Hudson Institute

The Hudson Institute


The Hudson Institute (HI) was founded in 1961 by strategist Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the Rand Corporation. Founded at the height of the Cold War, the Institute started with a focus on defense, nuclear power, and strategy. Since 9/11, the institute has changed focus to the terrorism and has strongly advocated for the Iraq War. [1]
Herman Kahn’s notable contribution was his book, “On Thermonuclear War,” published in 1960, about the consequences of a thermonuclear war. According to the New York Times, “an editor at Scientific American magazine denounced [the book] as 'a moral tract on mass murder: how to plan it, how to commit it, how to get away with it, how to justify it.'” The character Dr. Strangelove, according to the New Yorker, is “an only slightly parodic version of Kahn.” [2], [3]
According to their website, the Hudson Institute is a 501(c)(3) organization “financed by tax deductible contributions from private individuals, corporations, foundations, and by government grants.” They describe themselves as “An independent research organization promoting new ideas for the advancement of global security, prosperity and freedom.” [4]
Hudson seeks to “guide public policy makers and global leaders in government and business through a vigorous program of publications, conferences, policy briefings, and recommendations.”
Originally founded in Croton-on-Hudson, the Hudson Institute moved its headquarters to Indianapolis in 1984 after the death of Herman Kahn.  On June 1, 2004 Hudson Institute moved its operations to Washington, D.C., “in an effort to focus its research on foreign policy and national security issues.” [5]

The Guardian names the Hudson Institute in their 2015 report, “Secretive donors gave US climate denial groups $125m over three years,” as one of the top recipients of funding from two secretive organizations — Donors Trust, and Donors Capital Fund — having taken in $7.9 million over three years.  [8]

According to The Guardianthis money helped to “build a network of thinktanks and activist groups. These worked to defeat climate bills in Congress and are mobilising against Environmental Protection Agency rules to reduce carbon pollution from power plants which are due to be finalised this summer. ” [8]

Center for Global Food Issues (Now Defunct)

One of the Hudson Institute's projects is the Center for Global Food Issues (CGFI), directed by climate change skeptic Dennis T. Avery. While the Center describes its purview as “research and analysis of agriculture and the environmental concerns surrounding food and fiber production,” Avery has also used its website as a platform to discuss global warming issues. no longer appears to be in operation and it is excluded from the Internet Archive. [6], [7]

Stance on Climate Change

Hudson Institute scholars have put forward Geoengineering as a solution to climate change, something that has been described as a “dangerous solution” by some. [9], [10]


Dennis T. Avery, Director of the Center for Global Food Issues, contends that global cooling should be more feared than global warming, and that increased CO2 will increase crop yields: [27]

“There is no visible reason to expect famines today due to carbon dioxide, which improves plant growth for crops, forests, grasslands and algae, as atmospheric CO2 levels increase.
The danger is the cold, chaotic weather of the “little ice ages” themselves. That will shrink agricultural zones and shorten growing seasons.”
“Our crop yields are also rising because of another surprising factor: more atmospheric carbon dioxide. This trace gas (400 ppm or 0.04% of Earth’s atmosphere) acts like fertilizer for plants, and thus for the animals and people who depend on them. Studies show that doubling CO2 in the air will boost the growth of herbaceous plants by about 30% to 35%; trees will benefit even more.”
“Misguided opposition to biotechnology, fossil fuels and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide could very well condemn millions of people to malnutrition and starvation, and numerous wildlife species to extinction.”


“Climate change does pose some risks; yet those risks do not imply that massive social engineering for GHG control is either possible or desirable. Only when an awareness of this reality sinks in among public intellectuals is a more serious policy discourse likely to emerge.” — Lee Lane, Hudson Institute Scholar [11]


The following is from funding data compiled by the Conservative Transparency Project. Note that not all funding values have been verified by DeSmogBlog for accuracy. [1]

View the attached spreadsheet for additional information on Hudson Institute funding by year (.xlsx).

