National Center for Public Policy Research

National Center for Public Policy Research (NCPPR)

Background

The National Center for Public Policy Research (NCPPR) was founded in 1982 as a free market think tank and “communications and research foundation supportive of a strong national defense and dedicated to providing free market solutions to today's public policy problems.” [1]

In the 1980s NCPPR “helped change public opinion through vocal national campaigns aimed at supporting Reagan administration initiatives,” but they have since shifted their focus to topics such as environmental policy. For example, in 2005 the Center fought against the 1973 Endangered Species Act in order to reduce the government's power to regulate private land use. As part of their effort, they formed a “grassroots coalition of dozens of groups to educate the public and Members of Congress.” [1]

In their own words, the Center says they are “Firm in the belief that private owners are the best stewards of the environment.” NCPPR's National Center's Center for Environmental and Regulatory Affairs “advocates private, free market solutions to today's environmental challenges.” [1]

Amy Ridenour, NCPPR's president, has claimed that global warming is a religion. [2]

Stance on Climate Change

June, 2014

The National Center for Public Policy Research released a paper by Amy Ridenour titled “Top Ten Reasons Washington Should Not Impose New Global Warming Laws or Regulations.” The following are included among the “top ten reasons” listed include: [3]

  • “The Earth hasn't warmed since the Clinton Administration;
  • New global warming laws and regulations harm people, and harm lower-income and minorities disproportionately;
  • U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions already fell 12.6 percent between 2005 and 2012, while worldwide emissions went up 17.7 percent during the same period;
  • The climate models upon which President Obama's belief in human-caused catastrophic global warming is based do not work - since 1979, over 96 percent of climate models predicted more warming by now than has taken place;
  • Claims that 97 percent of scientists endorse the global warming theory are propaganda.”
2002

The National Center for Public Policy Research released a “Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet” that contained the following statement on global warming (*Note that the petition NCPPR refers to is the Oregon Petition, which has had its credibility questioned by numerous sources, including whether it includes fake signatures [4])

“Claims that scientific opinion is nearly unanimous on the subject of global warming are wrong. The Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine received signatures* from over 17,100 basic and applied American scientists, two-thirds with advanced degrees, to a document saying, 'There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate.' [5]

“… There are many indications that carbon dioxide does not play a significant role in global warming.” [5]

Funding

The following is based on data the Conservative Transparency project compiled from publicly-available tax records. Note that not all individual funding values have been verified by DeSmogBlog for accuracy. [6]

View the attached spreadsheet for additional information on The National Center for Public Policy Research's funding by year (.xlsx)

Donor Contributions
The Carthage Foundation $815,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $629,100
Dunn's Foundation for the Advancement of Right Thinking $409,000
Exxon Mobil* $445,000
Sarah Scaife Foundation $375,000
The Randolph Foundation $352,050
DonorsTrust $313,950
Castle Rock Foundation $170,000
William H. Donner Foundation $164,000
John M. Olin Foundation $100,000
Donors Capital Fund $126,000
The Gordon and Mary Cain Foundation $35,000
Earhart Foundation $25,000
Armstrong Foundation $15,000
American Chemistry Council $10,000
Tepper Family Foundation $10,000
Same Line Foundation $7,500
The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation $5,000
The Roe Foundation $3,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia $2,000
Grand Total $4,011,600

* According to Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets, the National Center for Public Policy Research has received at least $445,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [7]

990 Forms

Key People

Board of Directors

According to a NCPPR list last updated May 13, 2015: [8]

Horace Cooper
Attorney, Legal Commentator
Former Assistant Law Professor, George Mason University
General Counsel, Office of the U.S. House Majority Leader, 1995-2002
Elected October 19, 2010
Senior Research Fellow, Health Policy Studies
Washington, D.C.
Elected October 27, 1997
Victor Porlier
North Country Advisors
Delmar, NY
Elected October 27, 1997
Chairman, The National Center for Public Policy Research
Washington, D.C.
Elected chairman January 3, 1996; to the board 1985
David Ridenour
President, The National Center for Public Policy Research
Washington, D.C.
Elected president October 18, 2011; to the board October 27, 1997
Attorney
Reston, VA
Elected May 12, 2009
Peter Schweizer
President, Government Accountability Institute
Elected June 27, 2006
Mackenzie Canter III
Serves as Legal Counsel to the Board
Copilevitz & Canter, LLC
Washington, D.C.

