Independent Institute

The Independent Institute (TII)

 Background

The Independent Institute (TII) is an Oakland, California-based think tank founded in 1986 and describes itself as a “non-profit, non-partisan, scholarly research and educational organization that sponsors in-depth studies of critical social and economic issues.” [1]

The Independent Institute has been a vocal opponent of the “war on drugs,” as well as immigration restrictionscorporate welfare, censorship, and the death penalty, among other issues. [2], [3], [4], [5]

The Independent Institute has also regularly questioned the science behind man-made climate change. They have released policy reports suggesting that reports by mainstream climate science (including the IPCC) have been “misleading, inaccurate, unreliable, or simply wrong.” [6]

The Independent Institute publishes a quarterly newsletter titled The Independent, sends out a weekly newsletter titled The Lighthouse and maintains student programs including The Challenge of Liberty Summer Seminars for high school and college students, Student Internships for college students. The Independent Institute maintains seven “research centers”:

  • Center on Culture and Civil Society
  • Center on Educational Excellence
  • Center on Entrepreneurial Innovation
  • Center on Global Prosperity
  • Center on Health and the Environment
  • Center on Law and Justice
  • Center on Peace and Liberty

Stance on Climate Change

S. Fred Singer, Research Fellow, writes the following in an American Thinker article republished by the Independent Institute:

“I must confess I never much worried about the supposed dangers of global warming—even if we could rely on the predictions of IPCC climate models. In fact, they seem to be failing miserably, as judged by the ongoing pause in GW—while atmospheric levels of anthropogenic CO2 and other greenhouse gases continue to increase. It seems that our climate is mainly controlled by natural forcings, like solar activity and atmosphere-ocean oscillations that are not included in current models.” [7]

According to TII's report, New Perspectives in Climate Change: What the EPA Isn’t Telling Us, climate change is “significantly less than forecast by climate models that are based on bad science. Annual satellite records show no significant change whatsoever.” [6]

 Funding

According to its website, “The Independent Institute receives no government funding. Instead, it draws its support from a diverse range of foundations, businesses, and individuals, and from the sale of its publications.” It is a tax-deductible 501(c)(3) charity.

The following information is based on data the Conservative Transparency project compiled from publicly available 990 tax returns. View the attached .xls spreadsheet for the Independent Institute's funding by year. Note that not all data has been verified by DeSmogBlog for accuracy. [8]

Note: Asterisk (*) denotes data updated with additional funding from original Media Matters Conservative Transparency Database not included in current Conservative Transparency project database.

Donor Total Contributions
John Templeton Foundation* $915,040
The Rodney Fund $360,925
Jaquelin Hume Foundation $173,309
David H. Koch Charitable Foundation $160,000
Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation $145,000
Lowndes Foundation $132,200
Castle Rock Foundation* $125,000
Earhart Foundation $123,095
William E. Simon Foundation $106,000
Armstrong Foundation $102,500
The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation $90,500
Exxon Mobil** $85,000
John M. Olin Foundation $65,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia $63,000
Dunn's Foundation for the Advancement of Right Thinking $61,000
Cato Institute $60,000
William H. Donner Foundation $39,905
Charlotte and Walter Kohler Charitable Trust $25,000
JM Foundation $25,000
Thomas B. Fordham Foundation $20,000
Atlas Economic Research Foundation $19,425
DonorsTrust $16,000
Stiles-Nicholson Foundation $15,000
Ed Uihlein Family Foundation $10,000
Robert P. Rotella Foundation $10,000
Windway Foundation $10,000
Arthur N. Rupe Foundation $4,000
National Christian Foundation $1,195
Joyce and Donald Rumsfeld Foundation $1,000
Grand Total $2,964,094

**Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets reports that The Independent Institute (TII) has received a total of $85,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [9]

Key People

As of October, 2015, The Independent Institute listed the following people on their website: 

Board of Directors [10]

  • Gilbert I. Collins — Private Equity Manager
  • John Hagel III, J.D. — Co-Chairman, Center for the Edge, Deloitte & Touche USA LLP
  • Sally S. Harris — Vice Chairman of the Board, Albert Schweitzer Fellowship
  • Peter A. Howley — Chairman, The Howley Management Group
  • Philip Hudner Esq. — Of Counsel, Botto Law Group, LLP
  • Gary G. Schlarbaum Ph.D., CFA — Managing Director, Palliser Bay Investment Management
  • Susan Solinsky — Partner, Reditus Revenue Solutions
  • W. Dieter Tede — President, Audubon Cellars and Winery
  • David J. Teece Ph.D. — Chairman and Principal Executive Officer, Berkeley Research Group, LLC
  • David J. Theroux — Founder, President and Chief Executive Officer, Independent Institute
  • Mary L. G. Theroux — Former Chairman, Garvey International, Inc.
  • Sally von Behren — Businesswoman and Philanthropist

In Memoriam Board of Directors [10]

  • John S. Fay — President, Piney Woods Corporation
  • Ellen Mayo Hill — Businesswoman and Philanthropist
  • A. Neil McLeod — Founding President, Liberty Fund, Inc.
  • James P. Miscoll — Vice Chairman, Bank of America
  • Willard A. Speakman — President and Chief Executive Officer, Speakman Company

Board of Advisors [11]

