — (Treasurer) Reynolds American.
- Maggie Sans — (Secretary) Wal-Mart Stores.
- Jerry Watson — (Chairman Emeritus)
- Sano Blocker — Energy Future Holdings.
- Don Bohn — Johnson & Johnson.
- Jeffrey Bond — PhRMA.
- William Carmichael — American Bail Coalition.
- Derek Crawford — Kraft Foods, Inc.
- Robert Jones — Pfizer Inc.
- Teresa Jennings — Reed Elsevier, Inc.
- Kenneth Lane — DIAGEO.
- Bill Leahy — AT&T.
- Kelly Mader — Peabody Energy.
- Richard McArdle — UPS.
- Mike Morgan — Koch Companies Public Sector, LLC.
- Gene Rackley — Coca-Cola Refreshments.
- Daniel Smith — Altria Client Services.
- Randy Smith — ExxonMobil Corporation.
- Russell Smoldon — Salt River Project.
- Roland Spies — State Farm Insurance Co.
Media Coverage on ALEC
The Moyers and Company television program aired on public television stations, relying heavily on research by the Center for Media and Democracy's ALEC Exposed project, as well as first-hand interviews. , 
Video below. (View transcript here).
- American Electric Power (AEP)
- Balanced Energy for Texas
- American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (ACCCE)
- Cigar Association of America
- An Inquiry into The Nature and Causes of the Wealth of States* (new book by Travis Brown & ALEC board member Stephen Moore, ALEC advisor Art Laffer, and Missouri political financier Rex Sinquefield)
- Luminant (subsidiary of Energy Future Holdings)*
- State Policy Network (SPN)
- Citizens for Self-Governance
- Altria (Phillip Morris tobacco parent company)*
- American Bail Coalition*
- Encore Capital Group (subsidiary of Energy Future Holdings)*
- Guarantee Trust Life (GTL)*
- Collaborative for Student Success
- Texas Automobile Dealers Association (TADA)
- Astellas Pharma
- Breitling Energy
- CenterPoint Energy
- Crown Packaging
- Duke Energy
- Excelsior College
- Oncor (subsidiary of Energy Future Holdings)*
- Ryan (tax services company)
- Time Warner Cable
- Association of Bermuda Insurers & Reinsurers (ABIR)
- Capelo Law Firm
- Devon Energy
- The Graydon Group LLC
- Bright House Media Strategies
- Piedmont Natural Gas
- Renovate America
- Sunovion Pharmaceuticals
- Tenaska Capital Management
- Texas Alliance of Energy Producers
- Texas Cable Association
- Texas Medical Association
- Texas Association of Builders
- Texas Business Roundtable
- Texas Oil and Gas Association (TXOGA)
- Texans for Lawsuit Reform
- The Schlueter Group
- Texas Strategy Group
- Texas Star Alliance Energy Solutions
Shortly after the loss of a number of high-profile sponsors, ALEC threatened legal action against groups that had accused it of denying climate change.
“We don’t think ALEC or organizations like it are done attacking progress on climate change,” said Kert Davies, an environmental activist running the nonprofit Climate Investigations Center. “It is hard to imagine these organizations turning a corner and suddenly being open to an honest discussion of real environmental policy.”
The Center for Media and Democracy's (CMD) obtained an internal tracking document from the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), dated March 2014 (See .xls spreadsheet), that revealed ALEC tracking 131 bills that “amongst other things, roll back state renewable energy standards, increase costs for American households with solar, hype the Keystone XL pipeline, push back on proposed EPA coal regulations that protect human health, and create industry-friendly fracking rules despite growing national and international concerns about fracking.” 
The Center for Media and Democracy's (CMD) PR Watch reports that the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) adopted a “model” bill that would fight against regional low-carbon fuel standards (LCFS) in the states. 
CMD reports that the model bill, called “Restrictions on Participation in Low-Carbon Fuel Standards Programs,” was sponsored at a November, 2012 ALEC conference in Washington by Steve Higley, a lobbyist from the U.S.-based industry group American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM). AFPM includes members from both Koch Industries and ExxonMobil, who are also represented on ALEC's Private Enterprise Advisory Council.
Huffington Post reports how Chevron and the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) worked together to oppose the 1973 Endangered Species Act, and its supposed challenges to energy developers. 
Chevron sponsored a workshop as part of ALEC's policy summit in Washington, D.C. that covered how the law “often negatively impacts and stifles energy development of all kinds,” according to a planning document (PDF).
July 13, 2011
The Center for Media Democracy (CMD) and The Nation published a leaked file that revealed over 800 examples of ALEC's model legislation. The Nation attributes the leak to Aliya Rahman, an Ohio-based activist who helped organize protests at ALEC’s Spring Task Force meeting in Cincinnati. 
CMD now hosts the website “ALEC Exposed” which houses examples of ALEC's model legislation previously unavailable to the public. The website also provides tools to track politicians, corporations, and bills with ties to ALEC.