Personnel

Name 2012[9] 2015[1] 2016[38] Description
Amy Ridenour Y Y Y Chairman
Bonner Cohen Y Y Y Ph.D. Senior Fellow
Bradley Krieger Y Y List Manager
Cherylyn Harley LeBon Y Y Co-Chair of Project 21
Dana Gattuso Y Y Y Senior Fellow
David Ridenour Y Y Y President
David W. Almasi Y Y Y Senior Fellow
Deneen Borelli Y Fellow, Project 21
Deroy Murdock Y Y Y Distinguished Fellow
Devon Carlin Y Research Associate
Eric Peters Y Senior Fellow
Horace Cooper Y Y Adjunct Fellow & Co-Chair of Project 21
Jeff Stier Y Y Y Senior Fellow & Risk Analysis Division Director
Jennifer Biddison Y Y Y Digital Media Specialist
Jennifer Lee Y Y Program Assistant
Joe Roche Y Y Y Adjunct Fellow
Judy Kent Y Y Y Media Director
Julianna Ustica Y Y Y Program Assistant
Justin Danhof Y Y Y General Counsel & Director of the Free Enterprise Project
Katherine Nielsen Y Development Manager
Mychal Massie Y Chairman, Advisory Board, Project 21
Nickie Kelley Y Y Y Program Assistant
R.J. Smith Y Y Y Senior Fellow
Thomas J. Borelli* Y Ph.D. Senior Fellow and Free Enterprise Project Director

*Thomas J. Borelli was the manager of Philip Morris Corporate Scientific Affairs Department circa 1990.

Center for Environmental and Regulatory Affairs (CERA) Experts

Name 2012[40] 2015[10] 2016[39]
Amy Ridenour Y Y
Bonner Cohen Y Y Y
Dana Gattuso Y Y Y
David Ridenour Y Y Y
Eric Peters Y
Justin Danhof Y Y Y
R.J. Smith Y Y Y

Actions

April 23, 2016

Jeff Steir, director of the Risk Analysis division at the National Center for Public Policy Research, authored an article in Newsweek titled “Why Are They Hiding the Good News About Fracking?“ [27] The Heartland Institute also promoted the study, quoting Steir. [28] Noble Energy, a Colorado oil and gas company, also picked up and republished Steir's story. [29]
Steir claims that researchers whose study reportedly found no evidence for fracking's contamination of drinking water had put “politics before science” by “not spending a sufficient amount of time publicizing the study’s results.” [27]
“Concerns about groundwater contamination are baseless,” Steir writes. “the study demonstrates that fracking is a safe source of jobs, prosperity and low-cost energy.” [27]

March 15, 2016

The National Center for Public Policy Research was among roughly 100 groups listed on an ExxonMobil Subpoena sent by Virgin Island Attorney General Claude E. Walker requesting correspondence between the oil company and think tanks responsible for questioning the science behind climate change. [30]

Walker's subpoena is part of a concerted effort of 17 attorneys general, who joined together in a coalition “deal with climate change,” as described by New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman.[31] The investigations started in light of a 2015 article by InsideClimateNews that suggested Exxon's own researchers had confirmed fossil fuels' role in global warming in the late 1970s to early 1980s. [32][33]

June 3, 2015

At a Google shareholder meeting, the National Center for Public Policy Research presented a shareholder resolution suggesting Google “come clean with investors about the risks associated with its alternative energy projects - many of which receive lavish taxpayer subsidies that may not continue indefinitely,” reads the NCPPR press release. [11]

A video excerpt of the meeting, featuring the National Center's Free Enterprise Project Director Justin Danhof, is available below:

April 28, 2015

When the president of the American energy company Exelon supported proposed emissions regulations under the Obama Administration, the National Center for Public Policy's Research Executive Director David W. Almasi tried to change his mind in an Exelon Shareholder Meeting. [12]

Almasi cited a study by the Heritage Foundation (an organization which itself received over $680,000 from energy giant ExxonMobil) that suggested emissions controls would raise the price of electricity and “destroy 500,000 manufacturing jobs and 45 percent of all coal-mining jobs.” [13]

March 10, 2015

National Center Free Enterprise Project Director Justin Danhof attended the Apple shareholder meeting in Cupertino, California on behalf of the NCPPR where he contributed a resolution opposing alternative energy investment.

