Bob Carter


Robert (Bob) Carter


  • Ph.D., University of Cambridge, Palaeontology, 1968.
  • B.Sc. (Hons), University of Otago, Geology, 1963.

Source: [1]


Robert (Bob) Carter died in January 2016. He was a former research professor at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia, and advisor to multiple climate science denial organisations around the world. He was head of the university's School of Earth Sciences between 1981 and 1999 and then held unpaid adjunct professorial positions. In January 2013 the university allowed his adjunct status to lapse, citing lack of input into the university. He is a marine geologist and environmental scientist. [2], [3]

In response to claims made by Carter that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change had not uncovered evidence that global warming was caused by human activity, a former CSIRO climate scientist stated that Carter was not a credible source on climate change and that “if he [Carter] has any evidence that [global warming over the past 100 years] is a natural variability he should publish through the peer review process.” [4]

Carter had written numerous newspaper articles primarily for UK and Australian newspapers that attempt to disprove global warming. He has also written two books.

In reference to his involvement with the Institute for Public Affairs (IPA), Carter stated in a March 15, 2007 Sydney Morning Herald article: “I don't think it is the point whether you are paid by the coal or petroleum industry.”  [4]

According to leaked documents Carter received $1,667 a month from the Heartland Institute, an organization with an intense focus on climate change skepticism. Carter was to be paid for his work as a co-author and editor on Heartland's Non Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) reports. [5]

Carter was a co-editor on the 2011 “InterimNIPCC report and is a co-editor and author of the 2013 NIPCC report Climate Change Reconsidered II, timed to coincide with the release of the United Nation's fifth major IPCC report on climate change. [6], [7]

Stance on Climate Change

“There IS a problem with global warming… . it stopped in 1998… . That industrial carbon dioxide is not the primary cause of earth's recent decadal-scale temperature changes doesn't seem at all odd to many thousands of independent scientists. They have long appreciated - ever since the early 1990s, when the global warming bandwagon first started to roll behind the gravy train of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - that such short-term climate fluctuations are chiefly of natural origin.” [8]

Key Quotes

“The first thing to be clear about is that carbon dioxide is not a pollutant.” [9]

“contrary to strong public belief, the effects of increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are generally beneficial. Enhanced plant growth has many obvious benefits, amongst them increased natural vegetation growth in general, and increased agricultural production in particular. And to maintain or slightly increase planetary temperature is also very much a global good if – as Ruddiman and other scientists assert – the human production of greenhouse gases is helping to hold our planetary environment in its historic, benignly warm, interglacial mode.” [9]

“…the empirical data stressed by climate rationalists will ultimately prevail over the predictions of the unvalidated computer models. Perhaps then we will be able to attend to the real climate policy problem, which is to prepare response plans for extreme weather events, and for climate warmings as well as coolings, in the same way we prepare to cope with all other natural hazards.” [10]

Key Deeds

December 7, 2015

Robert (Bob) Carter appeared at the United Nation’s Conference on Climate Change, COP21, in Paris, France with the Heartland Institute, the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT), and the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) to “hold a ‘counter-conference’ … called the Day of Examining the Data.” [51] Other notable climate science deniers that were in attendance at the “counter-conference,” included: S. Fred Singer, Willie Soon, Christopher Essex, James Taylor, Patrick MooreWolfgang Müller, James Inhofe, and Christopher Monckton. [52]

Watch Robert Carter's “counter-conference” presentation with the Heartland Institute, below (Robert (Bob) Carter's presentation begins at 1:44:40):

December 7, 2015

Bob Carter appeared as a “Key Scientist” in Marc Morano’s documentary film, Climate Hustle, which debuted on December 7, 2015, in Paris, France during the COP21 United Nations summit on climate change. The film chiefly showcases Morano's personality, a range of discredited scientists, and no new factual information about climate change. [11]

Other notable “Key Scientists” featured in Climate Hustle include: [11]

