Frontiers of Freedom

Frontiers of Freedom (FoF)


Frontiers of Freedom (FoF) is a 501(C)4 nonprofit organization founded in 1995 by U.S. Senator Malcolm Wallup. It describes itself as an educational foundation with the mission “to promote the principles of individual freedom, peace through strength, limited government, free enterprise, free markets, and traditional American values as found in the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.” [1]

Frontiers of Freedom, Inc. does business as “Frontiers of Freedom” — a 501(C)4 nonprofit which is tax-exempt but can't accept tax-deductible donations— and also maintains a separate “educational organization” called the Frontiers of Freedom Institute that operates under section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code. [2] In their original mission statement, the Frontiers of Freedom described themselves as “the antithesis to the Sierra Club and Vice President Al Gore's Earth in the Balance.” [3]

In 2002, Frontiers of Freedom released “Ten Tenets” as their mission statement. Their ninth tenet reads as follows (emphasis added) “To remove sound science from public policy is legislative and regulatory malpractice. To employ junk science in public policy is unethical and irresponsible.” Notably, the term “Junk Science” was often used by by Steve “The Junkman” Milloy. [4]

Frontiers of Freedom (FoF) maintains a number of “Centers” on their website  including the Center for Constitutional and Political Studies, Center for Economic Liberty and Property Rights, Center for National Security, Center for Science and Public Policy, and Reagan Legacy. [5]

Stance on Climate Change

“Many scientists are predicting the onset of two or three centuries of cooler weather — which would mean bigger glaciers. That’s despite the world’s growing use of fossil fuels. No matter what humans do, temperature trends go up, and then down; glaciers expand and then recede; sea levels rise and then fall, explains Will Happer, professor emeritus of physics at Princeton.” [6]

“The Earth's climate has changed many times with many cooling phases and many warming phases. The Earth’s current modest warming trend (less than 1 degree C over 100 years), is well within historical norms.” [7]

Frontiers of Freedom used to maintain a list of “Global Warming Papers” including many written by prominent climate change skeptics including: [8]


In 2001, the Wall Street Journal reported that the largest donors to Frontiers for Freedom were Philip Morris, Exxon Mobil, and R.J. Reynolds. [9]

Frontiers of Freedom Institute is the 501(c)(3) arm of FoF. The other arm, Frontiers of Freedom, Inc., is a 501(c)4 organization and so is not required to publicly list their donors. According to the IRS, 501(c)4 organizations are also permitted to attempt to influence legislation, and participate in political campaigns or elections. [10], [11]

The following is compiled from data the Conservative Transparency Project collected from publicly available 990 tax forms for Frontiers of Freedom. Note that some 990 forms simply report donations to “Frontiers of Freedom,” and don't specify whether they are intended for the FoF Institute, or for Frontiers of Freedom, Inc.  [12]

  Frontiers of Freedom* Frontiers of Freedom Institute Grand Total
Exxon Mobil   $1,127,000 $1,127,000
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation   $175,000 $175,000
John M. Olin Foundation   $125,000 $125,000
DonorsTrust   $107,500 $107,500
Earhart Foundation   $100,000 $100,000
Sarah Scaife Foundation   $100,000 $100,000
The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation   $100,000 $100,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation   $48,450 $48,450
The Carthage Foundation   $35,000 $35,000
William H. Donner Foundation   $35,000 $35,000
The Randolph Foundation $20,000 $5,000 $25,000
The Roe Foundation   $7,500 $7,500
True Foundation   $7,200 $7,200
Aequus Institute   $4,500 $4,500
Armstrong Foundation   $4,500 $4,500
Windway Foundation   $4,000 $4,000
Grand Total $20,000 $1,985,650 $2,005,650

According to ExxonSecrets, FoF has received a total of $1,272,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. Greenpeace reported that FoF received a total of $175,000 from Koch Foundations between 2004 and 2007. [13], [14]

Key People

Senior Staff

As of October, 2015, Frontiers of Freedom listed the following staff on their website: [15]

Other People


March 25, 2015

Frontiers of Freedom was one of a group of organizations to submit a group letter to chairman Michael Boots regarding the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review.  According to the letter, the NEPA review is “an inappropriate framework for making climate policy.” [18]
Other organizations behind the letter include many which have received significant funding from the fossil fuel industry and right-wing foundations:

May 21 - 23, 2012

Frontiers of Freedom is listed as an official co-sponsor (PDF) of the Heartland Institute's Seventh International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC7) in Chicago, IL. [19]

DeSmogBlog investigated sponsors behind the conference and found they had collectively received over $67 million from ExxonMobil, Koch, and Scaife family foundations. [20]

March, 2009

Frontiers of Freedom is listed as a sponsor of the Heartland Institute's Second International Conference on Climate Change. [21]

DeSmogBlog found that conference sponsors had collectively received over $47 million from energy companies and right-wing foundations, with over 78% coming from Scaife Family Foundations. [22]

June 7, 2002

President George Landrith signed a letter to President Bush, asking him to withdraw the “Climate Action Report 2002.” [23]

The letter describes the Climate Action Report as “largely a compilation and summary of junk science produced by the Clinton-Gore Administration in order to support their Kyoto agenda,” and calls on Bush to have the report “re-written on the basis of sound science.”