According to the NCPPR's press release, “the National Center for Public Policy Research introduced a shareholder resolution asking the tech giant for more transparency about the risks associated with its alternative energy investments.” [14]

July 28, 2014

The National Center for Public Policy Research offered a positive review of climate change skeptic Tim Ball's book, “The Deliberate Corruption of Climate Science” in the Summer, 2014 newsletter. NCPPR describes Tim Ball as a “thorn-in-the-side of dishonest scientists everywhere and supporter of your National Center for Public Policy Research.” 

According to the NCPPR description, “The Deliberate Corruption of Climate Science explains how a small group of committed leftwingers led by Canadian anti-capitalism activist Maurice Strong seized upon 'climate change' as their issue and the United Nations as their vehicle to trick governments and populations into believing 'the only hope for the planet [is] that industrialized civilizations collapse'.”  [15]

They quote Ball saying that “The entire exercise of global warming and climate change is a deception.” [15]

June 2, 2014

The National Center for Public Policy Research released a new paper titled “Top Ten Reasons Washington Should Not Impose New Global Warming Laws or Regulations” by NCPPR Chairman Amy Ridenour. [16]

According to the NCPPR's press release, “President Obama's new climate rules for existing power plants, expected to be announced by the Environmental Protection Agency Monday morning, are unnecessary.” [3]

Jebruary 21, 2014

The National Center for Public Policy Research announced that “After years of meetings, shareholder proposals, media campaigns, protests and activism, the National Center for Public Policy Research received a commitment from General Electric that the international conglomerate will no longer engage in any environmental project solely to address so-called climate change concerns.” [34]

The NCPPR had previously submitted a shareholder proposal “for inclusion in GE's 2014 proxy statement and annual meeting materials that sought certain commitments regarding the company's sustainability operations and carbon dioxide reduction efforts.” The proposal “request[ed] that the Board of Directors adopt a policy that General Electric not undertake any energy savings or sustainability project for the sole goal of seeking carbon dioxide emissions reductions due to climate change concerns, except as required by law.” [34]

“For years, GE has been the poster boy for crony capitalism and corporate America's green energy cheerleader. Now, GE shareholders have confirmation that the company's strategies will henceforth be led by true market forces and not by blind adherence to global warming zealotry,” said Justin Danhof, Esq., NCPPR's  director of the National Center for Public Policy Research's Free Enterprise Project. [34]

February, 2010

The National Center for Public Policy Research published a blog post titled, “Climate of Confusion: Global Warming 'Science' a Blizzard of Contradictions.” [17]

The post states:

“In less than a week, two back-to-back blizzards have pummeled and paralyzed much of the East coast, bringing snow accumulations of 50-plus inches to the D.C. area and breaking records for snow accumulation in D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Atlantic City … So what's going on here? Global warming, of course. At least, that's what 'experts' are telling us.” [17]

October, 2002

Lobbyist Jack Abramoff, now a convicted and sentenced felon, was a member of NCPPR's Board of Directors until his resignation in October 2004 after NCPPR concluded he had violated the organization's conflict of interest policy. 

In October 2002, Abramoff told President Amy Ridenour to send the Mississippi Band of Choctaws an invoice for $1 million. He then told Amy to distribute the funds as follows: “$450,000 to the Capital Athletic Foundation, $500,000 to Capital Campaign Strategies and $50,000 to a company called Nurnberger and Associates, run by a Mr. Ralph Nurnberger.” [18]

Greenberg Traurig, the firm employing Abramoff, sent $1.5 million to NCPPR in June, 2003. Following directions, Ridenour distributed $250,000 to Capital Athletic Foundation and the remainder ($1,250,000) to Kay Gold LLC. According to her testimony, Amy Ridenour believed that Kay Gold was owned by Abramoff's associate, Michael Scanlon.