The Nation devoted a special edition of their magazine to the breaking story, and included the following articles published in the August 1-8 edition of the magazine, and online on July 12, 2011:
- John Nichols. “ALEC Exposed.”
- Joel Rogers and Laura Dresser. “ALEC Exposed: Business Domination Inc.”
- Wendell Potter. “ALEC Exposed: Sabotaging Healthcare.”
- Lisa Graves. “ALEC Exposed: The Koch Connection.”
- Julie Underwood. “ALEC Exposed: Starving Public Schools.”
- John Nichols. “ALEC Exposed: Rigging Elections.”
Around the same time, the Los Angeles Times reported that the government watchdog Common Cause was challenging ALEC's nonprofit status, arguing that “it spends most of its resources lobbying, in violation of the rules governing nonprofit organizations.” 
OpenSecrets.org reports that the 23 companies represented on ALEC's private enterprise board spent large amounts lobbying the government on health and environmental measures such as bills that would block the EPA from regulating greenhouse gas emissions. 
ALEC orchestrated opposition against EPA regulations on greenhouse gasses with their model legislation, “Resolution in Opposition to EPA's Plan to Regulate Greenhouse Gases Under the Clean Air Act.”
The model legislation opposes “EPA's endangerment finding and any regulation of greenhouse gases, citing the massive economic burden that would result and the global nature of climate emissions.”
ALEC says it will “continue to support the efforts of state legislatures in resisting the EPA’s regulatory agenda” and “urges Congress to take the concerns of these states seriously and stop this regulatory train wreck in order to avoid the enormous negative impacts the EPA’s overreaching regulations will have.” 
ALEC also offers a document titled “EPA’s Regulatory Train Wreck: Strategies for State Legislators” that “outlines best practices for state legislators (including following the many states that are considering resolutions in 2011 to call for Congress to slow and stop this regulatory onslaught [by the EPA]).”
ALEC has published materials downplaying the risks of global warming before, including “Climate Change Overview for State Legislators” (PDF) written by Daniel Simmons, previously associated with the Mercatus Institute (an organization founded and funded by Koch Industries).
Clint Woods of ALEC said that the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and other cap-and-trade greenhouse gas reduction plans would become the “new battlefield” after federal climate legislation fell through. 
ALEC launched opposition to “Son of Kyoto” legislation across the country.
“States should reject every form of Kyoto legislation for the very same reasons as our leaders in Washington, D.C.,” said Alexandra Liddy Bourne. “The Kyoto Protocol is just another highly regressive energy tax on America's working families, with no measurable benefit to environmental or human health.” 
SourceWatch maintains a full list of organizations working behind-the-scenes with ALEC.
“What is ALEC?” ALECExposed.org. Archived August 6, 2015.
“Mission,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived July 31, 2015.
“Task Forces,” ALEC. Archived August 6, 2015.
“American Legislative Exchange Council,” Conservative Transparency. Archived August 6, 2015.
Molly Jackman. “ALEC’s Influence over Lawmaking in State Legislatures,” Brookings Institution, December 6, 2013. Archived August 6, 2015.
Anne Landman. “ALEC and the Tobacco Industry,” PR Watch, July 15, 2011. Archived August 6, 2015.
“Position Statement on Renewables and Climate Change,” ALEC. Archived August 7, 2015.
(Press Release) “'Sons-of-Kyoto' Legislation: States React to the Myth of Global Warming,” US Newswire, January 21, 2004. Archived March 12, 2004.
Brian Fung. “Google: We’re parting with the climate change skeptics at ALEC,” The Washington Post. September 22, 2014.
Neela Banerjee. “What's Behind ALEC's Denial That It Denies Climate Change?“ Inside Climate News. April 14, 2015. Archived August 6, 2015.
“Board of Directors,” ALEC. Archived Aug 7, 2015.
“Civil Justice,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived December, 2011.
“Board of Scholars,” ALEC. Archived August 1, 2015.
“Private Enterprise Advisory Council,” ALEC. Archived August 9, 2015.
Nick Surgey. “Peabody Energy Lobbyist Schools Legislators on Getting More ALEC Travel Perks,” PR Watch, March 5, 2014. Archived August 9, 2015.
“Meet Our Staff,” ALEC. Archived August 9, 2015.
American Legislative Exchange Council, Lisa Nelson, organizational biography (originally from Ulysses Consulting, Inc.). Archived August 9, 2015.
Nora Chokshi. “ALEC, the free-market group liberals love to hate, gets a new boss,” July 8, 2014. Washington Post, July 8, 2014. Archived August 9, 2015.
“Board of Directors,” ALEC. Archived January 5, 2012.
“Board of Scholars,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived January, 2012.
“Meet Our Staff,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived January, 2012.
“Private Enterprise Board,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Accessed January, 2012.
Karl Mathieson and Ed Pilkington. “Royal Dutch Shell cuts ties with Alec over rightwing group's climate denial,” The Guardian, August 7, 2015. Archived August 9, 2015.