The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $13,801,560
Donors Capital Fund $10,955,000
Smith Richardson Foundation $6,709,860
Sarah Scaife Foundation $4,173,000
John M. Olin Foundation $3,034,840
William H. Donner Foundation $1,192,500
John Templeton Foundation $1,125,250
The Carthage Foundation $875,000
Searle Freedom Trust $530,000
Abstraction Fund $476,325
Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis $399,500
Fairbrook Foundation $390,000
The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation $365,000
Sweetfeet Foundation $360,000
DonorsTrust $304,000
F.M. Kirby Foundation $302,500
Newton D. & Rochelle F. Becker Foundation $285,000
PhRMA $245,000
Scaife Family Foundation $221,000
Newton and Rochelle Becker Family Foundation $190,000
Joyce and Donald Rumsfeld Foundation $180,000
Stuart Family Foundation $175,000
Earhart Foundation $156,783
Walton Family Foundation $150,000
Castle Rock Foundation $145,000
William E. Simon Foundation $86,000
JM Foundation $75,000
Charlotte and Walter Kohler Charitable Trust $70,000
The Randolph Foundation $65,000
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation $62,650
Diana Davis Spencer Foundation $50,000
Alan and Hope Winters Family Foundation $40,000
Newton and Rochelle Becker Charitable Trust $35,000
The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation $25,000
David H. Koch Charitable Foundation $20,000
Armstrong Foundation $15,000
Dick and Betsy DeVos Family Foundation $10,000
Exxon Mobil $10,000
Gilder Foundation $10,000
Jaquelin Hume Foundation $5,000
Thomas B. Fordham Foundation $2,000
Neal and Jane Freeman Foundation $1,000
Grand Total $47,323,768

ExxonMobil Funding

According to Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets, the Hudson Institute has received $25,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [12]

990 Tax Forms


Key People


As of September, 2015, the Hudson Institute listed the following people on their website: [13]

  • Kenneth R. Weinstein — President and CEO
  • John P. Walters — Chief Operating Officer
  • Lewis Libby — Senior Vice President
  • William J. Luti — Vice President for Strategic Implementation
  • David Tell — Senior Fellow and Director, Public Affairs & Special Projects
  • Daniel McKivergan — Director, Gov't Relations; Deputy Director, Public Affairs
  • Thereza Austria — Director of Finance
  • Joel Scanlon — Director of Studies
  • Nicholas Mackey — Director of Operations

Board of Trustees

  • Sarah May Stern — Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Board Member
  • Marie ­Josée Kravis — Board Member, Vice Chair, and Senior Fellow
  • Walter P. Stern — Board Member, Chairman Emeritus
  • Allan R. Tessler — Board Member, Chairman Emeritus



The Hudson Institute listed the following “Experts” on their website, as of September, 2015. [14]

Senior Fellows

  • Carol Adelman —  Director, Center for Global Prosperity
  • Jeffrey H. Anderson — Senior Fellow
  • Eric B. Brown — Senior Fellow
  • Hank Cardello —  Director, Obesity Solutions Initiative
  • Seth Cropsey —  Director, Center for American Seapower
  • Jaime Daremblum — Director, Center for Latin American Studies
  • Jack David — Senior Fellow and Board Member
  • Christopher DeMuth —  Distinguished Fellow, President of the American Enterprise Institute
  • Michael Doran — Senior Fellow
  • Ronald W. Dworkin —  Senior Fellow
  • Charles Fairbanks — Senior Fellow
  • Douglas J. Feith — Director, Center for National Security Strategies
  • John Fonte — Director, Center for American Common Culture
  • Hillel Fradkin —  Director, Center on Islam, Democracy and the Future of the Muslim World
  • Harold Furchtgott–Roth — Director, Center for Economics of the Internet
  • Husain Haqqani — Director for South and Central Asia
  • Arthur Herman — Senior Fellow
  • Charles Horner — Senior Fellow
  • Maneeza Hossain — Senior Fellow
  • Jun Isomura —  Senior Fellow
  • Naser Khader — Senior Fellow (Non-Resident)
  • Melanie Kirkpatrick — Senior Fellow
  • Marie-Josée Kravis — Board Member, Vice Chair, and Senior Fellow
  • Hanns Kuttner — Senior Fellow
  • John Lee — Senior Fellow (Non-Resident)
  • Lewis Libby — Senior Vice President
  • Paul Marshall — Senior Fellow, Center for Religious Freedom
  • Robert M. McDowell Senior Fellow
  • Walter Russell Mead — Distinguished Scholar, American Strategy and Statesmanship
  • David W. Murray — Senior Fellow
  • Andrew Natsios — Senior Fellow
  • Jeremiah Norris — Senior Fellow and Director, Center for Science in Public Policy
  • Michael Pillsbury — Senior Fellow & Director of the Center for Chinese Strategy
  • Mike Rogers — Distinguished Fellow
  • Christopher Sands — Senior Fellow
  • David Satter — Senior Fellow
  • William A. Schambra — Director, Bradley Center for Philanthropy and Civic Renewal
  • William Schneider — Senior Fellow
  • Gabriel Schoenfeld — Senior Fellow
  • Nina Shea — Director, Center for Religious Freedom
  • Abram N. Shulsky — Senior Fellow
  • Max Singer — Senior Fellow and Trustee Emeritus
  • Lee Smith — Senior Fellow
  • Irwin M. Stelzer — Senior Fellow
  • Samuel Tadros — Senior Fellow
  • John P. Walters — Chief Operating Officer
  • John C. Weicher — Director, Center for Housing and Financial Markets
  • Richard Weitz — Director, Center for Political-Military Analysis