A further demand of the letter is for Bush to “dismiss or re-assign all administration employees who are not pursuing your agenda, just as you have done in several similar instances.” [23]

May 14, 2002

Held a briefing at the National Press Club, in conjunction with the Cooler Heads Coalition and The Science and Environmental Policy Project, entitled “Experts Discuss Why United States Should Withdraw Its Signature From Kyoto; Whatever Happened To Global Warming Anyway?” [24]

Speakers included John Daly, S. Fred Singer, and Chris Horner.

August 19, 1997

Held a “Countdown to Kyoto” conference in Canberra, Australia “to bolster support for the government's increasingly isolated position on global warming in preparation for Kyoto.”

The conference was co-organized by The Australian APEC Study Centre and featured well known climate change deniers such as Patrick Michaels, John Christy, and Alan Oxley. Other speakers including Jerry Ellis, past Chairman of the multinational BHP Ltd. And Peter Hartley, director of a think tank called the Tasmania Institute. [25]

At the conference, U.S. Senator Chuck Hagel commented, “I believe we are headed down the wrong path in the negotiations for any global climate treaty to be signed in Kyoto, Japan, this December.” [26]

Related Organizations


  1. Mission,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived October 17, 2015. WebCite URL

  2. About Us,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived February 5, 2003. 

  3. Frontiers of Freedom Mission Statement,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived August 16, 2000. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  4. (Press Release). “Frontiers of Freedom Releases 'Ten (Belief) Tenets,'” Frontiers of Freedom, September 20, 2002. Republished by Free Republic. Archived October 17, 2015. WebCite URL

  5. Centers,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived October 17, 2015. WebCite URL

  6. Wake up, Obama, climate change has been happening forever,” Frontiers of Freedom, October 10, 2015. Archived October 18, 2015. WebCite URL

  7. George Landrith. “Climate Change: Fabricating the Numbers,” Frontiers of Freedom, October 3, 2007.

  8. Global Warming - Papers,” Frontiers of Freedom Centre for Science and Public Policy. Archived July 12, 2010.

  9. Anne Marie Chaker. “Conservatives Seek IRS Inquiry On Environmental Group's Status,” The Wall Street Journal, June 21, 2001 (subscription required).

  10. “Rev. Rul. 68-656, 1968-2 C.B. 216,” (PDF), Internal Revenue Service.

  11.  (02-09-1999) Exemption Under IRC 501(c)(4) v. Exemption Under IRC 501(c)(3),” Accessed October 17, 2015.

  12. Search String: Frontiers of Freedom,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed October 17, 2015.

  13. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: Frontiers of Freedom, FoF. Accessed October 17, 2015.

  14. Frontiers of Freedom - Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived October 18, 2015.

  15. Senior Staff,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived October 18, 2015. WebCite URL

  16. Willie Soon and Robert Ferguson. “Eat More Fish!” (PDF), The Wall Street Journal Online, August 15, 2005 (Dow Jones Reprints). Archived January 9, 2006.

  17. Staff,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived January 3, 2012.

  18. Consideration of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change effects in NEPA Reviews,” Frontiers of Freedom, March 29, 2015. Archived October 18, 2015. 

  19. Seventh International Conference on Climate Change: Sponsored by the Heartland Institute” (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived August 15, 2015.

  20. Michael Fisher. “A Closer Look at Heartland's ICCC7 Denial-a-Palooza Speakers and Sponsors,” DeSmogBlog, May 23, 2012. 

  21. Co-Sponsors,” Third International Conference on Climate Change. Archived July 14, 2010.

  22. “Heartland Institute's 2009 Climate Conference in New York: funding history of the sponsors,” DesmogBlog.

  23. Fred L. Smith Jr. “Joint Letter To President Bush On The EPA's Climate Action Report,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, June 7, 2002. Archived October 18, 2015. WebCite URL

  24. Experts Discuss Why United States Should Withdraw Its Signature From Kyoto; Whatever Happened To Global Warming Anyway?” U.S. Newswire, May 14, 2002. Archived October 19, 2002.

  25. Countdown to Kyoto: The Consequences of Mandatory CO2 Emission Reductions,” Monash University. Archived August 6, 1997.

  26. “Countdown to Kyoto” an International Conference on The Consequences of Mandatory Global CO2 Emission Reductions: Remarks by United States Senator Chuck Hagel” (PDF), Retrieved from Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  27. Cooler Heads Coalition homepage ( Archived October 18, 2015.

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