The Heartland Institute

The Heartland Institute


The Heartland Institute is a Chicago-based free market think tank and 501(c)(3) charity that has been at the forefront of denying the scientific evidence for man-made climate change. The Heartland Institute has received at least $676,500 from ExxonMobil since 1998 but no longer discloses its funding sources.

Heartland regularly promotes itself using a partial quote from The Economist that describes Heartland as “the world's most prominent think-tank promoting scepticism about man-made climate change.” However, the full paragraph in The Economist's 2012 article provides the full context of the description: “The Heartland Institute, the world's most prominent think-tank promoting scepticism about man-made climate change, is getting a lot of heat.  Heartland lost an estimated $825,000 in expected donations, a couple of directors and almost its entire branch in Washington, DC shortly after putting up a billboard comparing those who believed in man-made global warming to the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski. At its annual meetingin Chicago, the institute's president, Joseph Bast, said Heartland had 'discovered who our real friends are.' The 100-odd guests who failed to show up for the '7th Climate Conference' were not among them.

In the 1990s, Heartland Institute worked with the tobacco company Philip Morris to question the science linking second-hand smoke to health risks, and lobbied against government public health reforms. Heartland continues to maintain a “Smoker's Lounge” section of their website which brings together their policy studies, Op-Eds, essays, and other documents that purport to “[cut] through the propaganda and exaggeration of anti-smoking groups.” (Page archived here).

Roy Marden, past Corporate Affairs Policy Analyst and Manager of Industry Affairs at Philip Morris, served as a board member at the Heartland Institute from 1996 until 2008. [1] According to Heartland, “The public health community's campaign to demonize smokers and all forms of tobacco is based on junk science.” Joseph Bast, current President and CEO, was a strong defender of RJ Reynolds brand Camel's “Joe Camel” campaign, which some have argued (PDF) targeted younger children. [2], [3], [4]

David Padden founded The Heartland Institute in 1984 and served as its Chairman between 1984 and 1995, co-chairing with Joseph Bast. Padden was also one of the original members of the Board of Directors of the Cato Institute. Padden, a Chicago, IL-based investment banker and then owner of Padden & Company, passed away in October 2011. [5]

Padden also served on the original Board of Directors of another organization founded that year, Citizens for a Sound Economy, which later split into two groups, FreedomWorks and Americans for Prosperity (AFP). The Cato Institute and both of these organizations received their initial seed money from Koch Industries. [6]

According to a July 2011 Nature editorial,

“Despite criticizing climate scientists for being overconfident about their data, models and theories, the Heartland Institute proclaims a conspicuous confidence in single studies and grand interpretations… . makes many bold assertions that are often questionable or misleading. … Many climate skeptics seem to review scientific data and studies not as scientists but as attorneys, magnifying doubts and treating incomplete explanations as falsehoods rather than signs of progress towards the truth. … The Heartland Institute and its ilk are not trying to build a theory of anything. They have set the bar much lower, and are happy muddying the waters.” [7]

Stance on Climate Change

“Probably two-thirds of the warming in the 1990s was due to natural causes; the warming trend already has stopped and forecasts of future warming are unreliable; and the benefits of a moderate warming are likely to outweigh the costs.

“Global warming, in other words, is not a crisis.” [8]

“You may also know us from our work exposing the shoddy science and missing economics behind the global warming delusion. Our videos, books, studies, and international conferences changed the debate and led to the defeat of 'cap and trade.'” [9]


501(c)(3) Charitable Status

According to Heartland, “Approximately 1,800 supporters support an annual budget of $6 million. Heartland does not accept government funding. Contributions are tax-deductible under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.” [10]

Computer scientist John Mashey filed a complaint with the IRS questioning Heartland's charitable status: 

“I believe there was a massive abuse of 501c(3),” Mashey said. “My extensive study of these think tanks showed numerous specific actions that violated the rules – such as that their work is supposed to be factually based. Such as there was a whole lot of behavior that sure looked like lobbying and sending money to foreign organizations that are not charities.” [11]

Mashey's extensive study (see PDF) also examines the finances and actions of other organizations including the Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP), and the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (CDCDGC).

According to his report (p. 39), the Heartland Institute has received roughly $395,000 from the tobacco company Philip Morris.

Heartland no longer reveals their individual donors, they explain, because “listing our donors in this way allowed people who disagree with our views to accuse us of being 'paid' by specific donors to take positions in public policy debates, something we never do. After much deliberation and with some regret, we now keep confidential the identities of all our donors.”

Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets reports that the Heartland Institute has received $676,500 from ExxonMobil since 1998. Greenpeace also reports that Heartland received at least $30,000 from Koch Industries. [12], [13]

Koch Funding

According to Greenpeace USA's PolluterWatch project, Koch Foundations contributed $75,000 to the Heartland Institute between 1986 and 1999. [14]

The Heartland Institute's leaked 2012 Fundraising Plan states that “The Charles G. Koch Foundation returned as a Heartland Donor in 2011. We expect to ramp up their level of support in 2012 and gain access to the network of philanthropists they work with.”

However, the Foundation since released the following statement: “… the Charles Koch Foundation provided $25,000 to the Heartland Institute in 2011 for research in healthcare, not climate change, and this was the first and only donation the Foundation made to the institute in more than a decade. The Foundation has made no further commitments of funding to Heartland.” [15]

Media Transparency breaks down Heartland's funding as follows (note that their records end in 2006): [16]

Donors Capital Fund/DonorsTrust

Donors Capital Fund (DCF) and its partner organization DonorsTrust allow donors to fund organizations anonymously. They appear to be a spinoff of the Philanthropy Roundtable, a group run by Whitney Ball, who also launched DonorsTrust.

The Heartland Institute has received large anonymous donations through DCF and DonorsTrust, with a combined total of at least $10,815,644. See p. 58 of the 2012 Mashey Report for more details.

John Mashey also covers DCF on page 65 of his 2012 report. According to DCF's website, “Donors Capital Fund is an IRS-approved, 501(c)(3), 509(a)(3) supporting organization that is associated with DonorsTrust, a public charity and donor-advised fund formed to safeguard the charitable intent of donors who are dedicated to the ideals of limited government, personal responsibility, and free enterprise.”

DonorsTrust refers clients to Donors Capital Fund if they expect to open donor-advised funds of over $1,000,000.


DonorsTrust contributed at least $528,250 between 2007 and 2009 to the Heartland Institute: [17]

Source 990 forms:

Year Project  
2007 general operations $11,750
2009 general operations $1,000
  general operations $1,000
  general operations $3,000
  general operations $5,000
  “advertising in response to organization's emphasis on marketing of research.” $6,500
  general operations $500,000
Total   $528,250

Donors Capital Fund

From 2005 to 2009, DCF contributed at least $10,287,394 to the Heartland Institute (possibly more, as some details are missing from 2006's 990): [18]

Source 990 forms:

Year Project  
2005 Individual projects not listed. $550,427
2007 Individual projects not listed. $2,955,437
2008 general operations $2,000,000
  “the global warming research project” $900,000
  “media materials” $100,000
  “staff directed research” $126,000
  “final installment of three-year general ops support” $1,300,000
  “global warming research projects” $184,000
Total   $4,610,000
2009 CORE $10,590
  G.W. reporting for one year” $150,000
  “health care project” $190,000
  “Ranthum, Australia and Old projects” $300,000
  general operations $400,000
  $620,940 for “GW-end” and $500,000 for annual support $1,120,940
Total   $2,171,530

Anonymous Donor

One Anonymous Donor has contributed a large percentage of Heartland's budget in past years, with a focus on their global warming projects.

According to the Heartland 2012 Fundraising Plan, the Anonymous Donor made the following contributions from 2007-2011:

Project 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
General Operating $500,000 $500,000 $500,000 $700,000 $350,000
Ramp Up Program $800,000 $800,000 $400,000 $0 $0
Global Warming Projects $1,976,937 $3,300,000 $1,732,180 $964,150 $629,000
Health Care $0 $0 $190,000 $0 $0
School Reform $0 $0 $0 $0 $80,000
Total $3,276,937 $4,600,000 $2,822,180 $1,664,150 $979,000

Illinois auditor reports for 2003-2009 reveal that a single donor (possibly the same individual as the “Anonymous Donor”) contributed the following percentages of outstanding accounts receivable in those years (also see p. 56 of John Mashey's report):

2004 (PDF — See p. 27) — 74% contributed by two donors.

2005 (PDF — See p. 32) — 74% from one donor.

2006 (PDF — See p. 33) — 25% from one individual.

2007 (PDF — See p. 32) — 38% from one donor.

2008 (PDF — from 2009 — see p. 43) — 58% from one donor.

2009 (see previous, p. 43) — 35% from one donor.