November 30, 2015

Bob Carter was an author of a Heartland Institute/NIPCC publication released on the first day of the United Nations' twenty first conference of the parties (COP21) in Paris. According to the the Heartland Institute press release, The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change's book, titled Why Scientists Disagree about Global Warming: The NIPCC Report on Consensus  “emphatically rejects claims of a 'scientific consensus' on the causes and consequences of climate change.”  [12]

Contrary to the book's premise, multiple studies and surveys have shown that 97 percent or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree that climate warming trends over the past century are due to human activities (NASA for example). [13]

In addition to Bob Carter, authors included Craig D. Idso of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (CSCDGC) and S. Fred Singer of the Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP). The NIPCC itself is sponsored by the CSCDGC, SEPP, and The Heartland Institute.  [12]

CSDGC, IPA, and SEPP are all secretive about their funding sources. Still, available data at ExxonSecrets and the Conservative Transparency Project show they have received funding from ExxonMobil, Donors Capital Fund, Scaife, and Koch-related Foundations.

June 11-12, 2015

Bob Carter was a speaker on Panel 9: “Climate Change Reconsidered II: Human Welfare, Energy, and Policies,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with S. Fred Singer, Craig Idso, and Christopher Monckton. [14]

View Bob Carter’s Panel 9 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: [15]

Bob Carter was also a speaker on Panel 11: “Attacks on Scientists and the Corruption of Science,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with William Briggs, Tim Ball, and Christopher Monckton[14]

View Bob Carter’s Panel 11 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: [16]

May 12, 2015

Bob Carter was a signatory to an open letter to Pope Francis on climate change. The letter invites the Pope to reconsider his views on climate change before his upcoming encyclical letter on the environment, which is widely expected to call for measures to prevent climate change in the interests of the world’s poor. The open letter was coordinated and signed by Calvin Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance.  [17]

According to the letter, “Good climate policy must recognize human exceptionalism, the God-given call for human persons to 'have dominion' in the natural world (Genesis 1:28), and the need to protect the poor from harm, including actions that hinder their ascent out of poverty.”  [17]

Another excerpt below:

”[…] the [climate] models are wrong. They therefore provide no rational basis to forecast dangerous human-induced global warming, and therefore no rational basis for efforts to reduce warming by restricting the use of fossil fuels or any other means.”

Judith Curry comments on her blog Climate Etcthat “Arguably the most effective ‘pushback’ comes from Cal Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance, who coordinated An Open Letter to Pope Francis on Climate Change.” [18] 

February, 2015

Bob Carter spoke up to defend Willie Soon after pieces were published in The Guardian and the New York Times accusing Soon of failing to disclose a conflict of interest in recent scientific papers. The New York Times writes “He has accepted more than $1.2 million in money from the fossil-fuel industry over the last decade while failing to disclose that conflict of interest in most of his scientific papers.” These articles were written in light of documents obtained by Greenpeace through freedom of information filings. [19][20]

The letters defending Soon are addressed to Wille Soon’s supervisor, Dr. Alcock, and colleagues. Carter refers to a recent reference written for Soon where he describes him thus: “If one wanted to sum up Willie Soon in a single sentence, it would be that he radiates scientific expertise, obeisance to empirical data, enthusiasm, commitment to communication, concern for both scientific and personal integrity and good humour in roughly equal measure.​“ [21]

Lord Christopher Monckton wrote a similar letter defending Soon, as well as James Delingpole in the Breitbart. [22]

December, 2014

Bob Carter was a contributor to the book Climate Change: The Facts published by the Institute of Public Affairs and featuring “22 essays on the science, politics and economics of the climate change debate.” The Institute of Public Affairs, while not revealing most of its funders, is known to have received funding from mining magnate Gina Rinehart and at least one major tobacco company. [23]

The book includes essays and articles from a range of climate change skeptics, with contributors including the following:

November 14, 2014

Bob Carter co-wrote an article in The Washington Times with Tom Harris on President Obama's “Global Warming Propaganda.” They accuse Obama of “grandstanding and attempted sabotage of the agenda” by focusing on climate change issues at the 2014 Group of 20 summit meeting in Brisbane, Australia. [24]

According to the two authors,

“That global warming stopped 18 years ago and the warming of a few tenths of a degree between 1979 and 1997 shows no sign of being other than of natural origin is apparently unknown to the president. Taking action on climate change is to be a cornerstone of his presidential legacy. Bankrupting the domestic coal-mining companies is just an added bonus in Mr. Obama’s eyes.” […]
“Mr. Obama and other global political leaders need to reconsider their misinformed belief that climate policy and energy policy should be interwoven. In reality, the two policy streams urgently need to be disentangled.”

July 7 - 9, 2014

Bob Carter was a speaker at the Heartland Institute’s Ninth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC9) in Las Vegas, Nevada. [25]

DeSmogBlog covered speakers and sponsors of ICCC9 here. [26]

May 21 - 23, 2012

Bob Carter was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 7th International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC7). [27]

DeSmogBlog researched the co-sponsors behind Heartland's ICCC7 and found that they had collectively received over $67 million from ExxonMobil, the Koch Brothers and the conservative Scaife family foundations. [28]

Heartland's president Joe Bast revealed at the end of the conference that the Institute has no plans for future ICCCs. This could be in part due to the defections of corporate sponsors following Heartland's the unintended release of their confidential documents and its unsuccessful Unabomber billboard campaign. Carter was one of the few people to have subsequently backed Heartland's decision to run the billboard campaign. [29]

June 30, 2011

Bob Carter was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 6th International Conference on Climate Change[3]

March 30, 2009

Bob Carter's signature appears on a full-page ad funded by the CATO institute that appeared in numerous newspapers including the Washington Post, the New York Times and the Chicago Tribune in 2009. [30], [31]

The advertisement objects to President Obama's declaration that “few challenges facing America and the world are more urgent than combating climate change” and claims that “there has been no net global warming for over a decade” and that the dangers of global warming are “grossly overstated.” [32]

March, 2009

Bob Carter was a speaker at the 2009 International Conference on climate Change. [33]

The conference was hosted by the industry-funded Heartland Institute and focuses on “research that contradicts claims that Earth’s moderate warming during the twentieth century primarily was man-made and has reached crisis proportions.”

March 8, 2007

Bob Carter was listed on the “panel” for The Great Global Warming Swindle as a climate change skeptic. [34]

In an interview with ABC, Carter describes how “increasing [carbon dioxide] in the atmosphere is actually a benefit to human kind.” [35]

The Great Global Warming Swindle received critical response from the scientific community, including a letter to ABC that was signed by thirty-seven British Scientists who claimed “the misrepresentations of facts and views, both of which occur in your programme, are so serious that repeat broadcasts of the programme, without amendment, are not in the public interest. In view of the seriousness of climate change as an issue, it is crucial that public debate about it is balanced and well-informed.” [36]

In an interview between ABC Australia’s Tony Jones and the film’s director Martin Durkin, The Great Global Warming Swindle’s validity and scientific accuracy were also put into question. [37]

Feb 5, 2007

Carter was an “expert reviewer” of the Independent Summary for Policymakers (ISPM), essentially a critical review of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. [38]

The ISPM is published by the industry-supported Fraser Institute which received over $60,000 from ExxonMobil and which is also financially-supported by several tobacco companies including Philip Morris and British American Tobacco.



According to a search of 22,000 academic journals, Carter published over 50 original research in peer-reviewed journals mainly in the area of stratigraphy, the study of rock layers and layering. Carter's articles on global warming have largely appeared in economics journals, rather than mainstream science journals. 

Carter has written many opinion columns on climate change, with several published in the Rupert Murdoch-owned The Australian newspaper and minor Australian publication Quadrant. He has written two books sceptical of the science of human-caused global warming.