  • Leszek Balcerowicz — Professor of Department of International Comparative Studies, Warsaw School of Economics
  • Jonathan Bean — Professor of History, Southern Illinois University
  • Herman Belz — Professor Emeritus of History, University of Maryland
  • Thomas Bethell — Columnist and Author, The Noblest Triumph: Property and Prosperity Through the Ages
  • Boudewijn R. A. Bouckaert — Professor of Law, University of Ghent, Belgium
  • Allan C. Carlson — President, Howard Center for Family, Religion and Society
  • Robert D. Cooter — Herman F. Selvin Professor of Law, University of California, Berkeley
  • Robert W. Crandall — Senior Fellow, Economic Studies, Brookings Institution
  • Richard A. Epstein — Laurence A. Tisch Professor of Law, New York University
  • A. Ernest Fitzgerald — Author, The High Priests of Waste and The Pentagonists: An Insider's View of Waste, Mismanagement and Fraud in Defense Spending
  • George Gilder — Senior Fellow, Discovery Institute
  • Nathan Glazer — University Professor of Education and Sociology Emeritus, Harvard University
  • Steve H. Hanke — Professor of Applied Economics, Johns Hopkins University
  • James J. Heckman — Nobel Laureate in Economic Science, Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics, University of Chicago
  • Wendy Kaminer — Contributing Editor, The Atlantic Monthly; former Member, Board of Directors, American Civil Liberties Union
  • Lawrence A. Kudlow — Chief Executive Officer, Kudlow & Company; Co-Host, Kudlow & Cramer, CNBC; Former Associate Director for Economics and Planning, Office of Management and Budget
  • John R. MacArthur — Publisher, Harper's Magazine
  • Deirdre N. McCloskey — Distinguished Professor of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Illinois, Chicago
  • J. Huston McCulloch — Professor of Economics, Ohio State University
  • Thomas Gale Moore — Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
  • Charles A. Murray W. H. Brady Scholar, American Enterprise Institute
  • Michael Novak — George Frederick Jewett Chair in Religion and Public Policy, American Enterprise Institute
  • June E. O’Neill — Director, Center for the Study of Business & Government, Baruch College; Former Director, U.S. Congressional Budget Office
  • P. J. O’Rourke — Regular Correspondent, The Atlantic Monthly
  • Tom Peters — Co-Author, In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies; Author, Liberation Management and A Passion for Excellence: The Leadership Difference
  • Charles E. Phelps — Provost and Professor of Political Science and Economics, University of Rochester
  • Daniel N. Robinson — Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Georgetown University; Faculty Fellow of Philosophy, Linacre College, Oxford University
  • Paul H. Rubin — Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Economics, Emory University
  • Bruce M. Russett — Dean Acheson Professor of International and Area Studies, Yale University; Editor, Journal of Conflict Resolution
  • Pascal Salin — Professor of Economics, Université Paris-Dauphine
  • William F. Shughart II — J. Fish Smith Professor in Public Choice, Jon M. Huntsman School of Business, Utah State University
  • Vernon L. Smith — Member of the Board of Advisors, Independent Institute; Nobel Laureate in Economic Science; Professor of Law and Director of the Economic Science Institute, Chapman University
  • Joel H. Spring — Professor of Education, State University of New York, New Paltz
  • Richard L. Stroup — Adjunct Professor of Economics, North Carolina State University; Professor of Economics, Montana State University
  • Robert D. Tollison — J. Wilson Newman Professor of Economics and BB&T Senior Fellow at Clemson University
  • Arnold J. Trebach — Professor of Law, American University
  • William Tucker — Author, The Excluded Americans: Homelessness and Housing Policies
  • Richard E. Wagner — Hobart R. Hobart Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Paul H. Weaver — Former Washington Bureau Chief and Assistant Managing Editor, Fortune
  • Walter E. Williams — John M. Olin Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Charles Wolf — Senior Economist and Corporate Fellow, International Economics, RAND Corporation

In Memoriam Board of Advisors [11]

  • Stephen E. Ambrose — Professor of History Emeritus, University of New Orleans
  • Thomas E. Borcherding — Professor of Economics, Claremont Graduate University
  • M. E. Bradford — Professor of English, University of Dallas
  • Yale Brozen — Former Professor of Business Economics, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago
  • James M. Buchanan Jr. — Nobel Laureate in Economic Science; late Emeritus University Professor, Center for the Study of Public Choice, George Mason University
  • Arthur A. Ekirch, Jr. — Late Professor of History, University at Albany
  • Ronald Hamowy — Emeritus Professor of History, University of Alberta, Canada
  • Ronald Max Hartwell — Emeritus Professor of History, Oxford University, England
  • Jonathan Kwitny — Author, Endless Enemies and The Crimes of Patriots
  • Merton H. Miller — Nobel Laureate in Economic Science; Robert R. McCormick Distinguished Professor of Finance Emeritus, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago
  • William A. Niskanen — Chairman Emeritus and Distinguished Senior Economist, Cato Institute; former Acting Chairman, President’s Council of Economics Advisers
  • Nathan Rosenberg — Fairleigh S. Dickinson, Jr. Professor of Public Policy Emeritus in the Department of Economics and Senior Fellow for the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research at Stanford University
  • Murray N. RothbardS. J. Hall Distinguished Professor of Economics, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • Simon Rottenberg — Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts
  • Arthur Seldon — Founder-Director, Institute of Economic Affairs, London, England
  • Julian L. Simon — Professor of Business Administration, University of Maryland
  • William E. Simon — Former Secretary, U.S. Department of the Treasury
  • Thomas S. Szasz — Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus, Health Science Center, State University of New York, Syracuse
  • Gordon Tullock — University Professor of Law and Economics and Distinguished Research Fellow, George Mason University
  • Gore Vidal — National Book Award-Winner, Playwright, Screenwriter, and Author of the “American Chronicle” Series of Historical Novels
  • Alan Walters — Vice Chairman, AIG Trading Company
  • Aaron B. Wildavsky — Class of 1940 Professor of Political Science and Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley

Senior Fellows [12]

  • Bruce L. Benson — DeVoe Moore Distinguished Research Professor of Economics, Florida State University
  • Ivan Eland — Senior Fellow and Director, Center on Peace & Liberty, Independent Institute
  • John C. Goodman — Senior Fellow at the Independent Institute
  • John R. Graham — Senior Fellow
  • Robert Higgs — Senior Fellow in Political Economy. Editor at Large, The Independent Review.
  • Lawrence J. McQuillan — Senior Fellow and Director of the Center on Entrepreneurial Innovation
  • Robert H. Nelson — Professor of Environmental Policy, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland
  • Charles V. Peña — Senior Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Benjamin W. Powell — Senior Fellow, Independent Institute; Director, Free Market Institute, Texas Tech University
  • William F. Shughart II — J. Fish Smith Professor in Public Choice, Jon M. Huntsman School of Business, Utah State University
  • Randy T Simmons — Professor of Economics, Utah State University
  • Alexander T. Tabarrok — Senior Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Alvaro Vargas Llosa — Senior Fellow, Center on Global Prosperity, Independent Institute
  • Richard K. Vedder — Edwin and Ruth Kennedy Distinguished Professor of Economics, Ohio University

Research Fellows [12]

  • Burton A. Abrams — Professor of Economics, University of Delaware
  • Vicki E. Alger — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Karen LaFollette Araujo — President, Hemispheric Studies Institute
  • Dominick T. Armentano — Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Hartford
  • Robert C. Arne — Co-Director, The School of Choice
  • June Akinyi Arunga
  • George B. N. Ayittey — President of the Free Africa Foundation and former Distinguished Economist in Residence in the Department of Economics at American University
  • Thompson Ayodele — Executive Director, Initiative for Public Policy Analysis, Nigeria.
  • Benjamin H. Barton — Associate Professor of Law, University of Tennessee
  • Stephen Baskerville — Associate Professor of Government at Patrick Henry College and author of Taken Into Custody: The War Against Fathers, Marriage, and the Family (Cumberland House, 2007).
  • Jonathan Bean — Professor of History, Southern Illinois University
  • Scott A. Beaulier — Assistant Professor of Economics in Mercer University’s Stetson School of Business and Economics
  • Wilfred Beckerman — Emeritus Fellow at Balliol College, Oxford University, England
  • David Beckworth — Assistant Professor of Economics at Western Kentucky University
  • Boris Begovic — Professor of Economics at the School of Law at the University of Belgrade
  • David T. Beito — Professor of History, University of Alabama
  • Daniel K. Benjamin — Professor of Economics, Clemson University
  • Kiran Bhatt — Economist, K.T. Analytics, Inc.
  • K. Lloyd Billingsley — Policy Fellow and Communications Counsel, Independent Institute
  • Erwin A. Blackstone — Professor of Economics at Temple University
  • Peter J. Boettke — University Professor of Economics and Philosophy, George Mason University
  • Patricia H. Born — Associate Professor in the College of Business at Florida State University
  • Boudewijn R. A. Bouckaert — Professor of Law, University of Ghent, Belgium
  • Donald J. Boudreaux — Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Samuel Jan Brakel — Professor of Law and Director of Research at the Health Law Institute at DePaul University in Chicago
  • Timothy J. Brennan — Professor of Policy Sciences, University of Maryland
  • Stephen N. Bretsen — William Volkman Chair of Business and Law, Wheaton College
  • Jo-Christy Brown — Partner, Brown, Carls & Mitchell, L.L.P.
  • Matthew E. Brown — Ph.D. candidate in economics at Florida State University
  • Edgar K. Browning — Professor Emeritus of Economics, Texas A&M University
  • Scott G. Bullock — Senior Attorney, Institute for Justice
  • Richard C. K. Burdekin — Professor of Economics, Claremont-McKenna College
  • Laurie L. Calhoun — Research Fellow at the Independent Institute and Advisory Editor of Transition: An International Review.
  • Noel D. Campbell — Professor of Economics, North Georgia College & State University
  • Art Carden — Associate Professor of Economics and Business, Samford University
  • Thomas F. Cargill — Professor of Economics, University of Nevada
  • Allan C. Carlson — President, Howard Center for Family, Religion and Society
  • Christopher J. Check — Executive Vice President, Rockford Institute
  • Carl P. Close — Research Fellow and Senior Editor, Independent Institute
  • Lloyd R. Cohen — Professor of Law, George Mason University
  • G. Marcus Cole — William Benjamin Scott and Luna M. Scott Professor of Law, Stanford University
  • Timothy J. Considine — Director, Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, Pennsylvania State University 
  • Adriana S. Cordis — Professor of Economics, Clemson University
  • Daniel Adolfo Cordova Cayo — Dean, School of Economics, University of Applied Sciences, Lima, Peru
  • Tyler Cowen — General Director of the Mercatus Center and the James M. Buchanan Center for Political Economy at George Mason University
  • Christopher J. CoyneF.A. Harper Professor of Economics at George Mason University.
  • Eric Crampton — Senior Lecturer in Economics at the University of Canterbury
  • Christopher W. Crowe — Economist in Systemic Issues, International Monetary Fund
  • Nicholas A. Curott — Visiting Lecturer of Economics and Finance, University of South Alabama
  • Terry Daniel — Professor of Business, University of Alberta
  • Patricia M. Danzon — Professor of Health Care Systems, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
  • Stephen J. Davies — Professor of English and History, Manchester Polytechnic, England
  • Alan Day — Professor, London School of Economics
  • Anthony de Jasay — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Robert T. Deacon — Professor of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Donald N. DeWees — Professor of Economics, University of Toronto, Canada
  • Thomas J. DiLorenzo — Professor of Economics, Loyola College in Maryland
  • David E. Dismukes — Professor of Economics, Loyola College in Maryland
  • Justus D. Doenecke — Professor Emeritus of History, New College of Florida