“It was not until 2004 that I learned that this money did not come from the Choctaw, but rather from an Internet gambling company apparently unrelated to the Choctaw Tribe […] I would have never issued any money to Kaygold if I had known that Jack was the owner because this was a clear violation of the National Center’s conflict of interest policy, which Jack had signed,” she said. [19]

Some reporters have written that NCPPR repeatedly wrote articles that aligned with the positions held by Abramoff, “suggesting possible coordination between the lobbyist and the group in violation of federal law.” [20]

February 8, 1998

NCPPR was profiled in “The Fear Merchants, ” an article criticizing the organization's direct mail fundraising in the San Francisco Examiner. [23]

According to the article, the letters targeted senior citizens, with “so-called 'fright mail,' computer-generated by self-proclaimed public policy organizations in mostly legal but controversial campaigns to raise cash.”

Amy Moritz Ridenour of NCPPR admitted that “her organization sent donors up to a dozen major pitches a month. The appeals are sent on four different letterheads. She said anyone receiving more than a dozen solicitations in a month probably was on mailing lists the National Center has 'rented' from other organizations, which she said were outside her control.”

The article also revealed that in 1995, NCPPR spent more than 77 percent of the $2.3 million it had raised that year on fundraising. The Council of Better Business Bureaus standards say fund-raising costs should not exceed 35 percent of contributions raised.

NCPPR Contact & Location

As of June 2016, the National Center for Public Policy Research listed the following contact information on their website: [37]

National Center for Public Policy Research
20 F Street, NW, Suite 700, Washington DC 20001
(202) 507-6398 
 [email protected]

Related Organizations

Envirotruth (Now Defunct) — 2002

In 2002, NCPPR launched a “Envirotruth” project, which received at least $30,000 in funding from ExxonMobil according to SourceWatch. The website no longer appears to be in operation, and hit has removed itself from the Internet Archive. [21]

According to EnviroTruth, the climate change consensus is a “Myth,” quoting climate change denier Fred Singer:

“'There is of course no consensus at all,' according to Dr. Fred Singer, President of The Science & Environmental Policy Project and Distinguished Research Professor at George Mason University and Professor Emeritus of environmental science at the University of Virginia. 'There isn't even a consensus on whether the atmosphere is currently warming – never mind on whether humanity should be held responsible.'” [25]

EnviroTruth claims that “environmental groups have seized the world stage and the public's attention by distorting facts, bending the truth and even committing acts of terrorism against innocent citizens.” [24]

The following are some of examples of what Envirotruth lists as “Myths”: [22]