Visiting Fellows

  • Martha Bayles — Visiting Fellow
  • Charles Davidson — Executive Director, Kleptocracy Initiative
  • Julie Davidson — Kleptocracy Initiative
  • Lianchao Han — Visiting Fellow
  • Yoshiki Hidaka — Visiting Senior Fellow
  • Nibras Kazimi — Visiting Fellow
  • Lee Lane — Visiting Fellow (“Climate Change” listed in his “Areas of Expertise”)
  • Mario Mancuso — Visiting Senior Fellow
  • Melanie Marlowe — Visiting Fellow
  • Ann Marlowe — Visiting Fellow
  • Marcello Pera — Visiting Fellow
  • Andrei A. Piontkovsky — Visiting Fellow

Adjunct Fellows

  • John Balfe — Adjunct Fellow
  • Shmuel Bar — Adjunct Fellow
  • Brendan Brown — Adjunct Fellow
  • James C. Capretta — Adjunct Fellow
  • Lela Gilbert — Adjunct Fellow, Center for Religious Freedom
  • Rebeccah L. Heinrichs — Adjunct Fellow
  • Bryan McGrath — Deputy Director, Center for American Seapower
  • Norman Podhoretz — Adjunct Fellow
  • Ronald Radosh — Adjunct Fellow
  • Joel Schwartz — Adjunct Senior Fellow
  • John H. Shenefield — Adjunct Fellow
  • Maina Singh — Adjunct Fellow
  • Hannah Thoburn — Adjunct Fellow
  • Tevi Troy — Adjunct Fellow
  • Jerry Weinberger — Adjunct Fellow


  • Jeffrey Gedmin — Senior Fellow, Georgetown University
  • Benjamin Haddad — Research Fellow
  • Ju Young Lee — Program Associate, Kleptocracy Initiative
  • Rachel Pagano — Research Fellow
  • Aparna Pande — Director, Initiative on the Future of India and South Asia
  • Peter Podkopaev — Program Assistant, Kleptocracy Initiative
  • Arielle Roth — Legal Fellow, Center for the Economics of the Internet
  • Peter Rough — Research Fellow
  • Bryan Schwartz — Program Manager and Research Assistant, Center for Global Prosperity
  • Cita Stelzer — Research Associate
  • Thomas Weldy — Program Associate, Kleptocracy Initiative

Past Leadership (2011)

Additional members of the Hudson Institute's leadership circle, as of January, 2012 included: [15]

Herbert I. London — President Emeritus
John W. Freeman — Chief Financial Officer
Grace Paine Terzian — Vice President for Communications

Hudson Scholars (2011)

As of 2011, The Hudson Institute listed the following scholars as “Available for Comment” on their “guide for the media”: [16]


June 13, 2016

The Hudson Institute was listed as a creditor in Peabody Energy's 2016 bankruptcy filings, reports the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD/PRWatch). [39]

While the available bankruptcy documents do not list the scale or dates of funding, they outline Peabody Energy's financial ties to a large network of groups promoting climate change denial. [40]

Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie SoonRichard LindzenRoy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for ProsperityAmerican Legislative Exchange CouncilCFACTInstitute for Energy ResearchState Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. [41]

The Guardian also analysed and reported on the Peabody bankruptcy findings: [42]

These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”

The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]

Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]

The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.

