Heritage Foundation

Heritage Foundation

Background

The Heritage Foundation was founded in 1973 by Paul Weyrich to “formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.” [1]

The Heritage Foundation has been a fervent opponent of the Kyoto protocol and its online database of “policy experts”(www.policyexperts.org) includes many climate change skeptics such as Patrick Michaels, Sallie Baliunas, Thomas Gale Moore, Robert Balling, and Fred Singer [2], [3]

The Heritage Foundation has had considerable influence over Republican politicians. It is estimated that two-thirds of the policy recommendations it made in 1981 were adopted by the Reagan Administration. The Heritage Foundation has been described as “the most effective media operation in American politics.” [4][5]

Jim DeMint, former South Carolina Republican Senator, became Heritage Foundation president in 2013. According to The New York Times, this marked a shift in the foundation: “Long known as an incubator for policy ideas and the embodiment of the party establishment, it has become more of a political organization feeding off the rising populism of the Tea Party movement.” [6]

Heritage is a former member of the Cooler Heads Coalition (as of 2004). [7] Thomas A. Roe, a member of the board of trustees of the Heritage Foundation, founded the State Policy Network in 1991 as a way to promote conservative policies at the state level. 

It was also behind the right-wing news website Townhall.com. In 2005, Townhall.com split from The Heritage Foundation “in order to expand the scope of Townhall.com's mission to inform, empower and mobilize citizens for political change.” In 2006, it was acquired by Salem Communications. [8]

Stance on Climate Change

2016

“[C]limate change […] is a contentious and unproven scientific theory.” — Hans von Spakovsky, Senior Legal Fellow and manager of the Election Law Reform Initiative at The Heritage Foundation. [9]

“Regardless of one’s opinions on the degree to which climate change is occurring, regulations associated with the Paris accord will have no meaningful impact on the planet’s temperature.” [10]

2010

“What I conclude from a policy standpoint is that global warming is clearly not a crisis and should not be addressed as one … None of the scary stuff about global warming is true, and what is true about global warming, what the science actually tells us about man's role in changing the climate, is far from terrifying.” — Ben Lieberman, Senior Policy Analyst for Energy and Environment at The Heritage Foundation [11]

2009

Global warming will not hurt the U.S. economy.” [12]

On Carbon Emissions

2016

“I think the serious people, the economists that have looked at this, understand there is a cost to reducing carbon emissions, because CO2 is a necessary byproduct of their most affordable and reliable energy sources, which are the natural resources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum. To take that choice away from people forces them to more expensive sources of energy” — David Kreutzer, research fellow in energy economics and climate change at The Heritage Foundation. [13]

Funding

The following is based on data compiled by the Conservative Transparency Project. Note that not all funding information has been verified by DeSmogBlog for accuracy.  [14]

View the attached spreadsheet for additional information on The Heritage Foundation's funding by year (.xlsx).