  • George W. Douglas — Economic Counsel, George W. Douglas and Company
  • Kevin Dowd — Professor of Finance and Economics at Durham University, England
  • Donald A. Downs — Professor of Political Science, Law and Journalism, University of Wisconsin
  • Steven J. Eagle — Professor of Law, George Mason University
  • Robert B. Ekelund — Edward and Catherine Lowder Emminent Scholar of Economics, Auburn University
  • Martin Eling
  • Richard A. Epstein — Laurence A. Tisch Professor of Law, New York University
  • Diego Espinosa — Hedge fund manager and private investor
  • John B. Estill — Lecturer in the Department of Economics at San Jose State University
  • Williamson M. Evers —  Research Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
  • Craig Eyermann — Instructor in Business and Mathematics at Axia College of the University of Phoenix
  • Hugo J. Faria — Professor of Economics and Finance at the Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion in Caracas, Venezuela
  • Roger D. Feldman — Professor, Center for Health Services Research, University of Minnesota
  • Fred E. Foldvary — Professor of Economics, Santa Clara University
  • Kenneth R. Foster — Professor of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania
  • Arthur E. Foulkes — Professor of Government, Northwood University
  • David T. Fractor — Manager, Forensic Economics, Findlay Phillips & Associates
  • H. E. Frech — Professor of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Lowell E. Gallaway — Edwin and Ruth Kennedy Distinguished Professor of Economics, Ohio University
  • Gary M. Galles — Research Fellow at Independent Institute, Professor of Economics at Pepperdine University
  • Paula A. Gant — Fellow in Economics, Auburn University
  • B. Delworth Gardner — Emeritus Professor of Economics, Brigham Young University
  • Adam Gifford — Professor of Economics, California State University, Northridge
  • David Glasner — Staff Economist, Bureau of Economics, Federal Trade Commission
  • Zachary Gochenour — Fellow, Department of Economics, George Mason University
  • Peter Gordon — Professor of Policy, Planning and Development, University of Southern California
  • Brian C. Gothberg — Instructor in American history and the history of Western civilization at the Academy of Art University
  • Martin F. Grace — James S. Kemper Professor of Risk Management, Georgia State University
  • William M. Gray — Emeritus Professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University (CSU), head of the Tropical Meteorology Project at CSU, and a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society
  • David G. Green — Director, Health and Welfare Unit, Institute of Economic Affairs, England
  • Anthony Gregory — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Thomas Grennes — Professor of Economics, North Carolina State University
  • James D. Gwartney — Director, Gus A. Stavros Center for Economic Education, Stavros Eminent Scholar, Florida State University
  • David D. Haddock — Professor of Law, Northwestern University
  • Jahn K. Hakes — Assistant Professor of Economics, Albion College
  • Simon Hakim — Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for Competitive Government, Temple University
  • Stephen P. Halbrook — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Joshua C. Hall — Assistant Professor of Economics at Beloit College
  • Abigail R. Hall
  • Steve H. Hanke — Professor of Applied Economics, Johns Hopkins University
  • Ronald W. Hansen — Professor of Management, University of Rochester
  • Clark C. Havighurst — William Neal Reynolds Professor of Law, Duke University
  • Jeffrey E. Haymond — Vice Commander, Space Development and Test Wing, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico
  • Ian G. Heggie — Roads Advisor, World Bank; Lecturer, University of Birmingham
  • Eric A. Helland — Professor of Economics, Claremont McKenna College
  • Robert B. Helms — Resident Scholar and Director of Health Policy Studies, American Enterprise Institute
  • David R. Henderson
  • Joshua R. Hendrickson — Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Mississippi
  • Elizabeth Bernard Higgs — Adjunct Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Peter J. Hill — George F. Bennett Professor Emeritus of Business and Economics, Wheaton College
  • William W. Hogan — Professor of Public Policy, Kennedy School, Harvard University
  • Randall G. Holcombe — DeVoe Moore Professor of Economics, Florida State University
  • Peter W. Huber — Senior Fellow, Manhattan Institute
  • Jeffrey Rogers Hummel — Associate Professor of Economics, San Jose State University
  • David Isenberg — Research Fellow at the Independent Institute
  • Gail A. Jensen — Professor, Institute of Gerontology, Wayne State University
  • Dan Johansson — Vice President, The Ratio Institute
  • Don B. Kates Jr. — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Wallace Kaufman — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Charles E. Kay — Professor of Political Science, Utah State University
  • Charles N. W. Keckler — Visiting Assistant Professor of Law, Pennsylvania State University
  • Michael K. Kellogg — Senior Partner, Kellogg, Huber & Hansen
  • Lynne Kiesling — Senior Lecturer in the Department of Economics and the Social Enterprise in the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University
  • C. Ronald Kimberling — Senior Vice President and Provost, Phillips College, Inc.
  • Daniel B. Klein — Professor of Economics at George Mason University; co-author of FDAReview.org
  • Robert W. Klein — Associate Professor and director at the Center for Risk Management and Insurance Research, Georgia State University
  • Peter G. Klein — Research Associate, Center for Entrepreneurship and Free Enterprise, Baylor University
  • Andrew N. Kleit — Professor of Energy and Environmental Economics, Pennsylvania State University
  • Barbara Klimaszewski-Blettner
  • Bruce H. Kobayashi — Professor of Law, George Mason University
  • Roger Koppl — Professor of Economics and Finance, Fairleigh Dickinson University
  • William E. Kovacic — Professor of Law, George Mason University
  • Timur Kuran — Professor of Economics and Political Science, Gorter Family Chair in Islamic Studies, and Associate Director of the Islamic Studies Center at Duke University