Terry Macalister and Damian Carrington. “Shell boss endorses warnings about fossil fuels and climate change,” The Guardian, May 22, 2015.
Amy Westervelt. “BP joins list of companies fleeing Alec,” The Guardian, March 23, 2015.
Coral Davenport and Julie Hirschfeld Davis. “Move to Fight Obama’s Climate Plan Started Early,” The New York Times, August 3, 2015.
Nick Surgey. “ALEC Conference Funding Dominated by Big Polluters,” PR Watch, July 23, 2015. Archived August 10, 2015.
Tom Hamburger, Joby Warrick, and Chris Mooney. “This conservative group is tired of being accused of climate denial — and is fighting back,” The Washington Post, April 5, 2015. Archived August 9, 2015.
John Nichols. “ALEC Exposed,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
Tom Hamburger and Neela Banerjee. “State legislative bills raise conservative group's profile,” Los Angeles Times, July 13, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
“ALEC Responds to Deceptive Common Cause Report,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived January 4, 2012.
Brad Hooker. “Corporations Represented on ALEC's Private Enterprise Board Are Big Spenders in Washington,” OpenSecrets (blog), September 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
“ALEC State Legislators Push Back EPA’s Onslaught of Regulations: ALEC’S EPA Regulatory Train Wreck proving to be successful,” (Press Release) American Legislative Exchange Council, June 14, 2011. Archived February 5, 2012.
Darren Samuelsohn. “States are climate battlegrounds,” Politico, September 15, 2010. Archived August 9, 2015.
“Coal Ash: Blatantly and Egregiously Hazardous,” PolluterWatch, November 18, 2010.
Globalwarming.org, archived August 9, 2015.
“Directory,” State Policy Network. Accessed August 9, 2015.
Steve Horn. “Groups File IRS Complaint Alleging ALEC is a Lobbying Vehicle, Not a Charity,” DeSmogBlog, May 13, 2015.
“Supplemental Complaint 2015,” Common Cuase. Accessed October 30, 2015.
“STATE OF MINNESOTA CAMPAIGN FINANCE AND PUBLIC DISCLOSURE BOARD: Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law, and Order In the Matter of the Complaint of Common Cause Minnesota Regarding the American Legislative Exchange Council” (PDF), retrieved from CommonCause.org.
“Watch This Atlanta TV Station Expose ALEC's Influence On Local Legislators,” Media Matters, May 22, 2015.
Brendan Keefe and Media King. “Legislators and corporate lobbyists meet in secret at Georgia resort,” WXIA-TV Atlanta, June 2, 2015.
“Bill Moyers: United States of ALEC — A Viewers Guide,” PR Watch, June 24, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cg86G2IN
“United States of ALEC — A Follow-Up,” Moyers & Company, June 21, 2013.
Nick Surgey. “ALEC Tours Tar Sands, Works with Industry Groups to Block Low-Carbon Fuel Standards,” PR Watch, June 17, 2013. Archived October 31, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cg98B9Md
Kate Sheppard. “Chevron And ALEC Take On The Big, Bad Lesser Prairie Chicken,” Huffington Post, April 12, 2014. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cgAS7TNS
Brendan Fischer. “Dirty Hands: 77 ALEC Bills in 2013 Advance a Big Oil, Big Ag Agenda,” PR Watch, August 1, 2014. Archived October 31, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cgB4L1of
“After Unprecedented Claim of Legislative Immunity, Vukmir Releases ALEC Records, Pays Damages,” PR Watch, March 28, 2014. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cgBjcAh9
Rebekah Wilce. “Some ALEC Funders Flee, but Koch, Big Tobacco, and PhRMA Remain Loyalists,” PR Watch, August 1, 2014. Archived October 31, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cgCogePx
“American Legislative Exchange Council,” Wikipedia entry.
Brad Hooker. “Corporations Represented on ALEC's Private Enterprise Board Are Big Spenders in Washington,” OpenSecrets (blog), September 12, 2011. Archived August 10, 2015.
“Deniers: American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC),” ExxonSecrets Wiki.
“CASE STUDY: Koch Front Groups Attack RGGI – the Northeast Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative,” Greenpeace. Archived August 10, 2015.
Kert Davies. “ALEC EXPOSED: Polluter Front Group's Dirty Secrets Revealed,” Greenpace, July 13, 2011. Archived July 16, 2011.
Joel Rogers and Laura Dresser. “ALEC Exposed: Business Domination Inc.“ The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 10, 2015.
Wendell Potter. “ALEC Exposed: Sabotaging Healthcare,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
Lisa Graves. “ALEC Exposed: The Koch Connection,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
Julie Underwood. “ALEC Exposed: Starving Public Schools,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
John Nichols. “ALEC Exposed: Rigging Elections,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
Mike Elk and Bob Sloan. “The Hidden History of ALEC and Prison Labor,” The Nation, August 1, 2011.
Alecexposed.org by the Center for Media and Democracy.