We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”

Notable organizations listed in the initial documents include:

Notable individuals named in the initial documents include the following:

March, 2016

A DeSmogBlog investigation found that the Hudson Institute, via industry funding and advocacy, may have been instrumental in opening up Israel's offshore natural gas reserves for drilling in the Mediterranean Sea for Noble Energy. [28] DeSmogBlog reports that George Papadoupolous—past research assistant at the Hudson Institute and now a member of Donald Trump's foreign policy advisory team—may have played a key role. [29]

In summer 2015, Papadoupolous co-authored a six-page Hebrew language paper that included the Hudson Institute’s logo and that of the brands of his collaborating co-authors that was submitted to the Israeli Energy Ministry. The paper advocates for offshore gas drilling and calls for an industry-friendly financial scheme in the concessions process. 
According to the Israeli Energy Ministry Hebrew-language website, one of the paper’s co-authors presented it at an Israeli Energy Minister hearing. [30] Months after they submitted the report to Israel’s Energy Ministry in December 2015, the Energy Ministry approved offshore drilling conditions for Noble Energy and Delek Group, The New York Times reports. [33] One of Eco Energy's clients, according to its website, is Delek Group. [34]
Hudson Institute senior fellow Seth Cropsey co-authored the paper with Papadoupolous and affiliates of both Israel’s Eco Energy and Bethesda, Maryland’s Benjamin Schlesinger and Associates. Papadoupolous and Cropsey have co-written other papers including a Hudson Institute report titled ”U.S. Policy and the Strategic Relationship of Greece, Cyprus and Israel: Power Shifts in the Eastern Mediterranean” [31]and another titled, “Vice President Biden’s Trip to Cyprus: A Lost Opportunity? [32]

Desmog reports a connection between the Hudson Institute, Noble Energy, and Donald Trump including shared board members and funding.

July 8, 2014

Dennis Avery posted a piece on the Center for Global Food Issues blog titled Science Recommends Climate Model Re-Start.” [25]

“The earth is currently in one of its cyclical global warmings, directly following the Little Ice Age. In the recent past, such warmings have lasted from 350 years (the Medieval Warming) to 800 years (The Roman Warming),” Avery Writes. “Even during this global warming, however, the temperature of the Pacific will cool periodically. The earth will then also cool as the Pacific is the world’s largest heat sink. NASA satellites reported that PDO began to shift cool about 2003, which would mean that cooling will probably last until roughly 2033.”

Avery's argument is #1 on Skeptical Science's “Most used Climate Myths.” According to Skeptical Science, while climate has changed in the past, this time humans are the largest cause: “Scientific analysis of past climates shows that greenhouse gasses, principally CO2, have controlled most ancient climate changes. The evidence for that is spread throughout the geological record. This makes it clear that this time around humans are the cause, mainly by our CO2 emissions.” [26]

February, 2013

The Hudson Institute released a report titled “Institutional Choices for Regulating Oil and Gas Wells” (PDF) which focused on hydraulic fracturing (fracking), and why most strict regulations on the industry should be avoided. The report was authored by the Hudson Institute Scholar (and “Expert” on climate change), Lee Lane.  [17]
The report begins, stating that “Clearly, the nation can reap large benefits from exploiting its natural gas resources. GDP, national security, and the environment all stand to gain. It is also true that, to maximize net benefits, the public sector should limit the environmental side effects of finding and producing natural gas. Proposals for greater federal control, however, raise a basic question: What should be the division of labor between Washington and the states?”
According to Lane, “The shale gas boom, if government policy allows it to proceed, offers vast benefits. The economic gains are patent. Large benefits in national and global security are also in the offing. And the boom will also help to dampen growth in global warming emissions.”
The study concludes, “In sum, developing U.S. natural gas resources will yield gains in economics, national security, and the environment. […] The FRAC Act would impose a new set of federal standards on state regulators. The above analysis implies that this step would not enhance the efficient division of labor between federal and state governments.”
On February 12, 2013, Lee Lane led a panel discussion on its findings and the key related questions facing policymakers. Video Below. [18]

December, 2011

The Hudson Institute released a publication titled “History, Ideology, and U.S. Climate Policy: Beyond the Orthodoxies of Left and Right” (PDF) written by Hudson Institute Scholar Lee Lane. 