The Anonymous Donor has already pledged $1,250,000 for 2012, including contributions to the NIPCC Project, Anthony Watts' “Weather Stations Project,” and David Wojick's “Global Warming Curriculum Project” (See “Actions” for details):

Amount Project
$457,000 General Operating
$194,000 NIPCC Project
$44,000 Weather Stations Project
$100,000 Global Warming Curriculum Project
$105, 000 Cook County Debt Project
$100,000 Operation Angry Badger
$250,000 Additional gift (not determined)
$1,250,000 Total

Renewing 2012 Donors

Reproduced below, from Heartland's “2012 Fundraising Plan” (p. 22 - 25) is their list of organizations and foundations that they expect to donate in 2012, as well as their donations from 2010-2011.

Note that after this information became public, some donors have since pulled their support of the Institute. Even more have pulled support after Heartland's Unabomber billboard campaign which asserted that “the most prominent advocates of global warming aren't scientists; they are murderers, tyrants, and madmen.”

Some donors who no longer fund Heartland include:

  • General Motors Corporation
  • State Farm Insurance
  •  Diageo
  • BB&T
  •  PepsiCo
  • Eli Lilly & Co.
  •  RenaissanceRe
  • XL Group
  • Allied World Assurance Company
  • USAA
  •  Bayer
  •  GlaxoSmithKline
  •  Verizon
  • Wisconsin Insurance Alliance
  • Credit Union National Association

Original Funders included:

Name 2010 Actual 2011 Actual 2012 Projected 2012 as
% of
Allied World Assurance Company Holdings, Ltd. $50,000 $60,000 $40,000 67% FIRE
Altria Client Services Inc.1 $40,000 $50,000 $50,000 100% BTN
Amgen, USA $25,000 $0 $25,000 ?? HCN
Arthur Margulis2 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 100% GO
Arthur N. Rupe Foundation $0 $0 $10,000 ?? GO
Association of Bermuda Insurers and
$50,000 $75,000 $50,000 67% FIRE
AT&T for IT&T News $70,000 $30,000 $30,000 100% ITTN
AT&T for CFIRE $0 $0 $10,000 ?? FIRE
Barney Family Foundation3 $50,000 $25,000 $50,000 200% SRN
Bartley Madden $182,277 $216,656 $400,000 185% HCN
Bayer Corporation $0 $0 $25,000 ?? HCN
BB&T (John Allison) $16,105 $0 $25,000 ?? ECN
Bernard Baltic Estate $0 $77,807 $0 0% GO
Castle Rock Foundation $0 $0 $40,000 ?? GO
Charles McQuaid $11,000 $1,000 $10,000 1000% ECN
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation $0 $25,000 $200,000 800% HCN
Chase Foundation of Virginia4 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 100% GO
Chris Rufer5 $27,000 $25,000 $50,000 200% GO
Comcast Corporation $10,000 $25,000 $25,000 100% ITTN
Contran Corporation $25,000 $50,000 $50,000 100% ECN
Credit Union National Association $26,500 $30,000 $25,000 83% FIRE
CTIA - The Wireless Association $80,000 $40,000 $40,000 100% ITTN
David Albin $10,540 $10,000 $10,000 100% GO
Dan Hales $20,560 $25,000 $25,000 100% GO
David Herro $35,000 $60,000 $60,000 100% ECN
David Lawson $20,864 $17,000 $15,000 88% GO
Dezenhall Resources, Ltd.6 $15,000 $27,000 $50,000 185% HCN
Diageo $10,000 $0 $10,000 ?? GO
Eli Lilly & Company $25,000 $0 $25,000 ?? HCN
Elizabeth Rose7 $40,000 $15,000 $15,000 100% GO
Eric Brooks $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 100% GO
Farmers' Insurance (Zurich) $0 $0 $25,000 ?? FIRE
Frank Resnik8 $5,065 $25,000 $30,000 120% GO
Fred Young $10,000 $15,000 $15,000 100% GO
General Motors Foundation9 $15,000 $15,000 $15,000 100% SRN
Genting $0 $0 $0 ?? FIRE
GlaxoSmithKline $30,000 $20,000 $20,000 100% HCN
Gleason Family Foundation10 $0 $50,000 $50,000 100% SRN
Golden Rule Insurance Company $40,030 $250,000 $250,000 100% HCN
Herbert Walberg11 $85,000 $25,000 $50,000 200% GO
HSA Bank $0 $0 $10,000 ?? HCN
International Premium Cigar & Pipe
$0 $0 $10,000 ?? BTN
IronBridge Capital Management, L.P. $40,000 $25,000 $25,000 100% GO
James Fitzgerald12 $10,000 $0 $25,000 ?? SRN
James McWethy $0 $20,000 $20,000 100% ECN
Jaquelin Hume Foundation13 $25,000 $0 $25,000 ?? SRN
Jerry and Marilyn Hayden $120,000 $170,000 $170,000 118% GO
John William Pope Foundation $25,000 $15,000 $15,000 100% GO
Kayser Family Foundation $13,000 $15,000 $15,000 100% ECN
KCI $0 $115,000 $0 0% FIRE
Larch Communications, LLC $0 $0 $25,000 ?? BTN
Larry Smead Fund $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 100% GO
Las Vegas Sands (DCI Group) $0 $0 $5,000 ?? FIRE
Leslie Rose14 $65,500 $50,000 $60,000 120% GO
LKQ Corporation $24,500 $0 $150,000 ?? FIRE
Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation $125,000 $50,000 $50,000 100% ECN
Microsoft Corporation15 $0 $59,908 $10,000 17% ITTN
Mike Keiser $31,000 $25,000 $35,000 140% GO
Milbank Foundation for Rehabilitation $0 $0 $25,000 ?? HCN
Murray Energy Corporation $100,000 $0 $40,000 ?? ECN
National Cable & Telecommunications Association $0 $10,000 $10,000 100% ITTN
Nationwide Insurance $0 $0 $10,000 ?? FIRE
Norman Rogers $3,570 $10,000 $20,000 200% GO
Nucor Corporation $402,000 $100,000 $50,000 50% ECN
Patrick O'Meara $80,000 $0 $60,000 ??  
Pfizer $130,000 $0 $150,000 ?? HCN
PhRMA16 $20,000 $0 $20,000 ?? HCN
Renaissance ReService Ltd. $90,000 $317,000 $280,000 88% FIRE
Reynolds American Inc. 0$ $110,000 $110,000 100% FIRE
Responsible Industry for a Sound Environment17 $0 $0 $10,000 ?? ECN
Robert Buford18 $21,120 $30,000 $30,000 100% GO
Rodney Fund $10,000 $12,000 $10,000 83% GO
Searle Freedom Trust19 $0 $0 $50,000 ?? ECN
State Farm (Jeff Judson)20 $114,200 $230,000 $95,000 41% FIRE
State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company $60,000 $60,000 $60,000 100% FIRE
Susquehanna International Group LLP $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 100% HCN
Stanley Hubbard $65 $10,000 $10,000 100% ECN
Stuart Family Foundation $25,000 $0 $25,000 ?? ECN
Texas Cable Association $0 $0 $5,000 ?? FIRE
The Deramus Foundation $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 100% GO
The Justice Foundation $0 $10,000 $10,000 100% SRN
The Negaunee Foundation $0 $10,000 $10,000 100% BTN
Philip Friedmann Family Charitable Trust $15,000 $10,000 $10,000 100% GO
The Robert P. Rotella Foundation $5,000 $10,000 $10,000 100% HCN
Time Warner Cable $10,000 $10,000 $20,000 200% ITTN
Triad Foundation, Inc. $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 100% ECN
USAA21 $0 $45,000 $50,000   FIRE
US Chamber of Commerce $25,000 $0 $25,000 ?? LEGAL
Will Wohler $8,000 $0 $10,000 ?? GO
William Dunn22 $150,000 $330,000 $300,000 91% HCN
Wisconsin Insurance Alliance $0 $0 $50,000 ?? FIRE
XL Group $0 $35,000 $0 0% FIRE
Verizon23 $0 $0 $10,000 ?? ITTN
Totals $2,887,896 $3,293,371 $4,145,000 126%  


  1. Altria Group is the parent company of Philip Morris USA.

  2. Appears to have been a Heartland Institute Board Member.

  3. Also funded the Cato Institute in 2006, 2007, and possibly other years.

  4. Funded the Cato Institute in 2006.

  5. Attended a June 2010 Meeting of the Koch Network, aka the “Koch Strategy Meeting.”

  6. A PR company described by SourceWatch as specializing in “'aggressive' campaigns to defend corporations from complaints by progressive groups.”