  • “Humanity is the primary cause of global climate change.”
  • “Climate change is occurring at an unprecedented rate.”
  • “Sea level is rising quickly and it will get worse if the polar ice caps melt due to global warming. Coastal settlements and low-lying islands will be submerged.”
  • “Recent global temperature rise has been dramatic.”
  • “Humanity is causing earth's polar regions to warm quickly resulting in unusual rates of ice melting.”
Envirotruth published the following list of “Experts Who Contest Kyoto's Scientific Foundation and Alternative Energy,” as well as an accompanying guide on “The Myths of Climate Change and Renewable Energy”: [26]
Expert E-mail Phone Expertise - Myth# 
Dr. Tim Patterson [email protected] 613-520-2600 ext. 4425 1, 1c, 3, 4, 6
Dr. Tim Ball [email protected] 250-380-7784 1, 1a, 1b, 3,4, 5, 6
Dr. Fred Singer [email protected] 703-920-2744 1, 1b, 2, 3,4, 6
Dr. Pat Michaels [email protected] 434-924-0549 1, 1a, 1b, 2,3
Dr. Madhav Khandekar [email protected] 905-940-0105 1, 1a, 3, 4,5
Dr. Fred Michel [email protected] (613) 520 2600 ext. 4428 1c, 6, 7
Dr. Howard C. Hayden [email protected] 1, 1b, 4, 8, 9
Dr. J. Terry Rogers [email protected] 613-729-8330 8, 9
Dr. Roger Pocklington [email protected] 902-542-1903 1, 1a, 1b, 2,6
Dr. Sallie Baliunas [email protected] 617-495-7415 1, 3
Dr. Willie Soon [email protected] 617-495-7488 1, 3
Dr. John Christy [email protected] 256-961-7763 1a, 2
Dr. Chris Essex [email protected] 011-45-33156123 1, 1a, 1b, 2
Dr. Roger Peilke [email protected] 970-491-8293 1, 1a, 1b, 2
Dr. William M. Gray [email protected] 970-491-8681 1, 1b, 1c, 2,3
Dr. Fred Seitz [email protected] 212-327-8423 1, 1b, 1c, 2,3
Dr. George Taylor [email protected] 541-737-5705 1b, 1c, 2, 4,5
Dr. Sherwood Idso [email protected] 480-966-3719 1b, 3, 4
Dr. David Wojick, P.E. [email protected] 540-858-3503 1, 1a, 1b, 4
Art Robinson of OISM [email protected] 541-592-4142 1b, 2, 3, 4
Dr. Herb I. H. Saravanamuttoo [email protected] 613-241-6911 9
Dr. Robert Balling [email protected] 480-965-6265 1, 1a, 1b, 2,3, 5
Dr. Chris de Freitas [email protected] 1, 1a, 1b, 2
Dr. Petr Chylek [email protected] 902-494-2337 1, 1a, 3
Dr. Ross McKitrick [email protected] 519-824-4120 ext 2532 1, 1b
Dr. Philip Stott [email protected] 1, 1b, 4
Dr. Richard P. Lindzen [email protected] 617-253-2432 1, 1a, 1b, 2,3
Dr. Jan Veizer [email protected] 613-562-5800 ext.6461 1, 1c, 3
Dr. Paal Brekke [email protected] 1, 3
The Myths of Climate Change and Renewable Energy
Myth # Myth Description
1 Humanity is the primary cause of global climate change.
1a Computer models show catastrophic warming in the future.
1b The consensus of world scientists, as revealed by the UN's IPCC, agree - humanity is causing significant climate change.
1c Climate change is occurring at an unprecedented rate.
2 Recent global temperature rise has been dramatic.
3 The buildup of human induced greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide (co2) in particular, will cause a catastrophic planetary warming.
4 If the earth warms, it will be disastrous for the environment and human society.
5 Extreme weather events are expected to be more common if the world warms. This has already started - drought, floods, forest fires, etc. are on the rise as a result of our greenhouse gas emissions.
6 Sea-level is rising quickly and it will get worse if the polar ice caps melt due to global warming. Coastal settlements and low-lying islands will be submerged.
7 Humanity is causing earth's polar regions to warm quickly resulting in unusual rates of ice melting.
8 Kyoto will save thousands of lives by cutting air pollution.
9 Solar and wind power can soon be significant contributors to the base load energy needs of Canada.

NCPPR Departments

NCPPR maintains numerous “Departments” including:

NCPPR also runs a “Polar Bear Information Center,” a project of their Center for Environmental and Regulatory Affairs which includes a video produced by NCPPR described as “A lighthearted parody political ad points out that the global polar bear population has doubled over the last four decades.” Note that this argument, among many others by climate change skeptics, is debunked at SkepticalScience.

NCPA lists two of it's “websites” as EnviroTruth (now-defunct) and GroupSnoop. While it was running, the EnviroTruth website was strongly critical of the environmental movement. 

Heartland Institute

Bonner R. Cohen, Senior fellow at the NCPPREnvironment & Enterprise Institute,” [35] is listed as an “Expert” at the Heartland Institute and is a regular contributor to a variety of Heartland Institute publications. [36]

Resources

  1. About Us,” The National Center for Public Policy Research. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/hSm6S

  2. The Church of Global Warming,” Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog, December 16, 2009. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/56mUT

  3. (Press Release). “Top Ten Reasons to Oppose President Obama's New Climate Regulations,” The National Center for Public Policy Research, June 2, 2014. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/ThHId

  4. H. Josef Hebert. “Jokers Add Fake Names To Warming Petition,” Seattle Times, May 1, 1998. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/j4psN