Donor Total
Sarah Scaife Foundation $24,235,000
Howard Charitable Foundation $19,000,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $16,072,202
The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation $15,000,000
DeVos Urban Leadership Initiative $13,300,000
John M. Olin Foundation $8,620,835
Herrick Foundation $7,530,000
Lillian S. Wells Foundation $5,742,428
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation $5,262,571
Castle Rock Foundation $3,098,760
The Carthage Foundation $2,544,000
Jaquelin Hume Foundation $1,725,000
F.M. Kirby Foundation $1,545,000
The Roe Foundation $1,481,000
Allegheny Foundation $1,350,000
Searle Freedom Trust $1,275,000
Aequus Institute $1,155,000
Deramus Foundation $1,100,000
National Christian Charitable Foundation $1,086,950
Philip M. McKenna Foundation $1,025,000
The Galbraith Foundation $1,000,000
William E. Simon Foundation $952,500
John Templeton Foundation $930,821
Barney Family Foundation $870,000
Armstrong Foundation $770,000
John Dawson Foundation $725,400
Scaife Family Foundation $702,640
The Thirteen Foundation $700,000
Stuart Family Foundation $657,500
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation $589,274
Exxon Mobil $585,000
Holman Foundation $531,971
William H. Donner Foundation $527,000
Robert S. and Star Pepper Foundation $495,000
Robert and Audrey Zinser Charitable Foundation $429,707
Peter G. Peterson Foundation $350,000
Bill and Berniece Grewcock Foundation $345,000
DonorsTrust $308,265
Fairchild-Martindale Foundation $285,000
Dorothy D. and Joseph A. Moller Foundation $260,000
Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation $245,000
Sidney A. Swensrud Foundation $234,812
Stiles-Nicholson Foundation $222,700
Lovett and Ruth Peters Foundation $200,000
JM Foundation $185,000
Same Line Foundation $170,250
John William Pope Foundation $150,000
Orville D. and Ruth A. Merillat Foundation $150,000
PhRMA $150,000
Ruth & Lovett Peters Foundation $150,000
The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation $143,400
Dick and Betsy DeVos Family Foundation $120,000
The Challenge Foundation $120,000
The Weiler Foundation $120,000
Joyce and Donald Rumsfeld Foundation $116,000
Fairbrook Foundation $100,000
Donors Capital Fund $96,000
Ed Uihlein Family Foundation $85,000
The McWethy Foundation $80,000
Kantner Foundation $71,000
Robert and Marie Hansen Foundation $70,000
Tepper Family Foundation $68,250
Walton Family Foundation $65,000
Richard F. Aster Jr. Foundation $64,000
The Rodney Fund $62,000
The Opportunity Foundation $53,000
Lowndes Foundation $52,000
The Whitcomb Charitable Foundation $51,000
George Edward Durell Foundation $50,000
MyWireless.org $50,000
Arthur N. Rupe Foundation $48,500
Leadership Institute $45,935
The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation $45,000
Earhart Foundation $40,000
Bochnowski Family Foundation $20,000
Neal and Jane Freeman Foundation $20,000
Woodhouse Family Foundation $12,000
True Foundation $11,000
Barbara and Barre Seid Foundation $5,000
The Randolph Foundation $5,000
Dunn's Foundation for the Advancement of Right Thinking $1,000
Thewes Family Foundation $1,000
Foundation for Economic Education $300
Gilder Foundation $100
It Takes A Family Foundation $35
Grand Total $147,913,106

ExxonMobil Funding

According to ExxonSecrets, Heritage Foundation has received $780,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998[2]

Koch Funding

According to Greenpeace, The Heritage Foundation received $2,738,571  from Koch foundations between 2005 and 2011, with total Koch foundation grants between 1997 and 2011 adding up to $4,551,571.  [15]