  7. Appears to have been a past Heartland Institute Board Member (2009).

  8. Frank Resnik, retired Vice-Chairman of Medline Industries, Inc., was also a past Heartland Institute Board Member.

  9. When originally asked about its funding of Heartland, GM responded: “We support a variety of organizations that give careful and considerate thought to complex policy issues and Heartland is one of them,” Greg Martin, GM’s director of policy and Washington communications said to The Guardian. This was before Heartland's billboard campaign. [19]

  10. Also funded the Cato Institute in 2006.

  11. Current Heartland Institute Board Member, and member of the Hoover Institution's Koret Task Force on K-12 Education. The Hoover Institution has received funding from ExxonMobil and Scaife Foundations among others.

  12. Past Heartland Institute Board Member (2009).

  13. Possible connection to ALEC: Gisele Huff, executive director of Jaquelin Hume Foundation, spoke at the 2001 ALEC Task Force Meeting in New York. According to Media Transparency, the foundation has also funded the Cato Instiute.

  14. Member of the Board of Directors of  the “New Coalition for Economic and Social Change,” an organization with affiliations with the Heartland Institute and a member of the State Policy Network.

  15. According to a statement from Microsoft, this donation “came in the form of software licenses available to 'any eligible non-profit organization'.” Microsoft continues to support Heartland. [20] Following Heartland's billboard campaign, Microsoft stated that “The Heartland Institute does not speak for Microsoft on climate change. In fact, the Heartland Institute’s position on climate change is diametrically opposed to Microsoft’s position. And we completely disagree with the group’s inflammatory and distasteful advertising campaign.” Microsoft continues to donate software to Heartland.

  16. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) is an influential lobbying organization in Washington representing 48 pharmaceutical companies.

  17. According to SourceWatch, RISE is a lobbying and public relations trade organization, defends the “urban usage” of pesticides in homes, schools, and landscapes.

  18. Robert Buford is a Heartland Institute Board Member.

  19. Kimberly O. Dennis, President and CEO of Searle Freedom Trust is also Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Donors Capital Fund (DCF). DCF and its related Donor's Trust allow groups and individuals to donate anonymously. DCF is also a key source of Heartland's anonymous donations.

  20. There is also a “Jeff Judson,” listed as president of Judson & Associates, who is on Heartland's current Board of Directors and who was the former president of the Texas Public Policy Foundation. A search does not list a connection between a Jeff Judson and State Farm, so this may not be the same individual.

  21. According to SourceWatch, one United Services Automobile Association (USAA) was listed as an American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) supporter, being a “Trustee” level sponsor of 2011 ALEC Annual Conference.

  22. William A. Dunn runs Dunn Capital Management, Inc. in Stuart, Florida. He has been a Director of the Property and Environment Research Center, the Cato Institute, Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, and the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI). Dunn's Foundation for the Advancement of Right Thinking has supported the Mackinac Center for Public Policy.

  23. According to SourceWatch, Verizon is a member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). It is on the corporate “Private Enterprise” board and is State corporate co-chair of Virginia and Wyoming. It has been a member of the ALEC Telecommunications and Information Technology Task Force.

Key People

Heartland Experts

Heartland listed the following “Experts” as of May, 2012: [21]


  • (*) = New expert new as of 2012. 
  • (**) = No longer expert as of 2012.