  • Edward J. López BB&T Distinguished Professor of Capitalism, Western Carolina University
  • Deepak K. Lal — James S. Coleman Professor of International Development Studies, University of California at Los Angeles
  • James A. Langenfeld — Former Deputy Assistant Director, Bureau of Economics, Federal Trade Commission
  • Robert A. Lawson — Jerome M. Fullinwider Chair in Economic Freedom, Southern Methodist University
  • Dwight R. Lee — William J. O’Neil Endowed Chair Global Markets and Freedom and Scholar in Residence, Southern Methodist University
  • Peter T. Leeson BB&T Professor for the Study of Capitalism, George Mason University
  • David R. Legates — Professor and Director of the Center for Climate Research, University of Delaware
  • Eli Lehrer — President, R Street Institute
  • Pierre Lemieux — Visiting Professor of Economics, Universitè du Quèbec en Outaouais, Canada
  • David M. Levinson — Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota
  • Stan J. Liebowitz — Ashbel Smith Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for the Analysis of Property Rights and Innovation, University of Texas, Dallas
  • James M. Lindsay — Professor of Political Science, University of Iowa
  • Ian S. Lustick — Bess W. Heyman Chair of Political Science and Director of Graduate Studies in the Political Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania
  • Spencer Heath MacCallum — Director, Heather Foundation
  • Jonathan R. Macey — J. DuPratt White Professor of Law, Cornell University
  • Tibor R. Machan — Professor of Philosophy, Chapman University
  • Douglas W. MacKenzie — Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics, U.S. Coast Guard Academy
  • William C. MacLeod — Partner, Kelley Drye & Warren LLP
  • John D. Majewski — Professor of History, University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Stephen E. Margolis — Head, Department of Economics, North Carolina State University
  • J. Victor Marshall — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Joseph P. Martino — Senior Research Scientist, University of Dayton
  • Kenneth R. Mayer — Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin
  • Fred S. McChesney — Class of 1967 James B. Haddad Professor of Law, Northwestern University
  • Wendy McElroy — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Vern P. McKinley — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Thomas Means — Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for Economic Education at San Jose State University
  • Roger E. Meiners — Professor of Economics, University of Texas, Arlington
  • John D. Merrifield — Professor of Economics, University of Texas, San Antonio
  • Peter P. Metrinko — Former attorney advisor to a Commissioner at the Federal Trade Commission
  • Robert J. Michaels — Professor of Economics, California State University, Fullerton
  • Jeffrey A. Miron — Professor of Economics, Harvard University
  • Mike Moore — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Cassandra Moore — Adjunct Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Robert L. Morris, Jr. — Policy Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Michael A. Morrisey — Director, Lister Hill Center for Health Policy, University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • Andrew P. Morriss — Dean and Anthony G. Buzbee Dean's Endowed Chairholder at Texas A&M School of Law
  • Michael C. Munger — Professor of Political Science, Economics and Public Policy, and Director the Philosophy, Politics, and Economics Program at Duke University.
  • Robert P. Murphy — Research Assistant Professor with the Free Market Institute at Texas Tech University and Senior Economist with the Institute for Energy Research
  • George W. Nicholson — Associate Justice for the Court of Appeal, Third District, State of California
  • Paul Niemann — Senior Consultant, Health Management Associates
  • Randal O’Toole — Senior Fellow, Thoreau Institute and Cato Institute
  • Edward A. Olsen — Professor Emeritus of National Security Studies, Naval Postgraduate School
  • James R. Otteson — Executive Director, BB&T Center for the Study of Capitalism, School of Business, and Teaching Professor of Political Economy, Wake Forest University
  • Ernest C. Pasour Jr. — Professor Emeritus of Agricultural and Resource Economics, North Carolina State University
  • Mark V. Pauly — Bendheim Professor; Professor of Health Care Management, and Professor of Business and Public Policy; Wharton School; University of Pennsylvania
  • James L. Payne — Research Fellow at the Independent Institute and Director of Lytton Research and Analysis
  • Ilan Peleg — Dean Professor of Social Sciences, Lafayette College
  • Lewis Perry — John Francis Bannon Endowed Chair of History, St. Louis University
  • Craig S. Pirrong — Professor of Economics, University of Houston
  • Andre Plourde — Professor of Business, University of Alberta
  • Daniel D. Polsby — Dean and Professor of Law, George Mason University School of Law
  • Jeffrey J. Pompe — Nellie Cooke Sparrow Professor of Business, Professor of Economics, and Francis Marion University Trustee Research Scholar, Francis Marion University
  • Robert W. Poole Jr. — Founder, Reason Foundation
  • Lawrence S. Powell — Whitbeck-Beyer Chair of Insurance and Financial Services and Associate Professor of Economics and Finance at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock
  • Randall J. Pozdena — Managing Director, ECONorthwest
  • Adam C. Pritchard — Professor of Law, University of Michigan
  • David W. Rasmussen — Director, Policy Sciences Center, Florida State University
  • Michael Reksulak — Assistant Professor of Economics at Georgia Southern University
  • Nicholas Rescher — University Professor of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh
  • Harry W. Richardson — Professor of Policy, Planning & Development, University of Southern California
  • Sheldon Richman — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • James R. Rinehart — Professor Emeritus of Economics, Francis Marion University
  • Kenneth J. Robinson — Senior Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
  • Neil Roden — Manager, Private Finance Team, Highways Agency, United Kingdom Department of Transport
  • Robert A. Rogowsky — Director of Operations, U.S. International Trade Commission