990 Forms

Key People

Board of Trustees

Name 2011[17] 2015[16] 2016[59] Description
Abby Moffat Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2009
Anthony J. Saliba Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2012; Executive Managing Director, ConvergEx Group, Chicago, Ill.
Barb Van Andel-Gaby Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 1996; Director, Alticor
Brian Tracy Y Y Y Heritage Trustee since 2003, Heritage Associate, Founder, Brian Tracy International, San Diego, California
David R. Brown, M.D. Y Y Y Chairman Emeritus and Honorary Trustee .Heritage Trustee Since 1978; Emeritus, Orthopedic Associates, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Douglas F. Allison Y Heritage Trustee Since 1998
Edwin J. Feulner Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 1973; Founder, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C.
J. Frederic Rench Y Secretary. Heritage Trustee Since 1973.
Jerry Hume Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 1993; Chairman of the Board, Basic American Inc., San Francisco, California
Jim DeMint Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2013; President, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Kathryn Davis Y Honorary Trustee since 1994; Partner, Shelby Cullom Davis & Co., LP, New York, New York
Kay Coles James Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2005
Larry P. Arnn, Ph.D. Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2002; President, Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Michigan
Marion Wells Y Y Y Heritage Trustee since 2003; Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
Mark A. Kolokotrones Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2015; Founder and President, Castle Knoll Investments LLC
Meg Allen Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2009; Director, DRAMLA, S.A., Geneva, Switzerland
Michael W. Gleba Y Heritage Trustee from 2016; Chairman/CEO, Treasurer and Trustee, Sarah Scaife Foundation
Midge Decter Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 1981; New York, New York
Nersi Nazari, Ph.D. Y Y Y Heritage Trustee since 2006; Chairman & CEO, Vital Connect, Inc.
Phillip N. Truluck Y Y Y Heritage Trustee from 2001 to 2015;Chairman, Society of Emeritus Trustees, Since 2015
Rebekah A. Mercer Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2014; Owner, Ruby et Violette
Richard M. Scaife Y Vice Chairman. Heritage Trustee Since 1985, Publisher and Owner, Tribune-Review Publishing Co., Inc., Greensburg, Pennsylvania
Robert J. Herbold Y Heritage Trustee Since 2003; Retired Chief Operating Officer, Microsoft
Robert Pennington Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2009
Steve Forbes Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2001; President and Chief Executive Officer, Forbes Inc.
The Hon. Belden H. Bell Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2000
The Hon. Frank Shakespeare Y Y Y Honorary Trustee. Heritage Trustee Since 1979; former U.S. Ambassador to the Vatican, La Jolla, California
The Hon. J. William Middendorf II Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 1989; Chairman, Middendorf and Company, Washington, D.C.
The Right Honourable The Baroness Thatcher Y Patron of the Heritage Foundation. Former British Prime Minister.
Thomas A. Saunders III Y Y Y Chairman. Heritage Trustee Since 2005
Todd W. Herrick Y Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2007; Retired chairman, president and CEO of Tecumseh Products Co.
William E. Simon, Jr. Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2008
William L. Walton Y Y Heritage Trustee Since 2015; Founder and Chairman, Rappahannock Ventures LLC

Policy Experts

According to ExxonSecrets, Heritage Foundation's Policy experts have included notable climate change deniers such as: [2]

Actions

July 12, 2016

The Heritage Foundation, represented by Bridgett Wagner, was among 22 groups represented in a “Coalition” open letter pushing back against what the Heartland Institute describes as an “affront to free speech.” The groups are responding to the recent Web of Denial Resolution brought up in the Senate, calling out fossil fuel industry-funded groups denying climate change. [55]

According to the Climate Investigations Center, all but one of the open letter's signatory organizations have taken money (totalling at least $92 million since 1997) from the “climate denial web” including Koch Brothers' various foundations, ExxonMobil, and two “Dark Money” organizations, Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund. [58]

Championed by Senators Whitehouse, Markey, Schatz, Boxer, Merkley, Warren, Sanders, and Franken, the resolution condemns what they are calling the #WebOfDenial — “interconnected groups – funded by the Koch brothers, major fossil fuel companies like ExxonMobil and Peabody Coal, identity-scrubbing groups like Donors Trust and Donors Capital, and their allies – developed and executed a massive campaign to deceive the public about climate change to halt climate action and protect their bottom lines.” [56]

The open letter addresses the senators, calling them “tyrants”: 

“We hear you. Your threat is clear: There is a heavy and inconvenient cost to disagreeing with you. Calls for debate will be met with political retribution. That’s called tyranny. And, we reject it.” [57]

The full list of signatories and their respective organizations is as follows:

June 24, 2016

Writing in the Heritage Foundation's The Daily Signal, Heritage policy analyst Katie Tubb describes the striking down of Wyoming's Bureau of Land Management’s hydraulic fracking rule as a “win for good environmental policy.” [52]

The regulatory rule would have set federal water, chemical disclosure, and construction requirements for fracking operations on federal and Indian lands. [52]

June 23, 2016

Ted Bromund, senior research fellow at The Heritage Foundation, describes Britain's exit from the european union (“Brexit”) as “a victory for all Britons who voted.” [51]