J. Bennett Johnston — Policy Advisor, Environment.
Jonathan Steitz — Policy Advisor, Budgets and Taxes.
Ron Scheberle — Policy Advisor.
Brandon Arnold (*) —  Director, Government and Institutional Relations, Free To Choose Medicine Project.
Jerome Arnett, M.D. (*) — Pulmonologist.
Syun-Ichi Akasofu — Founding Director, International Arctic Research Center.
Kendall Antekeier — Legislative Specialist.
David Archibald — Scientist.
J. Scott Armstrong — Professor, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.
Dennis Avery — Senior Fellow, Climate Change.
Robert A. Baade — Policy Advisor, Finance and Economics.
Dean Baim — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
Charles W. Baird — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
Michael J. Bakalis — Policy Advisor, Education.
Sallie Baliunas — Astrophysicist and Senior Scientist, George C. Marshall Institute.
Timothy Ball — Environmental Consultant/Former Professor, University of Winnipeg.
Robert Balling — Professor of Climatology, Arizona State University.
Randy E. Barnett — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Joseph Bast — President and CEO.
Patrick Beach — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
Bruno Behrend — Director, Center for Transforming Education.
Calvin Beisner — National Spokesman, Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation.
David Bellamy — Botanist, The Conservation Foundation.
Diann G. Benesh — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Bruce L. Benson — Policy Advisor, Economics.
John Bethune — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Sonja Boehmer-Christiansen — Reader in Geography, University of Hull.
Peter J. Boettke — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Cecil Bohanon — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Donald Boudreaux — Chairman, Department of Economics, George Mason University.
Alexandra (Sandy) Liddy Bourne — Senior Fellow, Energy Policy.
Ben Boychuk — Policy Advisor, Education.
Robert Bradley — President, Institute for Energy Research.
Samuel Jan Brakel — Policy Advisor, Education.
Charles Breeden — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Lester Brickman — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
William Briggs — Statistical Consultant, New York Methodist Hospital;
Don Brown — Senior Fellow, Insurance Policy.
F.H. Buckley — Policy Advisor, Economics.
H. Sterling Burnett — Senior Fellow, National Center for Policy Analysis.
Christian Cámara — Florida Director, Center on Finance, Insurance and Real Estate.
James C. Carper — Policy Advisor, Education.
Robert M. Carter — Marine Geologist, James Cook University.
Alan Caruba — Policy Advisor, Environment.
Randall Cerveny — Associate Professor of Geography, Arizona State University.
Jack A. Chambliss — Policy Advisor, Economics.
John Charles — President and CEO, Cascade Policy Institute.
Paul Chesser (*) — Director, Climate Strategies Watch.
Kenneth Chilton — Director, Institute for Study of Economics and the Environment.
Barry Chiswick — Policy Advisor, Economics.
John Christy — Director, Earth System Science Center, University of Alabama - Huntsville.
Petr Chylek — Team Leader, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Ian Clark — Professor of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa.
Robert Clinton — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
George A. Clowes — Senior Fellow, Education.
Joe Cobb — Policy Advisor, Economics.
John Coleman — Meteorologist, KUSI-TV San Diego.
John Conant — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Edmund Contoski — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Dr. Bruce Cooper (*) — Professor, Fordham University.
Horace Cooper — Senior Fellow.
Roy Cordato — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Richard Courtney — Energy and Environment Consultant.
Wendell Cox — Senior Fellow, Urban Planning.
Peter Cramton (**) — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
Joseph D'Aleo — Executive Director,
Chris de Freitas — Associate Professor, University of Auckland.
Michael DeBow — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
James DeLong — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Douglas Den Uyl — Policy Advisor.
Peter Dietze — Energy Advisor and Climate Modeler.
Thomas DiLorenzo — Policy Advisor, Economics
Richard Dolinar — Senior Fellow, Health Care.
Benjamin Domenech — Managing Editor, Health Care News.
David Douglass — Professor of Physics, University of Rochester.
Julie Drenner — Texas Director, Center on Finance, Insurance and Real Estate.
Paul Driessen — Senior Fellow, Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow.
John Dale Dunn — Policy Advisor, Health Care.
Freeman Dyson — Emeritus Professor of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies.
Richard Ebeling — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Myron Ebell — Director, Energy and Global Warming Policy, Competitive Enterprise Institute.
Michael Economides — Professor, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston.
Frank Egerton — Policy Advisor, Environment.
Richard Epstein — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Richard Esenberg — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Robert Essenhigh — Bailey Professor of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University.
Christopher Essex — Professor, Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario.
Tom Feeney — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
Peter Ferrara — Senior Fellow, Entitlement and Budget Policy.
David Figlio — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Paul Fisher (*) — Senior Fellow, Legal Affairs.
Matthew J. Franck — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Dan Gainor — Vice President, Business & Media Institute.
Lowell E. Gallaway — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Christopher Garbacz — Policy Advisor, Economics.
John Garven — Policy Advisor, Health Care, Insurance.
Lawrence Gasman — Policy Advisor, Telecommunications.
Robert Genetski — Policy Advisor, Budget and Tax Policy.
Lee Gerhard — Senior Scientist Emeritus, University of Kansas.
Ivar Giaever — Fellow, American Physical Society.
Matthew Glans — Midwest Director, Center on Finance, Insurance and Real Estate.
Indur Goklany — Visiting Fellow, American Enterprise Institute.
Fred Goldberg — Climate Analyst.
Stanley Goldenberg — Meteorologist, Hurricane Research Division/AOML/NOAA.
John C. Goodman — President & CEO of the National Center for Policy Analysis.
Robert Gordon — President, Responsible Resources.
Lawrence Gould — Professor of Physics, University of Hartford.
John R. Graham — Director of Health Care Studies at the Pacific Research Institute.
Vincent Gray — Expert Reviewer, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
William Gray — Emeritus Professor of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University.
Kenneth Green — Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute.
Kesten Green — Senior Research Fellow, Monash University.
Mark Grinblatt — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Ted Gwartney — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Donald Haider — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Steve Hanke — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Tom Harris — Policy Advisor, Environment.
David Hartgen — Policy Advisor, Transportation.
Howard Hayden — Professor of Physics Emeritus, University of Connecticut.
David Henderson (**) — Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Louis Hensler — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Ben Herman — Professor, University of Arizona Institute of Atmospheric Physics.    
Donald Hertzmark — Adj. Professor, Global Electricity Markets, Johns Hopkins University.
Michael J. Hicks — Professor of economics, Ball State University.
J. David Hoeveler — Policy Advisor, Political Science, Economics.
Stella Hofrenning — Policy Advisor, Economics, Health Care.
Robert G. Holland — Senior Fellow, Education.
Art Horn — Meteorologist, The Art of Weather.
Chris Horner — Senior Fellow, Competitive Enterprise Institute.
Steven G. Horwitz — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Douglas A. Houston — Policy Advisor, Economics.
William Hunter — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Harry G. Hutchison — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Craig Idso — Senior Fellow.
Andrei Illarionov — Senior Fellow, Cato Institute.
Roy Innis — National Chairman and CEO, Congress of Racial Equality.
Thomas R. Ireland — Policy Advisor, Economics, Legal Affairs.
Kiminori Itoh — Professor, Yokohama National University.
Yuri Izrael — Vice Chairman, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Henry Jacoby (**) — Policy Advisor, Environment.
Gary Jason — Policy Advisor, Technology.
James M. Johannes — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
James L. Johnston — Senior Fellow,Economic Policy
Jeff Judson — Senior Fellow, Board Member.
Ross Kaminsky — Senior Fellow, Finance.
S.T. Karnick — Research Director.
Madhav Khandekar — Former Research Scientist, Environment Canada.
Marc Kilmer — Senior Fellow at the Maryland Public Policy Institute.
William Kininmonth — Scientist, Australasian Climate Research.
Václav Klaus — President, Czech Republic.
Hans Labohm — Guest Teacher, Netherlands Defense Academy.
Jim Lakely — Communications Director, Co-Director of the Center on the Digital Economy.
Christopher Landsea (**) — Science and Operations Officer, National Hurricane Center
David Legates — Climatologist and Director, Delaware Environmental Observing System.
R.J. Lehmann — Deputy Director, Center on Finance, Insurance and Real Estate.
Jay Lehr — Science Director
Eli Lehrer (**) — National Director and Vice President.
David Letson — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
Marlo Lewis — Senior Fellow, Competitive Enterprise Institute.
Henry Linden — Professor, Illinois Institute of Technology.    
Richard Lindzen — Professor of Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Craig Loehle — Principal Scientist, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement.
Bjorn Lomborg — Director, Copenhagen Consensus Centre.
Leon Louw — Executive Director, Free Market Foundation.
Anthony R. Lupo — Associate Professor of Atmospheric Science, University of Missouri.
Ying Ma (*) — Policy Advisor.
Howard Maccabee — Founding President, Doctors for Disaster Preparedness.
Ken Malloy — Executive Director, Center for the Study of Carbon and Energy Markets.
David Marlett — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
Jim Martin — President, 60 Plus Association.
Maureen Martin — Senior Fellow, Legal Affairs.
Merrill Matthews — Resident Scholar with the Institute for Policy Innovation.
Phelim McAleer — Director and Producer, Not Evil Just Wrong.
Ann McElhinney — Director and Producer, Not Evil Just Wrong.
Ross McKitrick (**) — Associate Professor of Economics, University of Guelph.
Owen McShane — Chairman, Policy Panel, New Zealand Climate Science Coalition.
Patrick Michaels (*) — Senior Fellow, Cato Institute.
Fred Michel — Director, Institute of Environmental Science, Carleton University.
Steven Milloy — Portfolio Manager, Free Enterprise Action Fund.
Edwin Mills — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.    
Larry Mirel — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
Ferenc Miskolczi — Atmospheric Physicist.
Barun Mitra — Founder and Director, Liberty Institute .
John Monaghan — Legislative Specialist.
Lord Christopher Monckton — Chief Policy Advisor, Science and Public Policy Institute.
Marc Morano — Communications Director, Senate Environment and Public Works Committee.
Julian Morris — Executive Director, International Policy Network.
Robert Murphy — Economist, Institute for Energy Research.
Iain Murray — Director of Projects, Senior Fellow, Competitive Enterprise Institute.
Todd Myers — Environmental Director, Washington Policy Center.
Michael J. New — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
John Nothdurft — Director of Government Relations.
James O'Brien — Professor Emeritus, Florida State University.
Kendra Okonski — Former Environment Programme Director, International Policy Network.
Sean Parnell — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
R. Timothy Patterson — Professor of Geology, Carleton University.    
Benny Peiser (**) — Social Anthropologist.
Alfred Pekarek — Assistant Professor, St. Cloud State University.
Roger Pielke (**) — Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences.
Ian Plimer — Professor of Mining Geology, The University of Adelaide.
Eric Posmentier — Adjunct Faculty Member, Dartmouth College.
Lars Powell — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
Andreas Prokoph — Adjunct Professor, Dep. of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa.
Joy Pullmann — Managing Editor, School Reform News.
Richard Rahn — Chairman, Institute for Global Economic Growth.
Paul Reiter (**) — Professor, Institut Pasteur.
Scott H. Richardson — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate.
Brad Rodu — Senior Fellow, Health Care.
Norman Rogers — Policy Advisor, Environment.
Avik Roy — Policy Advisor, Health Care.
Ronald Rychlak — Professor of Law/Associate Dean, University of Mississippi School of Law.
Willam Sander — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Allen Sanderson — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Greg Scandlen — Senior Fellow, Health Care.
Eric Schansberg — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Harrison Schmitt — Former NASA Astronaut and U.S. Senator.
David Schnare — Senior Fellow, Thomas Jefferson Institute for Public Policy.
Joel Schwartz — Visiting Scholar, American Enterprise Institute.
Joseph Schwieterman — Policy Advisor, Urban Planning and Economics.
Chris Sciabarra — Policy Advisor, Political Science.
Tom Segalstad — Professor of Resource and Environmental Geology, University of Oslo.
Neil Seitz — Policy Advisor, Economics.
John Semmens — Policy Advisor, Urban Planning .
Nir Shaviv — Professor, Racah Institute of Physics.
William F. Shughart II — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Daniel Simmons — Director of State Affairs, Institute for Energy Research.
S. Fred Singer — Senior Fellow, Environment.
John Skorburg — Associate Editor, Budget & Tax News.
Alan Smith — Ohio Director; Senior Fellow, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
Fred L. Smith — President and Founder, Competitive Enterprise Institute.
Vincent H. Smith — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
Lawrence Solomon — Founder and Managing Director, Energy Probe Research Foundation.
Willie Soon — Chief Science Advisor, Science and Public Policy Institute.
Marni Soupcoff (**) — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
Douglas Southgate — Environmental Economist, Ohio State University.
Roy Spencer — Principal Research Scientist.
Samuel Staley — Senior Fellow, Urban Planning.
Steve Stanek — Managing Editor, Budget and Tax News.
Geoffrey R. Stone — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
John H. Sununu — President, JHS Associates, Ltd.
Daniel Sutter — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
Gordon Swaters (**) — University of Alberta.
Brendon Swedlow — Policy Advisor, Environment.
Thomas Tanton — President, T2 & Associates.
George Taylor — State Climatologist and Faculty Member, Oregon State University.
James M. Taylor — Senior Fellow and Managing Editor, Environment and Climate News.
Mitch Taylor — Polar Bear Biologist, Lakehead University.
John TheonNASA Atmospheric Scientist (retired).
Clifford Thies — Policy Advisor, Economics and Finance.
Margo Thorning — Senior VP and Chief Economist, American Council for Capital Formation.
Mark Thornton — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Steven Titch — Senior Fellow, Telecommunications.
Richard J. Trzupek — Policy Advisor, Environment.
David Tuerck — President, Beacon Hill Institute.
Gordon Tullock — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Charlotte Twight — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Thomas S. Ulen — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Brian Valentine — Engineer.
T. Norman Van Cott — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Charles Van Eaton — Policy Advisor, Economics.
G. Cornelis van Kooten (**) — Professor and Canada Research Chair, University of Victoria.
Richard Vedder — Policy Advisor, Economics.
Jan Veizer — Professor, University of Ottawa .
Harry Veryser — Policy Advisor, Economics and Finance.
W. Kip Viscusi — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Eugene Volokh — Policy Advisor, Legal Affairs.
Paul Waggoner — Distinguished Scientist, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
Gary Wagner — Policy Advisor, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate.
Herbert J. Walberg — Chairman of the Board and Senior Fellow, Education.
Bruce Edward Walker — Managing Editor, Infotech and Telecom News.
Lee Walker — Senior Fellow, Urban Policy.
Anthony Watts — Founder,;
Gerd-Rainer Weber — Scientist, German Coal Mining Association.
Brian Wesbury — Senior Fellow, Budget and Tax Policy.
J.P. Wieske — President of the Council for Affordable Health Insurance.
Boris Winterhalter — Senior Marine Research (retired), Geological Survey of Finland.
David Wojick — Consultant, Office of Scientific and Technical Information.
Miklos Zagoni (**) — Physicist and Science Historian, Eotvos Lorand University (Budapest). Antonino Zichichi (*) — Founder and Director, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture.

Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC)

The Heartland Institute sponsors the NIPCC, an “international network of scientists who write and speak out on climate change” and contributes approximately $300,000 a year for the group to work on Climate Change Reconsidered (the NIPCC report), according to the Heartland Institute's 2012 Fundraising Plan (p. 13).

The following individuals are listed in the Heartland Institute's 2012 Proposed Budget, under the “Personnel Budget” for the NIPCC Project:

$/month Name Chapter Institution Country
$11,600 Craig Idso Senior Editor Center for the Study of CO2 & Global Change USA
$5,000 Fred Singer Co-Editor Science and Environmental Policy Project USA
$1,667 Robert Carter Co-Editor James Cook University and Institute for Public Affairs Australia
$1,000 Madhav Khandekar 1.3 Extreme Events Environment Canada Canada
$1,000 Indur Goklany** 2.5 Economics and Policy U.S. Department of Interior USA
$1,000 Robert Balling tentative Arizona State University USA
$750 Anthony Lupo 1.4 Climate Models University of Missouri USA
$750 Mitch Taylor 2.2 Terrestrial Animals Lakehead University Canada
$750 Susan Crockford 2.2 Terrestrial Animals University of Victoria Australia
$500 Joe D'Aleo 1.3 Extreme Events ICECAP USA
$125 Willie Soon contributor - paid by review Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics USA
$125 Craig Loehle contributor - paid by review National Council for Air and Stream Improvement USA
$125 David Watkins contributor - paid by review Michigan Technological University USA

** Representative Raúl M. Grijalva called for a full Natural Resources Committee hearing (PDF) to probe whether Indur Goklany improperly received payments from the Heartland Institute (including his work on the NRSP Report) while he was working as Senior Advisor to the U.S. Interior Department. 

Below is a full list of past NIPCC contributors (John Mashey also provides a summary on page 36 of his 2012 report “Fake Science, fakesperts, funny finances, free of tax” ): [22], [23]

  Role in 2009 Report Role in 2011 Report
Joseph Bast Editor Editor
Diane Carol Bast Editor Editor
S.T. Karnick - Editor
Robert Carter Contributor/Reviewer Lead Author
Craig Idso Lead Author Lead Author
S. Fred Singer Lead Author Lead Author
Warren Anderson Contributor/Reviewer -
J. Scott Armstrong Contributor/Reviewer -
Dennis Avery Contributor/Reviewer -
Franco Battaglia Contributor/Reviewer -
Piers Corbyn Contributor/Reviewer -
Richard Courtney Contributor/Reviewer -
Susan Crockford - Contributor
Joseph D'Aleo Contributor/Reviewer Contributor
Don Easterbrook Contributor/Reviewer -
Indur Goklany - Contributor
Fred Goldberg Contributor/Reviewer -
Vincent Gray Contributor/Reviewer -
William Gray Contributor/Reviewer -
Kesten Green Contributor/Reviewer -
Kenneth Haapala Contributor/Reviewer -
David Hagen Contributor/Reviewer -
Klaus Heiss Contributor/Reviewer -
Sherwood Idso - Contributor
Zbiginew Jaworowski Contributor/Reviewer -
Olavi Karner Contributor/Reviewer -
Richard Alan Keen Contributor/Reviewer -
Madhav Khandekar Contributor/Reviewer Contributor
William Kininmonth Contributor/Reviewer -
Hans Labohm Contributor/Reviewer -
Anthony R. Lupo Contributor/Reviewer Contributor
Howard Maccabee Contributor/Reviewer -
Michael H. Mogil Contributor/Reviewer -
Christopher Monckton Contributor/Reviewer -
Lubos Motl Contributor/Reviewer -
Stephan Murgatroyd Contributor/Reviewer -
Nicola Scafetta Contributor/Reviewer -
Tom Segalstad Contributor/Reviewer -
Harrison Schmitt Contributor/Reviewer -
Willie Soon - Contributor
George H. Taylor Contributor/Reviewer -
Mitch Taylor Contributor/Reviewer -
Dick Thoenes Contributor/Reviewer -
Anton Uriarte Contributor/Reviewer -
Gerd Weber Contributor/Reviewer -


March 3-4, 2015

The Heartland Institute issued statements in defense of Willie Soon in the wake of his recently published paper titled “Why Models Run Hot: Results From an Irreducibly Simple Climate Model,” published in January 2015 in China's Science Bulletin Journal. Co-authors of the paper included Lord Christopher Monckton, Professor David Legates, and Dr. William Briggs.

James M. Taylor's defense of soon is available here, and one by Robert M. Carter here. [50], [51] Bob Carter is an expert or advisor to over 10 climate skeptic organizations including the Global Warming Policy Foundation, International Climate Science Coalition, Science and Public Policy Institute, Australian Climate Science Coalition, and New Zealand Climate Science Coalition. His background is in geology. 

Shortly after the Science Bulletin paper's release, a number of sources reported on Soon's connection to fossil fuel funding, including 11 papers he published since 2008 in which ommited disclosure of a potential conflict of interest. In their February 21 article titled Deeper Ties to Corporate Cash for Doubltful climate Researcher, The New York Times reports how “in at least eight of those cases, he appears to have violated ethical guidelines of the journals that published his work.”

As of 2001, the Climate Investigations Center found that Soon had received $1,573,270 in funding, with “known fossil fuel funding” tabulated at $1,248,471. Coal electricity generator Southern Company, Exxon, Donors Trust, the Charles G. Koch Foundation and the American Petroleum Institute have all contributed. [52]

Soon released his own statement (PDF) on March 2, which was published on the Heartland Institute's website. [53]

April 27/28, 2015

The Heartland Institute sent a team to the Vatican City where they held a press conference in order to “inform Pope Francis of the truth about climate science” and claims to set out a “case explaining why climate science does not justify the Holy See putting its faith in the work of the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).”  
Lord Christopher Monckton, Dr Calvin Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance, and Marc Morano from CFACT all spoke at the conference, and the event was further covered by DesMogBlog UK's Brendan Montague, who attended.
Rome Heartland Vatican Audience

Nine journalists made up the audience at Heartland's press conference. Photo by Brendan Montague.

Monckton encouraged the Pope not to make a statement on climate change, saying “You will be kicking the poor in the teeth. Stand back, listen to both sides, and do not take sides in politics.” 
Heartland's stated intent was to “dissuade Pope Francis from lending his moral authority to the politicized and unscientific climate agenda of the United Nations.”[48]
Heartland President Joe Bast claims that Pope Francis is being “misled by ‘experts’ at the United Nations who have proven unworthy of his trust,” and that “Humans are not causing a climate crisis on God’s Green Earth – in fact, they are fulfilling their Biblical duty to protect and use it for the benefit of humanity.”
The Heartland Institute's event included presentations from the following (with links to materials on the Heartland Website):
Joe Bast has also stated “Catholics who would put ‘sustainability’ ahead of human freedom are out of step with the most important teachings of their faith.” [49]
The Heartland Institute's campaign included a series of presentations and press conferences in Rome. Searches for Pope Francis and Climate Change reveal they have also bid on AdWords to direct searches to the Heartland Institute website (see below).
Pope Francis Global Warming

Screenshot taken from Google, May 21, 2015.

October 29, 2014

The Heartland Institute's “energy and environment experts” commented on the ruling by the Health Board of Brown County, Wisconsin, declaring wind turbines a “human health hazard.” [46] , [47] Tom Harris writes that “without taxpayer funded subsidies, large wind turbine projects are not economically viable … However, the government funds them regardless because of the appearance that their use helps 'fight climate change.'” [46]

Harris continues:

More importantly, the hypothesis that carbon dioxide emissions from human activity is damaging the climate has been thoroughly debunked by reports such as those of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change. So, the main reason the government funds wind power is no longer valid.” [46]

September 26, 2014

The Heartland Institute releases a post in their policy and commentary blog, Somewhat Reasonable, titled, “Alex Epstein Loves Fossil Fuels, Mixing it Up with Climate Marchers in NYC,” describing Alex Epstein's “courageous” visit to the People's Climate March. Within the post, Heartland encourages viewers to watch all four of Epstein's videos from the People's Climate March, share the videos with friends, “check out Alex Epstein's organization [Center for Industrial Progress], and read the first chapter of his new book,” which is titled, The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels[45]

July, 2014

Jay Lehr, science director and senior fellow, writes a Policy Brief for the Heartland Institute entitled, “Replacing the Environmental Protection Agency,” which he describes in the abstract as a “plan to replace the United States Environmental Protection Agency with a Committee of the Whole of the 50 state environmental protection agencies, utilizing a phased five-year transition period.” 