According to Lane, “Climate change does pose some risks; yet those risks do not imply that massive social engineering for GHG control is either possible or desirable. Only when an awareness of this reality sinks in among public intellectuals is a more serious policy discourse likely to emerge.” He also contends that ““The United States is almost certainly incurring higher costs from its climate policies than it is from climate change.” [19]

Lee Lane, whom The Hudson Institute lists as an Expert on Climate Change, has also been Co-Director of the Geoengineering Project at the American Enterprise Institute and Vice President for Policy at the Association of American Railroads. [20]

Lee Lane was also part of a Hudson Institute Panel Discussion on climate policy titled “Climate Policy Holy Wars: Clashing Secular Religions and Stubborn Economic Realities.” [21]

June 8, 2006

Dennis Avery of the Hudson Institute published an article in their center for global food issues titled “Global Warming: Some Inconvenient Glaciers.” [22]

In the piece, Avery mentions a study from the June, 2006 edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that he suggests provides evidence that changes in the sun are responsible for the retreat of glaciers.

Avery does not mention that the study he refers to also points out that glaciers are sensitive to small temperature changes which would be exacerbated by man-made global warming. [23]

September, 2003

The Hudson Institute released a study that suggested higher CO2 levels would be beneficial rather than causing the potential extinction of natural species. [24]

Hudson's report was titled “The Specter of Species Extinction,” and led by the father-and-sons team of Sherwood, Craig, and Keith Idso. It concluded that “higher CO2 levels act as fertilizer for trees and plants, and that higher CO2 levels also reduce the amount of energy 'wasted' by virtually all plant species on a process called photorespiration. As long as temperatures and CO2 are both rising, trees and plants will be vigorous enough to exploit warming’s opportunities to expand their range, rather than getting death notices from Greenpeace.”

Hudson Institute Contact & Location

The Hudson Institute lists the following contact information on its website: [38]

Hudson Institute
1201 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Suite 400
Washington, DC 20004
P: 202-974-2400
F: 202-974-2410
E-mail [email protected]

Related Organizations

Hudson Institute, Noble Energy, & Donald Trump

In 2013, Hudson Institute gave then-Noble Energy CEO Charles D. Davidson its first ever Global Leadership Award for his company's role in discovering and moving to drill offshore for gas in Israel. [35]
“Davidson was honored today for his transformative successes in developing energy resources in the United States and Eastern Mediterranean, which have led to enhanced U.S. energy security and competitiveness and turned the Eastern Mediterranean into a burgeoning energy-producing region,” reads a December 2013 Hudson press release. [35]
Davidson also funded the Hudson Institute in the past. Another connection is Noble Board member Jeffrey Berensen who also serves on Hudson Institute's Board of Trustees [13] and was a top-tier funder according to the Institute's 2015 Annual Report. Noble Board of Directors member Edward Cox is also a Hudson donor. [36]
According to financial disclosure forms released by Donald Trump, he formerly had 17,800 shares of Noble Energy stock, valued at $1.12 million when he sold them in January 2014. [37]


  1. Hudson Institute,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed April 20, 2016.

  2. Joseph B. Treaster. “Herman Kahn Dies; Futurist and Thinker on Nuclear Strategy,” The New York Times, July 8, 1983. Archived September 26, 2015. WebCite URL

  3. Louis Menand. “Fat Man,” The New Yorker, June 27, 2005. Archived September 25, 2015. WebCite URL

  4. An independent research organization promoting new ideas for the advancement of global security, prosperity and freedom,” Hudson Institute. Archived September 25, 2015. WebCite URL

  5. History,” Hudson Institute. Archived September 25, 2015. WebCite URL

  6. SCIENCE RECOMMENDS CLIMATE MODEL RE-START, BY DENNIS. T. AVERY,” Centre for Global Food Issues, July 8, 2014. Archived with WebCite September 25, 2015. 