“It is a triumph for the simple idea that Britain should be governed by the British people. And it is a tremendous, crushing rebuke for the European Union, and its desire to override the sovereignty of the nations of Europe,” Bromund writes in The Daily Signal[51]

June, 2016

The Heritage Foundation was listed among organizations named in a Massachusetts subpoena looking for communications between ExxonMobil and organizations denying climate change, reports The Washington Times. [53]

Epstein's response, writes The Washington Times, was “Buzz off, fascist. […] Only he didn’t say 'buzz.'” Organizations named in the Massachusetts subpoena included the following: [53]

This latest inquiry by Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey is one in a series of investigations into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US[54] 

April 13, 2016

Three Heritage Foundation researchers, including Nicolas Loris (formerly of the Charles G. Koch Foundation), claim to have modeled the impact of President Obama's plans to combat climate change based on the 2015 UN Climate Change Conference in Paris and found it to have “essentially zero environmental benefits.” [18], [19]

According to the authors, “
restricting energy production to meet targets like those of the Paris agreement will significantly harm the U.S. economy.” They contend that “ Policymakers should therefore make every effort possible to prevent implementation of these harmful environmental regulations.” [19]

Shortly after the “backgrounder” was released, Nicolas Loris published a similarly-themed article in The Heritage Foundation's The Daily Signal entitled “Top 5 Reasons Congress Should Reject Obama's Climate Change Treaty.” [10]

March 4, 2016

Research fellows Salim Furth and David W. Kreutzer of The Heritage Foundation argue against Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, calling them a “costly mistake.” [20] 

They cite a research article by prominent economist Richard Tol and claim that a 2.5 degree Celsius increase in average world temperature would increase world gross domestic product (GDP) by up to 2.3 percent.  [20] 

February 2, 2016

Steven Groves, Bernard and Barbara Lomas Senior Research Fellow at The Heritage Foundation, testified before the Committee on Science, Space, & Technology  of the United States House of Representatives on why he believes the Paris Climate agreement is “A bad deal for America.” [21]
Groves recommends that Congress should “Block funding for the Paris Agreement” because he contends the agreement is “illegitimate.” His other recommendations include “Withhold funding for the UNFCCC” and to “Take prophylactic legislative measures […] to ensure that no adaptation funding committed under the Paris Agreement is authorized.” [21]

July 7, 2015

The Heritage Foundation's Nicolas Loris published a research report titled “The Many Problems of the EPA’s Clean Power Plan and Climate Regulations: A Primer,” one month prior to President Obama's and the EPA's announcement of the Clean Power Plan. [22], [23]

In the report's abstract, Loris writes the “Obama Administration’s proposed climate-change regulations will exact a high price on Americans and have a negligible impact—if any—on global temperatures.” [22]

Loris continues, stating that “Higher energy bills for families, individuals, and businesses will destroy jobs and strain economic growth—and it will all be for naught.” [22]

July 7 - 9, 2015

The Heritage Foundation was a co-sponsor of The Heartland Institute's Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, DC. [24]

July 7-9, 2014

The Heritage Foundation is listed as an official Co-sponsor of the Heartland Institute's Ninth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC9). [25], [26]

August 28, 2012

The Heritage Foundation's Nicolas Loris published a research report titled “Hydraulic Fracturing: Critical for Energy Production, Jobs, and Economic Growth.” [27]

Within the report, Loris states that much of the “public concern” over hydraulic fracturing “has been over the possibility of contaminated drinking water, the chemicals used in fracking, the potential to create earthquakes, and wastewater management.” [27]

Loris then lists what he refers to as the “four most prevalent myths” about hydraulic fracturing:

Myth #1: Hydraulic fracturing threatens underground water sources and has led to the contamination of drinking water.

Myth #2: The chemicals used in the fracking process are foreign chemicals that industry hides from the public.

Myth #3: Wastewater from hydraulic fracturing is dangerous and unregulated.