Within the Policy Brief, Lehr writes that the ten years following the establishment of the EPA in 1971 he “helped write a significant number of legislative bills that were to make up a true safety net for our environment,” including, “Water Pollution Control Act (later renamed the Clean Water Act), Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Surface Mining and Reclamation Act (which, surprisingly, covered deep mines as well), Clean Air Act, Federal Insecticide, Rodenticide, and Fungicide Act, and Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (which we now know as Superfund).” 

Following Lehr’s ten-year period of legislative bill writing, he notes in the brief that “around 1981, liberal activist groups recognized EPA could be used to advance their political agenda by regulating virtually all human activities regardless of their impact on the environment … Since that time, not a single environmental law or regulation has been passed that benefitted either the environment or society … Today, EPA is all but a wholly owned subsidiary of liberal activist groups.”

Lehr concludes the Policy Brief by writing “it’s time for the national EPA to go,” and that “the path forward is now clear and simple: A five-year transition from a federal government bureaucracy to a Committee of the Whole composed of the 50 state environmental protection … All that is missing is the political will.” 

2012 - Proposed Projects

Global Warming Curriculum

The Heartland Institute proposes to fund a “Global Warming Curriculum” for K-12 schools. They claim that there is an absence of educational materials that are not “alarmist or overtly political,” and that teachers are “heavily biased toward the alarmist perspective” (see p. 18, “2012 Fundraising Plan”).

Heartland tentatively plans to pay climate change skeptic David Wojick (whose main work has been as a policy analyst) $5,000 per module in 2012, with the first $100,000 pledged by the Anonymous Donor. 

The modules would cover how “whether humans are changing the climate is a major scientific controversy,” how climate models' “reliability is controversial,” and “whether CO2 is a pollutant is controversial. It is the global food supply and natural emissions are 20 times higher than human emissions.”

For grades 7-9, Wojick would examine how “environmental impact is often difficult to determine. For example, there is a major controversy over whether or not humans are changing the weather.”

Hydraulic Fracturing Project

Another project proposed by Heartland for 2012, The Hydraulic Fracturing Project (p. 18 - 19, “2012 Fundraising Plan”) would “raise funds from businesses with a financial interest in fracking” by “approach[ing] dozens of companies and trade associations that are actively seeking allies in this battle.”

While Heartland claims that “Fracking has been safely used for more than 50 years,” our recent DeSmogBlog report Fracking the Future suggests otherwise.

The Heartland Institute has already identified itself as “one of the most outspoken defenders of fracking in the U.S., using Environment & Climate News, its Web sites, and its PR and GR operations to comment repeated on the issue and reach large audiences.”

Weather Stations Project

Heartland proposes to fund a new web site by Anthony Watts devoted to accessing temperature data from the National Aeronautics and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and “converting them into easy-to-understand graphs that can be easily understood by weathermen and the general interested public” (p.18, Heartland's 2012 “Fundraising Plan”).

According to Heartland, examples of when temperature records are broken in the U.S. are “often used by environmental extremists” as evidence of climate change. Presumably Watts's new site, which will be “promoted heavily at,” would portray temperature data in a way to counteract this.

Heartland agreed to help Watts raise $88,000 from the project in 2011, and the Anonymous Donor pledged $44,000 so far in 2012. According to Heartland, they have previously supported and promoted Watts' past work “exposing flaws in the current network of temperature stations.”


Since 2008, the Heartland Institute has hosted their annual International Conference on Climate Change where dozens of climate change skeptics converge to discuss issues and strategies to oppose climate action:


Place: New York

Date: March 2-4, 2008


The conference, titled “Global Warming: Truth or Swindle,” was described as a “gathering of skeptics.” Heartland contends that skeptics lack a “platform from which they can be heard,” as “Their voices have been drowned out by publicity built upon the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an entity with an agenda to build support for the theory of man-made catastrophic global warming.”  

According to conference's invitation letter, “The purpose of the conference is to generate international media attention to the fact that many scientists believe forecasts of rapid warming and catastrophic events are not supported by sound science, and that expensive campaigns to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are not necessary or cost-effective.” (emphasis added).

RealClimate reported on the conference and concluded it “is not aimed at understanding, it is a PR event aimed at generating media reports.” [24]


Place: New York

Date: March 8-10, 2009


DeSmogBlog researched the funding behind Heartland's Second International Conference on Climate Change and found that sponsor organizations had received over $47 million in funding from energy companies and right-wing foundations, with 78% of that total coming from Scaife Family foundations:

ExxonMobil (1998-2006):                    $6,199,000
Koch Foundations (1986-2006):          $4,438,920
Scaife Foundations (1985-2006):      $36,868,640

Grand Total:                                    $47,506,560

DeSmogBlog reported on the conference here.


Place: Washington, DC

Date: June 2, 2009


The conference's theme was “Climate Change: Scientific Debate and Economic Analysis,” to reflect Heartland's belief that that “scientific debate is not over.” The conference set out to “call attention to widespread dissent to the asserted 'consensus' on various aspects of climate change and global warming.” [36]

According to the Heartland Institute, “The purpose of the event is to expose Congressional staff and journalists to leading scientists and economists in the nation's capital. Senators and Representatives will be invited to speak side-by-side with leading scientists and economists. Allied organizations have been invited to be cosponsors, to help supply speakers and promote the event to their members and supporters.” [25]


Place: Chicago, IL

Date: May 16-18, 2010


The conference's theme was “Reconsidering the Science and Economics,” and its purpose was “the same as it was for the first three events: to build momentum and public awareness of the global warming 'realism' movement.”

DeSmogBlog concluded 19 of the 65 sponsors (including Heartland itself) had received a total of over $40 million in funding since 1985 from ExxonMobil (who funded 13 of the organizations), and/or Koch Industries family foundations (funded 10 organizations) and/or the Scaife family foundations (funded 10 organizations).


ExxonMobil (1998-2008): $6,588,250 ($389,250 more than reported in 2009)
Koch Foundations (1985-2008): $17,572,210 ($13,133,290 more than reported in 2009)
Scaife Family Foundations (1985-2008): $16,352,000 ($20,516,640 less than reported in 2009*)
Total Funding 1985-2008: $40,512,460

*The Heritage Foundation sponsored the 2009 conference and is notably absent from sponsoring the 2010 ICCC. Heritage has received $23,096,640 from Scaife, $2,417,000 from Koch and $565,000 from Exxon between 1998 and 2006.


Place: Sydney, Australia

Date: October 1, 2010


A “seminar on climate change” that took place following the Pacific Rim Policy Exchange, described as “two days of workshops and brainstorming with free market advocates from the Pacific Rim.”

See the draft agenda (PDF). Videos of the speakers are available at the ICCC website

The event was sponsored by The Heartland Institute, Americans for Tax Reform, the Property Rights Alliance, and the Institute of Public Affairs (IPA).


Place: Washington, DC

Date: June 30-July 1, 2011


The theme of the conference was “Restoring the Scientific Method,” and based on the premise that “claims of scientific certainty and predictions of climate catastrophes are based on 'post-normal science,' which substitutes claims of consensus for the scientific method.”

DeSmogBlog concluded that 17 of the 43 sponsors of the Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change, including the Heartland Institute itself, had collectively received over $46 million from either Scaife Foundations, Koch Foundations, or ExxonMobil:

Scaife Foundations (1998-2010): $28,557,000  ($12,205,000 more than 2010*)
Koch Foundations (1998-2009): $11,330,980 ($6,241,230 less than 2010)
ExxonMobil (1998-2010): $6,276,900 ($311,350 less than 2010)
Total Funding (1998-2010): 



*The Heritage Foundation, notably absent from the 2010 ICCC, is a sponsor again for the 2011 ICCC. Heritage has received $14,873,571 from industry sources.


Place: Chicago, Illinois

Date: May 21 - 23, 2012


The Heartland Institute’s Seventh International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC-7) is designed to follow the NATO Summit taking place in Chicago from May 19 to 21.

The theme of ICCC7 is “Real Science, Real Choices.” Heartland reports it will consist of “concurrent panel sessions exploring what real climate science is telling us about the causes and consequences of climate change, and the real consequences of choices being made based on the current perceptions of the state of climate science.”