  • Gabriel Roth — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • P. Nicholas Rowe — Professor of Economics, Carleton University
  • Paul H. Rubin — Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Economics, Emory University
  • Randal R. Rucker — Professor of Agricultural Economics and Economics, Montana State University
  • Andrew R. Rutten — Lecturer in the Department of Political Science, Stanford University
  • Barbara A. Ryan — Vice President of Industry Analysis, Capital Economics
  • Matt E. Ryan — Assistant Professor of Economics, Duquesne University
  • David O. Sacks — Chief Operating Officer for Zenefits Insurance Services, former Chief Operating Officer at PayPal, Inc., and Founder and former Chief Executive Officer at Yammer, Inc., and Geni, Inc.
  • Peter Samuel — Editor and Publisher, Toll Roads Newsletter
  • Renuka Sane — Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Frederic E. Sautet — Senior Research Fellow, Mercatus Center, George Mason University
  • Joan T. Schmit — American Family Insurance Chair in Risk Management and Insurance, University of Wisconsin, Madison
  • Kurt A. Schuler — Economics Consultant
  • Jordan A. Schwarz — Professor of History, Northern Illinois University
  • George A. Selgin — Professor of Economics at the University of Georgia
  • John Semmens — Senior Planner, Arizona Department of Transportation
  • Parth J. Shah — President, Centre for Civil Society, New Delhi, India
  • Perry Shapiro — Emeritus Professor of Economics, University of California at Santa Barbara
  • Stephen Shmanske — Professor of Economics in the College of Business and Economics at California State University, East Bay.
  • Eugenia D. Short — Former Senior Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
  • S. Fred Singer — Professor Emeritus of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia
  • Emily C. Skarbek — Lecturer, Department of Political Economy, King's College, London, England
  • David B. Skarbek — Lecturer, Department of Political Economy, King's College, London, England
  • Vernon L. Smith — Member of the Board of Advisors, Independent Institute; Nobel Laureate in Economic Science; Professor of Law and Director of the Economic Science Institute, Chapman University
  • Russell S. Sobel — Visiting Scholar at the Initiative for Public Choice & Market Process in the Department of Economics & Finance at the College of Charleston
  • Ilya Somin — Associate Professor, George Mason University School of Law
  • John W. Sommer — Knight Distinguished Professor of Geography, University of North Carolina
  • Joel H. Spring — Professor of Education, State University of New York, New Paltz
  • Samuel R. Staley — Managing Director, DeVoe L. Moore Center, College of Social Sciences, Florida State University
  • Robert B. Stinnett — Author, Day of Deceit: The Truth about FDR and Pearl Harbor
  • Edward P. Stringham — Lloyd V. Hackley Endowed Chair for Capitalism and Free Enterprise Studies at Fayetteville State University
  • Joseph R. Stromberg — Independent Historian
  • Richard L. Stroup — Adjunct Professor of Economics, North Carolina State University; Professor of Economics, Montana State University
  • Paul Sullivan — Professor of Economics, National Defense University
  • Edward C. Sullivan — Professor of Civil Engineering, California State Polytechnic University
  • Adam Summers — Policy Analyst, Reason Foundation
  • Scott B. Sumner — Professor of Economics, Bentley University
  • Shirley V. Svorny — Professor of Economics, California State University, Northridge
  • Charles Taliaferro — Professor of Philosophy, St. Olaf College
  • Eric R. Taylor — Marvin & Warren Boudreaux Professor of Chemistry, University of Louisiana at Lafayette
  • Peter A. Thiel — Founder and Managing Member, Clarium Capital Management, LLC
  • Mark Thornton — Senior Fellow, Ludwig von Mises Institute
  • Richard H. Timberlake, Jr. — Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Georgia
  • Robert D. Tollison — J. Wilson Newman Professor of Economics and BB&T Senior Fellow at Clemson University
  • Aleksander Tomic — Associate Professor of Economics and Director of Graduate Studies in Business, Wesleyan College
  • James N. Tooley — Professor of Education Policy, University New Castle upon Tyre, England
  • William Tucker — Author, The Excluded Americans: Homelessness and Housing Policies
  • Charlotte Twight — Adjunct Fellow; Professor of Economics, Boise State University
  • Frank van Dun — Senior Lecturer in Law, University of Maastricht, The Netherlands
  • Olegario G. Villoria Jr. — President, OGV Consulting, Inc.
  • Richard E. Wagner — Hobart R. Hobart Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Thomas F. Walton — Former Economist, Federal Trade Commission
  • Michael Ward — Professor in Apologetics, Houston Baptist University; Director, C.S. Lewis Centre, Oxford, England
  • Ashlie Warnick — Visiting Assistant Professor of Law, George Mason University
  • Alan Rufus Waters — Professor of Finance and Business Law, California State University, Fresno
  • William J. Watkins Jr. — Research Fellow, Independent Institute
  • Jilleen R. Westbrook — Professor of Economics, Temple University
  • Robert M. Whaples — Professor and Chair in the Department of Economics, Wake Forest University
  • Lawrence J. White — Arthur E. Imperatore Professor of Economics, New York University
  • William R. White — Chairman, Economic Development and Review Committee, OECD
  • Lawrence H. White — Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Douglas Glen Whitman — Associate Professor of Economics, California State University, Northridge
  • Thomas D. Willett — Horton Professor of Economics, Claremont Graduate University
  • W. William Woolsey — Associate Professor of Economics, The Citadel
  • Bruce Yandle — Alumni Professor of Economics, Clemson University
  • Leland B. Yeager — Ludwig von Mises Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Economics, Auburn University
  • Brenda Yelvington — Fellow in Accounting, University of Mississippi
  • Ryan M. Yonk — Assistant Professor of Political Science, Southern Utah University
  • José Maria J. Yulo — Research Fellow at the Independent Institute and Lecturer in Philosophy and Western Civilization at the Academy of Art University