The first, Climate: The Counter Consensus, was published in July 2010. Reviewing the book, Australian climate scientist David Karoly said Dr Carter lived in a world where “it is OK to select any evidence that supports your ideas and ignore all other evidence”. Leading New Zealand climate scientist Dr James Renwick said the book was “a curious read, full of misinformation, straw-man arguments, and poorly-documented assertions.”

His second book, Taxing Air: Facts & Fallacies About Climate Change, was released in May 2013 and was co-written with cartoonist John Spooner and fellow sceptics Bill Kininmonth, Martin Feil, Stewart Franks and Bryan Leyland. The Institute of Public Affairs sent copies of the book to Australian Members of Parliament and hosted a launch event. Australian mathematical physicist Ian Enting, author of the Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute book Twisted: The distorted mathematics of greenhouse denial, has analysed the book, describing it as being characterised by “half-truths and slanted misrepresentation” and “appalling hypocrisy”.

A list of Carter's publications is available on his website

Sample Articles:

  • R.M. Carter, C.R. De Freitas, I.M. Goklany, D. Holland, and R.S. Lindzen. “Climate science and the Stern Review,” (PDF) World Economics, 8 (2007), 161-182.


  1. Profile: Robert M. Carter,” Archived July 23, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  2. Graham Readfearn. “Australian University Dumps Bob Carter, Advisor To Multiple Global Climate Science Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, July 9, 2013.

  3. Robert 'Bob' Carter: 6th International Conference on Climate Change,” the Heartland Institute. Archived November 12, 2011.

  4. Wendy Frew. “Minchin denies climate change man-made,” The Sydney Morning Herald, March 15, 2007. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite URL:

  5. Brendan DeMelle. “Heartland Institute Exposed: Internal Documents Unmask Heart of Climate Denial Machine,” DeSmogBlog, February 14, 2012.

  6. S. Fred Singer, Craig Idso, Robert M. Carter. “Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report,” The Heartland Institute, August 29, 2011. Archived February 4, 2016. WebCite URL

  7. (Press Release) “Today: Climate Confernce Call – The Heartland Institute's Latest 'Climate Change Reconsidered' Report,” PRWeb, September 3, 2013. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite URL

  8. Bob Carter. “There IS a problem with global warming… it stopped in 1998,” The Telegraph, April 9, 2006. Archived with WebCiite February 5, 2016:

  9. Clearing the Air,” TCS Daily, May 5, 2004. Archived February 4, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  10. Bob Carter: British report the last hurrah of warmaholics,” The Australian, November 3, 2006. WebCite URL

  11. Background on Key Scientists Appearing in Climate Hustle,” Climate Hustle. Archived January 11, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  12. (Press Release). “From The Heartland Institute: 'Why Scientists Disagree about Global Warming,' The NIPCC Report on Consensus,” PRWeb, November 30, 2015. Archived December 1, 2015. WebCite URL

  13. Scientific consensus: Earth's climate is warming,” NASA. Archived December 1, 2015. WebCite URL

  14. Speakers,” 10th International Conference on Climate Change. Heartland Institute. Archived June 30, 2015.

  15. Panel 9: Climate Change Reconsidered II: Human Welfare, Energy, and Policies with S. Fred Singer, Ph.D., Craig Idso, Ph.D., Christopher Monckton, and Bob Carter, Ph.D.,” Heartland Institute, June 12, 2015.

  16. Panel 11: Attacks on Scientists and the Corruption of Science with Bob Carter, Ph.D, William Briggs, Tim Ball, and Christopher Monckton,” Heartland Institute, June 12, 2015.