DeSmogBlog researched co-sponsors behind the conference and discovered that they had received a total of over $67 Million from ExxonMobil, Koch, and Scaife family foundations:

ExxonMobil (1998-2010):              $7,312,500
Koch Foundations (1986-2010):     $14,391,975
Scaife Foundations (1985-2010):   $45,337,640

Grand Total:                               $67,042,115 

Heartland gives a passing mention to the “global warming scandal” where Peter Gleick obtained Heartland's documents revealing some of its plans and posting them online. Heartland frames the event as “Fakegate,” given the possibility that one of the documents was faked. However, they continue to redirect the public's eye away from the information revealed from authentic documents also released. [37]

During Joseph Bast's closing remarks for the conference, he suggested that the group no longer plans to hold future conferences as it is struggling financially after losing many of its sponsors following their unsuccessful billboard campaign.


Place: Munich, Germany

Date: November 30 - December 1, 2012


The Heartland Institute partners with the Germany-based skeptic organization EIKE (European Institute for Climate and Energy) to host a combination event of the Heartland Institute's Eight International Conference on Climate Change, and EIKE's the Fifth International Conference on Climate and Energy. [38]

Individuals speaking at the event include:

“This conference is more proof, if any were needed, that important issues surrounding the causes, extent, and consequences of climate change remain unresolved in the scientific community,” said Heartland Institute President Joseph Bast.

“The scientific evidence grows stronger each day that we are not facing a global warming crisis, and I look forward to presenting another conference where the scientists themselves will explain the evidence,” said Heartland Senior Fellow James M. Taylor.

March, 2009

The Heartland Institute released their “Skeptic's Handbook,” printing 150,000 copies for distribution across the US including 850 journalists, 26,000 schools, “19,000 leaders and politicians.[26]

The mass printing was funded by an “Anonymous Donor.


The Heartland Institute and an “anonymous donor” funded a video, produced by the Idea Channel, titled “Unstoppable Solar Cycles: Rethinking Global Warming.”

One subject interviewed, Rie Oldenburg, curator of the Narsaq Museum, claims that she was tricked into participating. She said she had been told she was contributing to a video on Norse history, and was shocked to learn that the DVD denied the human contribution to climate change.

A version of the video was distributed to schools by the advocacy organization, and included a “Teacher's Guide” (PDF) and lesson plan.

HI's description of Unstoppable Solar Cycles questions man's influence on climate change:

“The best available records of temperature and atmospheric CO2 over the past 650,000 years indicate that the earth's temperature always rises first, followed by a rise in carbon dioxide. If a warmer earth leads to increased levels of CO2-and not the other way around-can humans' use of fossil fuels be the cause of global warming? Shouldn't this critical question remain open to scientific inquiry?” [35]

Note that this specific argument has been debunked, with a summary available at SkepticalScience.

September, 2007

The Heartland Institute promoted a list of “500 Scientists with Documented Doubts of Man-Made Global Warming Scares,” originally produced by Dennis Avery for the Hudson  Institute.

DeSmogBlog contacted 122 of the scientists, and 45 replied in outrage. They said that their research did not support Avery's conclusions, and demanded that their names be removed from the list.

In response to the complaints, the Heartland Institute changed the title of the document to “500 Scientists Whose Research Contradicts Man-Made Global Warming Scares,” but refused to remove any names from the list. 

They responded, saying that the authors, “have no right – legally or ethically – to demand that their names be removed from a bibliography composed by researchers with whom they disagree,” and that “We did not ask for those authors' permission, nor do we seek their permission now.” [27]

Joseph Bast concluded that the “complaining scientists have crossed the line between scientific research and policy advocacy.” [28]

April 2, 2007

The Heartland Institute promoted challenges by Lord Christopher Monckton and Dennis Avery to debate Al Gore on global warming. [29]

Heartland ran advertisements in the New York Times and other media promoting the requested debate.

January 15, 2007

Heartland published a “Guidebook for State Legislators” which, among other advice, suggests that legislators “should oppose unnecessary and costly global warming programs.” [30]

Bast has also published his own “Legislative Principles Series” (PDF), which was “written especially for elected officials and other opinion leaders.” [31]

November, 2006

Heartland sponsored a talk by Fred Singer and Dennis Avery titled “Unstoppable Global Warming Every 1500 Years.”

Scientists at Realclimate reported and responded with a point/counterpoint discussion. [32]

August 2, 2002

The Heartland Institute wrote to President Bush, discouraging him from attending the UN Summit on Sustainable Development. Bush did not attend.

Representatives from other right-wing organizations including Americans for Tax Reform, the American Enterprise Institute, and the Competitive Enterprise Institute also contributed to the letter. [33]

October 3, 2000

According to ExxonSecrets, Heartland filed a lawsuit against President Clinton for increasing funding for a report on climate change by the US Global Change Research Program.

April 2, 1996

Heartland published “Earth Day '96,” (PDF) a compilation of articles on environmental topics. The publication, distributed on college campuses, featured “Adventures in the Ozone Layer” by S. Fred Singer, and “the Cold Facts on Global Warming” by Sallie Baliunas. The articles denied the serious nature of ozone depletion and global warming. [34]

1990s - Defending Tobacco

The Heartland Institute has consistently defended the tobacco industry, and has received funding from numerous tobacco companies including Philip Morris and RJ Reynolds.

Reproduced below is a 1999 letter from Joseph Bast to Roy Marden of Phillip Morris courtesy of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (see original PDF) that illustrates Heartland's stance on tobacco (Emphasis Added). Note that John Mashey refers to this letter in his report (p. 44) as potential evidence of Heartland's role as a lobbying organization.

July 27, 1999

Mr. Roy Marden
Manager of Industry Affairs
Philip Morris Management Cos.
120 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10017

Dear Roy:

Thank you for inviting me to request renewed general operating support for The Heartland Institute for 1999. I note that Philip Morris contributed $5,000 last August (for a Gold Table at our annual benefit) and $25,000 in October (general operating support). It also has allowed you to serve on our Board of Directors, which has produced many positive results for the entire organization.

Because Heartland does many things that benefit Philip Morris' bottom line, things that no other organization does, I hope you will consider boosting your general operating support this year to $30,000 and once again reserve a Gold Table for an additional $5,000.

We genuinely need your financial support. Maybe by the end of this letter you'll agree that we merit even greater support; I certainly hope so!

Working with State Elected Officials

Unlike any other free-market think tank, Heartland's primary audience is the nation's 7,500 state elected officials. We reach them more often, and generate from them more requests for research, than any other think tank in the country.

  • PolicyFax, Heartland's free fax-on-demand information service for journalists and elected officials, received approximately 700 calls a month from state legislators and members of their staffs during 1998
  • Over 110 elected state officials now serve on the PolicyFax Advisory Board, meaning they have volunteered to help choose documents and topics to feature on the service. Among pro-market groups, only ALEC has more state legislators involved in their programs.
  • Every state and national elected official in the U.S. receives a steady stream of publications from Heartland — four periodicals and less regular mailings of policy studies and other documents — that have been designed to fill their information needs. Heartland is one of very few organizations that treats elected officials as customers, not opponents.

Supporting State-Based Think Tanks

  • Heartland works with ALEC and the State Policy Network to support conservative and freemarket think tanks around the country. Heartland does as much as either of these organizations to support the state-based think tank movement. For example:
  • PolicyFax features 6,000 documents from some 300 think tanks and advocacy groups, including all of the members of State Policy Network. PolicyFax is free for both the users and the groups that provide documents, and Heartland reports back to the publisher each month with information about how often its documents were ordered.
  • Heartland's Intellectual Ammunition is the only magazine sent to all 8,000 state and national elected officials featuring the work of free-market policy analysts on the staffs of Heritage, NCPA, CEI, the Tax Foundation, Reason Foundation, Center for the Study of American Business, and other think tanks.
  • Issues of three Heartland publications — the bimonthly Intellectual Ammunition and monthly School Reform News and Environment News — contain directories of freemarket groups and feature the work of other think tanks. Heartland is the only organization in the country that regularly promotes the work of other think tanks.

Work on Tobacco-related Issues

Heartland has devoted considerable attention to defending tobacco (and other industries) from what I view as being an unjust campaign of public demonization and legal harassment. We're an important voice defending smokers and their freedom to use a still-legal product.