In Memoriam Research Fellows [12]

  • Gary M. Anderson — Professor of Economics, California State University, Northridge
  • Stephen P. Dresch — Former Dean, Michigan Technological University's School of Business and Engineering Administration
  • Antony G. N. Flew — Late Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, University of Reading, England
  • Elizabeth Fox-Genovese — Late Eleanore Raoul Professor of Humanities, Emory University
  • Bruce L. Gardner — Late Professor of Agriculture and Resource Economics, University of Maryland
  • Ronald Hamowy — Emeritus Professor of History, University of Alberta, Canada
  • Jack Hirshleifer — Professor of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles
  • M. Bruce Johnson — Founding Research Director, Independent Institute; Professor of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara
  • David L. Kaserman — late Torchmark Professor of Economics, Auburn University
  • Jacqueline R. Kasun — Emeritus Professor of Economics, Humboldt State University
  • Robert E. Keleher — Chief Macroeconomist, Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress
  • Cotton M. Lindsay — Professor of Economics, Clemson University
  • William F. Marina — late Professor Emeritus in History at Florida Atlantic University
  • Paul W. McCracken — Edmund Ezra Day Distinguished University Professor Emeritus of Business Administration, Economics, and Public Policy, University of Michigan; former Chairman, President's Council of Economic Advisors
  • William C. Mitchell — Emeritus Professor of Political Science, University of Oregon
  • Herbert Mohring — Professor of Economics, University of Minnesota
  • William A. Niskanen — Chairman Emeritus and Distinguished Senior Economist, Cato Institute; former Acting Chairman, President’s Council of Economics Advisers
  • Carl A. Pescosolido, Jr. — President, Sequoia Enterprises
  • William Ratliff — Research Fellow and Curator of the Americas Collection at the Hoover Institution
  • Murray N. Rothbard S. J. Hall Distinguished Professor of Economics, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • Simon Rottenberg — Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts
  • Charles K. Rowley 
  • Larry J. Sechrest — Professor of Economics, Sul Ross State University
  • Frederick Seitz — President Emeritus of Rockefeller University and former President of the National Academy of Science
  • Bernard H. Siegan  — Distinguished Professor of Law at the University of San Diego
  • Julian L. Simon — Professor of Business Administration, University of Maryland
  • Gordon Tullock — University Professor of Law and Economics and Distinguished Research Fellow, George Mason University
  • John T. Wenders — Professor of Economics, University of Idaho