Myth #4: Fracking causes earthquakes.” [27]

May 21 - 23, 2012

The Heritage Foundation is listed as an official Co-sponsor of the Heartland Institute's Seventh International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC7). [28], [29]

November 16, 2011

The Heritage Foundation's Nicolas Loris, who was formerly an associate at the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation, published a report in the Heritage Foundation's “Energy and Environment” section of its website titled, “New EPA Inspector General Report: One More Reason to Reject Climate-Change Regulation.” [30]

Loris writes that “Congress should vote to prevent the EPA from regulating greenhouse-gas emissions, and foster a transparent debate about the EPA’s endangerment finding and climate change generally.” Citing Richard Lindzen as a “respected climatologist,” Loris continues by stating “there has been plenty of dissent among the scientific community on the causes and magnitude of climate change.” [30]

June 30 - July 1, 2011

The Heritage Foundation was a sponsor of The Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC6) in Washington, DC. [31]

DeSmogBlog concluded that 17 of the 43 sponsors of the Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change, including the Heartland Institute itself, had collectively received over $46 million from either Scaife Foundations, Koch Foundations, or ExxonMobil. [32]

October 1, 2010

The Heritage Foundation claimed that the Royal Society had “significantly softened its position on global warming,” but Greenpeace's Polluterwatch reports that this was a misrepresentation of the Royal Society's actual position.  [33], [34]

Heritage selectively edited the report in a way that manufactured doubt about man-made climate change by editing out 10 pages and 48 paragraphs of text that had provided context in the report. [35]  

The Royal Society's view that man-made climate change is a problem is evidenced in the report summary: “[This report] shows that there is strong evidence that over the last half century, the earth's warming has been caused largely by human activity.” [36]

Nicolas Loris, the author of Heritage's controversial post, is a former associate of the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation. [18]

May 16 - 18, 2010

The Heritage Foundation was a sponsor of The Heartland Institute's Fourth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC4) in Chicago, IL. [37]

DeSmogBlog found that ExxonMobil, Koch Foundations, and Scaife Family Foundations had contributed a combined total of over $40 million to co-sponsors of The Heartland Institute's ICCC4. [38]

June 2, 2009

The Heritage Foundation was a sponsor of The Heartland Institute's Third International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC3) in Washington, DC. [39]

May 4, 2009

Heritage held a panel titled “Busting the Myth of Green Jobs” that aimed to “explore the lessons of Spain, and examine some of the fundamental flaws in the green jobs-as-an-economic-salve line of argument.”  [40]

Media Matters found that the entire Heritage panel had received money from ExxonMobil. [41]

The Heritage Foundation's senior policy analyst Ben Lieberman joined Robert Murphy, an economist at the Institute for Energy Research (IER), on a panel to discuss the study on renewable energy sources (PDF) done by economist Gabriel Calzada that suggested green jobs were harmful to the economy. [42]

Calzada's study has been debunked on numerous occasions. [43]

March 8 - 10, 2009

The Heritage Foundation was a sponsor of The Heartland Institute's Second International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC2) in New York. [44]

DeSmogBlog researched the funding behind Heartland's Second International Conference on Climate Change and found that sponsor organizations had received over $47 million in funding from energy companies and conservative foundations. [45]

November 5, 2008

In a “WebMemo” published on by the Heritage Foundation, Dr. Donald Kreutzer claimed that policy initiatives to advance green investment hurt economic growth and employment. [46]

Kreutzer pointed to three studies that contended made false claims that green investment can promote job creation. Robert Pollin, the co-author of one of the studies (“Green Recovery”) responded here. See a PDF version of his response here[46]

1990s

The Heritage Foundation reportedly encouraged conservatives to work together to “Strangle the environmental movement” as “It's the greatest single threat to the American economy.” [47]

This originally presented in a blueprint for policy in the 1990s and published in its journal “Policy Review.”  [47]

Heritage Foundation Contact & Location

The Heritage Foundation lists the following contact information on their website: [50]

The Heritage Foundation
214 Massachusetts Ave NE
Washington DC 20002-4999

Phone: 202.546.4400
Email: [email protected]

Related Organizations

Resources

  1. About Us,” Heritage Foundation. Archived April 19, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gteruLV6

  2. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: Heritage Foundation. Accessed April 19, 2016.