  7. About CGFI,” Centre for Global Food Issues. Archived September 25, 2015. WebCite URL

  8. Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Secretive donors gave US climate denial groups $125m over three years,” The Guardian, June 9, 2015. Archived September 25, 2015. WebCite URL

  9. Rachel Smoker. “Geoengineering Is a Dangerous Solution to Climate Change,” Huffington Post, March 22, 2014. Archived September 26, 2015. WebCite URL

  10. Clive Hamilton. “The Risks of Climate Engineering,” The New York Times. Archived September 26, 2015.  February 12, 2015. WebCite URL

  11. Lee Lane. “History, Ideology, and U.S. Climate Policy: Beyond the Orthodoxies of Left and Right” (PDF), The Hudson Institute, December, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  12. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: Hudson Institute. Accessed September 26, 2015.

  13. Leadership & Board,” Hudson Institute. Archived September 26, 2015. WebCite URL

  14. Experts,” Hudson Institute. Archived September 26, 2015. WebCite URL

  15. Hudson Institute Leadership,” Hudson Institute. Archived January 10, 2012. 

  16. Hudson Scholars Available for Comment,” The Hudson Institute. Archived October 7, 2011.

  17. Lee Lane. “Institutional Choices for Regulating Oil and Gas Wells” (PDF), The Hudson Institute. Archived.pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  18. Institutional Choices for Regulating Oil and Gas Wells,” Hudson Institute. Archived September 26, 2015. WebCite URL

  19. Lee Lane. “History, Ideology, and U.S. Climate Policy: Beyond the Orthodoxies of Left and Right” (PDF), The Hudson Institute, December, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  20. Experts - Lee Lane,” Hudson Institute. Archived September 25, 2015. WebCite URL 

  21. Climate Policy Holy Wars: Clashing Secular Religions and Stubborn Economic Realities,” Hudson Institute. Archived September 26, 2015. WebCite URL

  22. Global Warming: Some Inconvenient Glaciers,” Center for Global Food Issues. Retrieved from The Progressive Conservative, USA. Archived April 20, 2016. WebCite URL

  23. Kevin Grandia. “NEWS ALERT: Hudson Institute and Dennis Avery's Scientific Spin on Andes Glacier Study,” DeSmogBlog, June 14, 2006.

  24. Dennis T. Avery. “Global Warming and the Fortune of Species,” The Hudson Institute, November 4, 2003. Archived November 3, 2004.

  25. Science Recommends Climate Model Re-Start,” Centre for Global Food Issues, July 8, 2014. Archived September 26, 2015. WebCite URL 

  26. What does past climate change tell us about global warming?” SkepticalScience. Accessed September 26, 2015.

  27. Dennis T. Avery. “Carbon Dioxide Won't Cause Famines,” Hudson Institute, June 2, 2014. Archived April 21, 2016. WebCite URL

  28. Steve Horn. “Holy Gas: Donald Trump's Foreign Policy Team Member Pushed Offshore Drilling in Israel,” DeSmogBlog, March 29, 2016.

  29. “Introduction to Essays and Contributors” (PDF), AHIF Policy Journal (Spring, 2015). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  30. “The hearing topic outline to regulate the natural gas industry,”, July 22, 2016. Translated with Google Translate. Archived April 21, 2016.

  31. George Papadopoulos: London Centre of International Law Practice,” LinkedIn. PDF Archived at DeSmogBlog March 24, 2016. 

  32. Seth Cropsey and George Papadopoulos,” AHIF Policy Journal (Spring, 2015). PDF Archived at DeSmogBlog.

  33. Isabel Kershner and Stanley Reed. “Israel Grants Approval for Development of Giant Offshore Gas Field,” The New York Times, December 17, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  34. Company profile,” Eco Energy. Archived April 21, 2016. WebCite URL

  35. Noble Energy’s Charles D. Davidson Recognized with Hudson Institute’s Global Leadership Award,” Hudson Institute, December 10, 2013. Archived April 21, 2016. WebCite URL

  36. “Hudson Institute 2015 Annual Report” (PDF), the Hudson Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  37. How Donald Trump Made $27 Million on Stocks,” NewsMax, July 15, 2015. Archived April 21, 2016. WebCite URL

  38. Directons,” Hudson Institute. Archived May 29, 2016. WebCite URL

  39. Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,” PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL:

  40. In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud.

  41. Farron Cousins. “Court Documents Show Coal Giant Peabody Energy Funded Dozens Of Climate Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, June 13, 2016. 

  42. Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL

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