  17. An Open Letter to Pope Francis on Climate Change,” Cornwall Alliance For The Stewardship of Creation. April 27, 2015. Archived February 4, 2016. WebCite URL

  18. Judith Curry. “Pope Francis, climate change, and morality,”, April 29, 2015. Archived February 4, 2016. WebCite URL

  19. Suzanne Goldenberg. “Work of prominent climate change denier was funded by energy industry,” The GuardianFebruary 21, 2015. Archived August 24, 2015. Accessed February 2, 2016.  Webcite URL

  20. Justin Gillis and John Schwarts. “Deeper Ties to Corporate Cash for Doubtful Climate Researcher,” The New York Times. February 21, 2015. Archived August 24, 2015Webcite URL

  21. Dr. Wei-Hock Soon’s Peers Fire Back Against Global Warming Witch Hunt,” Breitbart. February 23, 2015. Archived February 6, 2016. WebCite URL

  22. James Delingpole. “NYT Smears Scientist Willie Soon for Telling the Truth About ‘Global Warming’,” Breitbart. February 21, 2015. Archived April 25, 2015. Webcite URL:

  23. Institute of Public Affairs,” SourceWatch. Accessed May 27, 2015.

  24. Bob Carter and Tom Harris. “Obama’s global-warming propaganda Down Under: Entangling climate concerns with energy policy is a costly mistake,” The Washington Times, November 18, 2014. Archived November 21, 2014. Webcite

  25. Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmogBlog, July 7, 2014. Archived July 14, 2014.

  26. Brendan DeMelle. “Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmogBlog, July 7, 2014.

  27. Seventh International Conference on Climate Change Conference Program (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived July 25, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  28. Brendan DeMelle. “Heartland Denial-a-Palooza Sponsors Have Received $67 Million From ExxonMobil, Koch and Scaife Foundations,” DeSmogBlog, May 22, 2012.

  29. Adam Morton. “Climate sceptic ad backfires,” The Sydney Morning Herald, May 7, 2012. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite URL

  30. With all due respect Mr. President, that is not true.” Archived April 2, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  31. Derek Markham. “Cato Institute Ad Calls Climate Change 'Grossly Overstated',” Planetsave, April 6, 2009. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite URL

  32. Climate Change Reality,” The Cato Institute. Archived March 31, 2009.

  33. Heartland-2 session three,” Quadrant Online, March 11, 2009. Archived February 4, 2016. WebCite URL

  34. Meet The Panel,” Archived July 15, 2008. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. 

  35. Climate Change Response” (Transcript), ABC, April 11, 2005. Archived January 17, 2006. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  36. The Great Global Warming Swindle: open letter to Martin Durkin from 37 signatories (April 2007),” Climate of Denial, April 24, 2007. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite URL

  37. Kevin Grandia. “ABC Australia's Tony Jones and Durkin Transcript,” DeSmogBlog, July 16, 2007. 

  38. Independent Summary for Policymakers of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (Working Group I),” (Ross McKitrick's Sub-Page). Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite URL

  39. People & Associates: Bob Carter,” Institute of Public Affairs. Archived February 6, 2016. WebCite URL

  40. Bob Carter,” SourceWatch Profile.

  41. Experts,” ICECAP. Archived June 2, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  42. Experts: Robert M. Carter,” The Heartland Institute. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite

  43. ACADEMIC ADVISORY COUNCIL,” Global Warming Policy Foundation. Archived June 7, 2013. WebCite

  44. WHO WE ARE,” International Climate Science Coalition. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite

  45. Who We Are,” Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite

  46. SPPI Personnel 2012,” Science and Public Policy Institute. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite

  47. Our Mission: Repeal of the Climate Change Act,” Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite

  48. Fachbeirat,” EIKE. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite

  49. About US,” Australian Climate Science Coalition. Archived with WebCite Setpember 3, 2013. Archived image on file at DeSmogBlog.

  50. About Us & Contact,” The New Zealand Climate Science Coalition. Archived February 5, 2016. WebCite

  51. PARIS COP-21: Day of Examining the Data with The Heartland Institute, CFACT, and CEI,” Heartland Institute, December 7, 2015.

  52. Bringing Climate Realism to Paris at COP-21,” Heartland Institute, December 7, 2015.

Other Resources