  3. Policy Experts,” PolicyExperts.org. Arhcived April 20, 2016.

  4. Carl Deal. The Greenpeace guide to anti-environmental organizations. Odonian Press, Emeryville, Calif. Distributed through Publishers Group West, 1993.

  5. Norman Solomon. “The Media's Favorite Think Tank,” Extra!” July/August 1996. Archived October 14, 2005. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  6. Jennifer Steinhauer and Jonathan Weisman, “In the DeMint Era at Heritage, a Shift From Policy to Politics,” New York Times, February 23, 2014. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  7. The Cooler Heads Coalition,” GlobalWarming.org. Archived April 12, 2004. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  8. Townhall.com - the Leading Conservative and Political Opinion Website,” TownHall.com. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtjMGgtv

  9. Hans von Spakovsky. “The Left's Climate Inquisition’s New Target,” The Daily Signal, April 8, 2016. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtvm983Z

  10. Nicolas Loris. “Top 5 Reasons Congress Should Reject Obama’s Climate Change Treaty,” The Daily Signal, April 19, 2016. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtv9QoUT

  11. Ben Lieberman.”The Economics of Global Warming Policy,” The Heritage Foundation, June 16, 2010. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URL:  http://www.webcitation.org/6gtoDddNP

  12. Conn Carroll. “Study Shows Global Warming Will Not Hurt U.S. Economy,” The Daily Signal, January 6, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtoLSQk6

  13. Chris Woodward. “There's a cost to reducing carbon emissions,” OneNewsNow.com, April 18, 2016. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtvM5PYI 

  14. The Heritage Foundation,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved May 28, 2016.

  15. The Heritage Foundation: Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USAArchived April 20, 2016.

  16. Board of Trustees,” The Heritage Foundation. Archived September 25, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6boVP7U7h

  17. Board of Trustees,” The Heritage Foundation. Archived December 22, 2011.

  18. Nicolas Loris,” The Heritage Foundation. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtsuQfxi

  19. Kevin D. Dayaratna, Nicolas Loris, and David W. Kreutzer. “Consequences of Paris Protocol: Devastating Economic Costs, Essentially Zero Environmental Benefits,” The Heritage Foundation, April 13, 2016. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6gtuhTLCR

  20. Fuel Economy Standards Are a Costly Mistake,” The Heritage Foundation, March 4, 2016. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtwX7gcS

  21. Steven Groves. “Paris Climate Promise: A Bad Deal for America,” The Heritage Foundation, February 2, 2016. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtw8V65T

  22. The Many Problems of the EPA’s Clean Power Plan and Climate Regulations: A Primer,” Heritage Foundation, July 7, 2015. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtrevxDS

  23. Clean Power Plan,” EPA, August 3, 2015. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtroU4WH

  24. Sponsors,” ICCC10. Archived July 15, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  25. ICCC9 CoSponsors,” Heartland Institute. Archived September 23, 2015.

  26. Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmogBlog, July 7, 2014.

  27. Hydraulic Fracturing: Critical for Energy Production, Jobs, and Economic Growth,” Heritage Foundation, August 28, 2012. Archived September 23, 2015.

  28. Cosponsors,” 7th International Conference on Climate Change. Archived May 10, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  29. Seventh International Conference on Climate Change: Sponsored by the Heartland Institute” (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived August 15, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  30. New EPA Inspector General Report: One More Reason to Reject Climate-Change Regulation,” The Heritage Foundation, November 16, 2011. Archived September 22, 2015.