Tobacco Industry Ties

According to SourceWatch, members of TII's Board of Advisors including Robert D. Tollison, Richard E. Wagner and Thomas Gale Moore, TII Research Fellows Gary Anderson, Robert Ekelund, Dwight R. Lee, Mark Thornton, and S. Fred Singer, as well as Seneior fellow Richard Vedder have a “long history” of working with the Tobacco Institute and/or Philip Morris. [13]

They were all members of the 'Academic Advisory Board' for the pro-tobacco report “Science, Economics, and Environmental Policy: A Critical Examination” published by the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution (AdTI) on August 11, 1994. S. Fred Singer has also published numerous articles and commentary on TII's website, most of them skeptical of climate change.

 Actions

October 2, 2015

In their fall, 2015 issue of The Independent Review (the Independent Institute's primary magazine), authors suggest that Climate Science is experiencing a “boom” that will eventually undergo a subsequent “bust.” [14]

The article's abstract reads:

“Like an economy, fields of scientific research undergo periods of boom and bust. The boom in climate science is driven by a confluence of factors: scientific uncertainty, political opportunism, ideological predispositions, a sustained push from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and massive funding from various government entities.”

April 20, 2015

S. Fred Singer, a Research Fellow at the Independent Institute (and prominent climate change skeptic who runs the Science and Environmental Policy Project), published an article suggesting an impending ice age. The article, originally published in the American Thinker, was cross-posted by the Independent Institute. [15]

According to Singer, we need to invest millions of dollars to prepare for a cyclical ice age: 

“Stopping the next ice age appears to be well within our technical capability and carries a huge benefit-to-cost ratio. An investment of millions would prevent the loss of trillions of dollars.” [15]

Fred Singer is a prolific contributor to commentary articles on climate change and energy issues published at the Independent Institute. Singer has also  promoted nuclear energy as a “sustainable” alternative to fossil fuels. [16], [17]

May 21 - 23, 2012

The Independent Institute (TII) is listed as a Co-sponsor (PDF) of the Heartland Institute's 7th International Conference on Climate Change in Chicago, Illinois. [18]

June-July 2011

The Independent Institute (TII) was a sponsor (PDFof the Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. [19]

DeSmogBlog found that sponsors for ICCC6 had collectively received over $46 million from either Scaife Foundations, Koch Foundations, or ExxonMobil and its foundation. [20]

July 14, 2011

S. Fred Singer, Research Fellow at The Independent Institute, gave a talk at a TII event titled “Hot Talk and Cold Science of Global Warming.” [21]

The event description reads as follows:

“Is global warming real, imminent, and a threat to human life, especially with the evidence that global temperatures have been dropping since 1998? What predictions have now been established scientifically? What is the truth regarding Climategate and other revelations regarding the claims of man-made global warming? The proposed Global Climate Treaty and California state mandates call for extensive government controls to reduce fossil fuel use. Yet, is there scientific evidence to support such measures? Would the proposed massive “carbon” taxes and other controls put our society and countries around the world—especially those most disadvantaged—at greater risk? Based on the latest research, renowned astrophysicist Fred Singer will separate fact from fiction in this raging global warming debate.” [21]

May 16 - 18, 2010

The Independent Institute (TII) was a co-sponsor of the Heartland Institute's Fourth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC4). [22]

DeSmogBlog investigated sponsors of the event, and found they had collectively received a total of over $40 million in funding since 1985 from ExxonMobil (who funded 13 of the organizations), and/or Koch Industries family foundations (funded 10 organizations) and/or the Scaife family foundations (funded 10 organizations). [23]

March, 2008

The Independent Institute (TII) was a sponsor organization for the Heartland Institute's 2008 International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC1). [24]

RealClimate reported on the conference, concluding that the “conference is not aimed at understanding, it is a PR event aimed at generating media reports.” [25]

July, 2003

The Independent Institute (TIIreleased a report titled New Perspectives in Climate Change: What the EPA Isn’t Telling Us written by climate change skeptics S. Fred Singer, John R. Christy, Robert E. Davis, David R. Legates, and Wendy M. Novicoff. [26]

Related Organizations

 Resources

  1. About The Independent Institute,” The Independent Institute. Archived October, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQR2AI1r

  2. Benjamin W. Powell. “The Economics Behind the U.S. Government’s Unwinnable War on Drugs,” Independent Institute, August 21, 2013. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQPQzJuO

  3. Benjamin W. Powell and Art Carden. “Why Is Immigration Illegal Anyway?” Independent Institute, November 20, 2011. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQPkd9b2

  4. Paul H. Rubin. “The Health Risks of Censorship,” Independent Institute, October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQQ26tZV

  5. (Transcript) “The Death Penalty on Trial,” Independent Institute, January 27, 2005. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQQOpVuI

  6. New Perspectives in Climate Change: What the EPA Isn’t Telling Us,” Independent Institute. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQQfe1rH

  7. S. Fred Singer. “Protecting Humanity from Ice Ages,” Independent Institute, July 1, 2015. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQmr1N6W

  8. The Independent Institute,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed October 20, 2015. 

  9. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: Indepentent Institute. Accessed October 20, 2015.

  10. Board of Directors,” Independent Institute. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQURWhun

  11. Board of Advisors,” The Independent Institute. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQUmyClu

  12. Senior Fellows,” The Independent Institute. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQVTuAiI

  13. Independent Institute,” SourceWatch. Archived October 20, 2015.

  14. Causes and Consequences of the Climate Science Boom,” The Independent Institute, October 2, 2015.

  15. S. Fred Singer. “Preventing a Coming Ice Age,” Independent Institute, April 18, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQlLpdeD

  16. S. Fred Singer. “For Sustainable Energy, Choose Nuclear,” Independent Institute. Archived October 1, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQlrXp7e

  17. Research Fellow: S. Fred Singer,” Independent Institute. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQm5yneQ

  18. “Seventh International Conference on Climate Change: Sponsored by the Heartland Institute” (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived August 15, 2015.

  19. “Sixth International Conference on Climate Change Conference Program” (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived July 25, 2015.

  20. Brendan DeMelle. “Denial-a-Palooza 6: Heartland's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change, Courtesy of Koch, Scaife & Exxon,” DeSmogBlog, June 30, 2011.

  21. “Hot Talk and Cold Science of Global Warming,” Independent Institute, July 14, 2011. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQnDUI1c

  22. 4th International Conference on Climate Change,” Conference Program (PDF). The Heartland Institute, May, 2010.

  23. Brendan DeMelle. “Denial-a-palooza Round 4: 'International Conference on Climate Change' Groups Funded by Exxon, Koch Industries,” DeSmogBlog, May 13, 2010. 

  24. Sponsorships,” The 2008 International Conference on climate Change. Archived June 10, 2011.

  25. What if you held a conference, and no (real) scientists came?“ RealClimate, January 30, 2008. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQi94UtE

  26. Nation’s Leading Global Warming Experts Unveil New Findings on Climate Change,” (Press Release), the Independent Institute, July 28, 2003. Archived February 5, 2005.

  27. About,” Cooler Heads Coalition. Archived October 20, 2015. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6cQkz6iuY

Other Resources

  1. Independent Institute,” SourceWatch.

  2. GuideStar nonprofit report for Independent Institute.