  • Tobacco is well represented on PolicyFax and in the quarterly PolicyFax Updates. In recent months we posted Brill's Content's expose of EPA's corrupt science on secondhand smoke and essays by Patrick Reilly for Capital Research Center, Jacob Sullum for Reason Foundation, Matt Kibbe for CSE,. J.D. Foster for the Tax Foundation, and Sean Paige for Insight. Some 21 articles on tobacco are available through PolicyFax.
  • Intellectual Ammunition has carried two articles defending the tobacco industry since last October: the cover story of the March/April 1999 issue (“Lifting the Skirts of 'Progressive' Demonizers”) and my essay, “Dear Melissa: A Civil Libertarian's Perspective on the War against Smoking.”
  • The Heartlander, our monthly newsletter for members, has called attention to the dangerous legal precedents and discriminatory taxes that are part of the campaign against tobacco in cover essays appearing in the October, November, and June issues.
  • Recent and past Heartland publications on tobacco, including a Heartland Policy Study and several Perspectives, and the 21 documents on the subject available from PolicyFax, are all available on Heartland's Web site. Particularly popular are two of my essays, titled “Five Lies About Tobacco” and “Joe Camel is Innocent.”

Coming Up

We expect to continue publishing School Reform News, Environment News, Intellectual Ammunition, and The Heartlander in the months ahead. Changing PolicyFax from a fax-on-demand service to an Internet-based service begins this week with the conversion of all 6,000 documents available from PolicyFax into a format that will enable them to be viewed or downloaded directly from the Web site.

We are also revamping our Web site to bring together into one place all the material on tobacco — the policy study, op-eds, PolicyFax documents, and Heartlander essays — and identify it as the “Smoker's Lounge” on the homepage. And we have discussed producing an Instant Expert Guide to Tobacco Litigation and reproducing an analysis done of the effect of a federal lawsuit against the tobacco industry on the level of payments states can expect to receive. Both of these projects are likely to come about in the coming months (though the latter only if it is still timely).

Funding Request

Roy, please consider renewing Philip Morris' general operating support of The Heartland Institute at the slightly higher level of $30,000. We rely heavily on companies like yours to produce a program that is every bit as ambitious and perhaps more effective than anything produced by a Washington D.C.-based group.

Please don't hesitate to give me a call if you have questions or advice. I hope to hear from you soon.


Joseph L. Bast

Related Organizations

Some of Heartland connections:


The Heartland Institute publishes six newspapers:

They also publish a monthly newsletter titled The Heartlander and there is also an online Heartlander Magazine that appears to cover similar issues to their six individual newspapers. 

Possibly most notable among these newspapers is Environment & Climate News (E&CN) which frequently features topics skeptical of climate change, and has a history of posting articles in favour of tobacco.

John Mashey devotes a large portion of his report (see p.82) to analysis of Environment and Climate News from June 2011 through January 2012 (approximately 1700 pages).


The following Heartland Institute documents (apart from the IRS Form 990, which is a public document) were released by an anonymous source on February 14, 2012 (climate scientist Peter Gleick has since come forward as the source of the release):

**The Heartland Institute disputes the authenticity of the 2012 climate strategy, claiming the document is a “fake,” and has threatened DeSmogBlog with legal action. However, the organization has yet to provide concrete evidence to support these allegations.

Mashey Report

John Mashey published the following report, also on February 14, 2012, that examines the finances of the Heartland Institute and two other like-minded organizations:


  1. Dan Miller. “Heartland Institute Announces Board Changes,” The Heartland Institute, August 8, 2008.

  2. Joe Camel Is Innocent!”, The Heartland Institute, August 21, 1996.

  3. Summary of Prepared Remarks of Commissioner Roscoe B. Starek, III, Federal Trade Commission: Advertising and Promotion Law 1997, Minnesota Institute of Legal Education.

  4. FTC Takes On Joe Camel” (PDF), Reproduced by Gabriel Media Studies Center.

  5. David H. Padden,” Profile at the Heartland Institute. Archived March 2, 2005.

  6. Mark Ames. “Radicals for Corporate Pollution: The Koch Cartel & The Heartland Institute,” The Exiled, February 15, 2012.

  7. Heart of the matter,” Nature, 475 (July 28, 2011), Page  423–424.

  8. Joe Bast. “Global Warming: Not a Crisis,” The Heartland Institute (Blog), August 10, 2011.

  9. Message from the President,” Giving @ The Heartland Institute. Accessed March 5, 2012.

  10. About,” The Heartland Institute. Accessed December 23, 2011.

  11. Suzanne Goldenberg. “Heartland Institute faces fresh scrutiny over tax status,” The Guardian, February 17, 2012.

  12. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: The Heartland Institute.

  13. Heartland Institute (HI) - Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace. Accessed December 23, 2011.

  14. Heartland Institute (HI) - Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Accessed March, 2012.

  15. Foundation statement on Heartland Institute,” Charles Koch Foundation (, February 15, 2012.

  16. RECIPIENT GRANTS: Heartland Institute,” Media Transparency. Accessed March, 2012.

  17. Nonprofit Organization Information: DONORS TRUST INC,” Economic Research Institute. Accessed March 5, 2012.

  18. Nonprofit Organization Information: DONORS CAPITAL FUND INC,” Economic Research Institute. Accessed March 7, 2012. 

  19. Josh Israel. “GM Defends Contributions To 'Careful And Considerate' Climate Denier Institute,” ThinkProgress, February 16, 2012.

  20. Brad Johnson. “Microsoft Disavows Heartland Institute’s Climate Denial, Says Contributions Just 'Free Software Licenses',” ThinkProgress, February 16, 2012.

  21. Expert Search,” The Heartland Institute. Accessed December, 2011.

  22. “Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report” (PDF), The Heartland Institute. Retrieved from, March 4, 2012.

  23. “Climate Change Reconsidered” (PDF - 2009 Report), The Heartland Institute. Retrieved from, March 4, 2012.

  24. What if you held a conference, and no (real) scientists came?,” RealClimate, January 30, 2008.

  25. ICCC-3: Climate Change: Scientific Debate and Economic Analysis,” International Conference on Climate Change ( Accessed March 6, 2012.

  26. Skeptics Handbook spreads en masse: 150,000 copies!”,, March 22, 2009.

  27. Dennis Avery. “Statement on List of 500 Authors,” The Heartland Institute, December 18, 2009.

  28. Joseph Bast. “Controversy Arises Over Lists of Scientists Whose Research Contradicts Man-Made Global Warming Scares,” The Heartland Institute, May 5, 2008.

  29. Joseph Bast. “Why Won’t Al Gore Debate?”, The Heartland Institute, June 27, 2007.

  30. Joseph L. Bast and Sandy Liddy Bourne. “Energy Policy for America: A Guidebook for State Legislators,” The Heartland Institute, January 2007. Archived July 11, 2008.

  31. Joseph L. Bast. “Ten Principles of Energy Policy” (PDF), The Heartland Institute.

  32. Avery and Singer: Unstoppable hot air,” RealClimate, November 20, 2006.

  33. (Press Release) “Africa: Corporate-funded Lobbyists Aimed to Sabotage Johannesburg Summit,”, August 19, 2002.

  34. The Heartlander, April 2, 1996 (PDF). Retrieved from Greenpeace research documents.

  35. Unstoppable Solar Cycles: Rethinking Global Warming,” Heartland Institute “Policy Document.” Accessed March, 2012.

  36. Robyn Monaghan. “Global warming skeptics gather in D.C.,”, May 4, 2009.

  37. Homepage of the Seventh International Confernece on Climate Change. Archived May 11, 2012.

  38. Heartland Institute Hosts Eighth International Conference on Climate Change in Germany,” The Heartland Institute, November 15, 2012.

  39. Heartland Institute,” SourceWatch entry.

  40. Steve Connor. “Tobacco and oil pay for climate conference,” The Independent, May 3, 2008.

  41. The climate change smokescreen,” The Sydney Morning Herald, August 2, 2008.

  42. Greenpeace research documents on the Heartland Institute.

  43. The Heartland Institute,” Wikipedia entry.

  44. McKnight, David. “The climate change smokescreen,” Sydney Morning Herald, August 2, 2008.

  45. Jim Lakely. “Alex Epstein Loves Fossil Fuels, Mixing it Up with Climate Marchers in NYC,” Heartland Institute, September 26, 2014.

  46. Heartland Institute Experts Comment on Wind Turbines Being a 'Human Health Hazard',” PRWeb, October 29, 2014. Archived November 4, 2014.

  47. Duke Energy's Shirley Wind Turbines Declared 'Human Health Hazard',” Brown County Citizens for Responsible Wind Energy. Archived November 4, 2014.

  48. Joe Bast. “Catholics Should Put Freedom Above Sustainability Fad,” Somewhat Reasonable, April 28, 2015). 
  49. Robert M. Carter. “Statement Regarding Allegations Concerning Dr. Willie Soon,” The Heartland Institute. March 3, 2015. 
  50. James M. Taylor. “In Defense of Dr. Willie Soon from Politically Motivated Attacks.” The Heartland Institute, March 4, 2015.
  51. Kert Davies. “Willie Soon Scandal: Corporate Funding Year By Year,” Climate Investigations Center. February 27, 2015.
  52. Willie Soon. “Statement by Dr. Willie Soon,” Heartland Institute, March 2, 2015.