  31. Sixth International Conference on Climate Change Conference Program (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived July 25, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  32. Brendan DeMelle. “Denial-a-Palooza 6: Heartland's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change, Courtesy of Koch, Scaife & Exxon,” DeSmogBlog, June 30, 2011.

  33. U.S. Could Learn from U.K.’s Global Warming Reversal,” The Daily Signal, September 30, 2010. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gts2i3H3

  34. Connor Gibson. “Heritage Foundation Cuts and Pastes to Upend Scientific Report,” Polluterwatch, October 19, 2010. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtsBmpOo

  35. Dan Lashof. “Heritage Gate,” Switchboard, October 1, 2010. Archived April 17, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  36. Royal Society launches new short guide to the science of climate change,” The Royal Society, September 30, 2010. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtt4Ic2t

  37. 4th International Conference on Climate Change: Sponsored by the Heartland Institute” (Conference Program - PDF), The Heartland Institute, May, 2010. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  38. Brendan DeMelle. “Denial-a-palooza Round 4: 'International Conference on Climate Change' Groups Funded by Exxon, Koch Industries,” DeSmogBlog, May 13, 2010.

  39. Co-Sponsors,” Third International Conference on Climate Change. Archived July 14, 2010. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  40. Busting the Myth of Green Jobs,” The Heritage Foundation, May 4, 2009. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gttA4bup

  41. Heritage Foundation Green Jobs Panel - Bought and Paid For By ExxonMobil,” politicalcorrection.org, May 4, 2009. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gttDq338

  42. “Study of the effects on employment of public aid to renewable energy sources (PDF), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, March, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  43. Pete Altman. “Imported Lies: Debunking the Spanish Green Jobs Smear,” NRDC, April 16, 2009. Archived April 19, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gtYBBge1

  44. Co-Sponsors,” The 2009 International Conference on Climate Change. Archived April 28, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  45. Heartland Institute's 2009 Climate Conference in New York: funding history of the sponsors,” DeSmogBlog.

  46. Robert Pollin. “Green Investments and Jobs: A Response to the Heritage Foundation,” Center for American Progress, November 7, 2008. Archived February 9, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  47. Andrew Rowell. Green Backlash: Global Subversion of the Environmental Movement. Page 52. Routledge; 1 edition (Sep 24 1996)

  48. The Foundry,” Archived February 24, 2011.

  49. About The Daily Signal,” The Daily Signal. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gttl2Lxu

  50. Contact Us,” The Heritage Foundation. Archived May 28, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6hr9HO0tn

  51. Ted Bromund. “For Britain, June 23 Is Independence Day,” The Daily Signal, June 24, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iVzvyiHY

  52. Katie Tubb. “Court Says BLM Can’t ‘Bootstrap’ Itself to Regulating Fracking,” The Daily Signal, June 24, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6iW0qm8Ro

  53. Valerie Richardson. “Exxon fights Mass. AG’s ‘political’ probe into climate change dissent,” The Washington Times, June 15, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016. WebCite URL:http://www.webcitation.org/6iVfnzUhc

  54. Ben Jervey. “State Investigations Into What Exxon Knew Double, and Exxon Gets Defensive,” Desmog, April 1, 2016.

  55. Jim Lakely. “#WebOfDenial Push by Senate Dems Exposes Their Hatred of Free Speech,” Somewhat Reasonable (Heartland Institute Blog), July 12, 2016. Archived July 14, 2016.

  56. Brendan Demelle. “Senators Launch Resolution, Speech Blitz Calling Out #WebOfDenial Blocking Climate Action, DeSmog, July 11, 2016.

  57. Coalition Letter to Senate Web of Denial Resolution (PDF). Retrieved from the Heartland Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSMogBlog.

  58. Cindy Baxter. “Front Groups Attacking #WebofDenial Senate Action Took Over $92M in Dark, Dirty Money,” Desmog, July 14, 2016. Originally posted at Climate Investigations Center.

  59. Board of Trustees,” The Heritage Foundation. Archived August 3, 2016.

Other Resources