  5. Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet: Myths and Facts About the Environment,” Earth Day Information Center (nationalcenter.org), National Center for Public Policy Research. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/iU17z

  6. National Center for Public Policy Research,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed May 12, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/UkmIU

  7. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: National Center for Public Policy Research, NCPPR. Accessed November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/jLGor

  8. “The National Center For Public Policy Research Current Board Of Directors” (PDF), National Center for Public Policy Research, May 13, 2014. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  9. About Us,” The National Center for Public Policy Research. Archived February 5, 2012 Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/jXG8g

  10. CERA Experts,” Center for Environmental and Regulatory Affairs.  Archived November 12, 2015.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Vm1JB

  11. (Press Release). “Free-Market Organization Asks Google to Be Transparent with Investors Regarding Cost of 'Green” Initiatives',” The National Center for Public Policy Research, June 3, 2015. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/8bGWh

  12. Exelon Shareholder Meeting Question David Almasi, Executive Director The National Center for Public Policy Research” (PDF) National Center for Public Policy Research, April 28, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  13. (Press Release). “Cynical Power Company Supports Regulations that Will Increase Its Profits, But Harm the American People,” The National Center for Public Policy Research, April 28, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/JA1xC

  14. (Press Release). “Tim Cook has Another 'Tim Cook Moment'; Denigrates Capitalism at Apple Shareholder Meeting,” The National Center for Public Policy Research March 10, 2015. Archived August 3, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/XHxS9

  15. “In the News” (PDF), The National Center for Public Policy Research, Summer 2014 issue. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. 

  16. Amy Ridenour. “Top Ten Reasons Washington Should Not Impose New Global Warming Laws or Regulations,” National Policy Analysis, June, 2014. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/k0l8X

  17. Climate of Confusion: Global Warming 'Science' a Blizzard of Contradictions,” The National Center for Public Policy Research, February, 2010. Archived November 1, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/KDGyj

  18. Hearing Before The Committee On Indian Affairs United States Senate One Hundred Ninth Congress First Session On Oversight Hearing Regarding Tribal Lobbying Matters, Et Al,” Senate Hearing 109-135, From the U.S. Government Printing Office, June 22, 2005. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/ag0XF

  19. “Statement of Amy Moritz Ridenour At the Hearing before the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs on Lobbying practices Involving Indian Tribes” (PDF), Committee on Indian Affairs United States Senate, June 22, 2005. Archived June 24, 2005.

  20. John Byrne and Ron Brynaert. “Washington nonprofit where Abramoff was director wrote articles favoring Abramoff clients,” The Raw Story, March 8, 2006. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/XslKZ

  21. Envirotruth,” SourceWatch. Accessed November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/LGly0

  22. “Myths and Envirotruth Regarding Climate Change,” EnviroTruth.org. Archived at WebArchive January 18, 2006. *Archive no longer available online.

  23. Diana Walsh. “The fear merchants,” San Francisco Examiner, February 8, 1998. Archived November 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/m5Gal

  24. About Envirotruth,” EnviroTruth.org. Archived October 13, 2013. 

  25. MYTH #1b: 'The Consensus of World Scientists, as Revealed by the UN's IPCC, Agree - Humanity is Causing Significant Climate Change',” EnviroTruth.org. Archived September 4, 2013. 

  26. Some of the Experts Who Contest Kyoto's Scientific Foundation and Alternative Energy,” EnviroTruth.org. Archived January 12, 2014. 

  27. Jeff Steir. “Why Are They Hiding the Good News About Fracking?“ NewsWeek, April 23, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/FDZFD

  28. Michael McGrady. “Study: Water Quality Unaffected by Fracking,” The Heartland Institute, May 11, 2016. Archived May 12, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/MI0zH

  29. Jeff Steir. “University Researchers Put Fracking Politics Before Science,” Newsweek. Republished at NobleColorado.com, April 25, 2016. Archived May 12, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/ZxFMn

  30. “To Whom It May Concern,” Department of Justice Office of the Attorney General, March 15, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  31. Ben Jervey. “State Investigations Into What Exxon Knew Double, and Exxon Gets Defensive,” DeSmogBlog, April 1, 2016.

  32. Neela Banerjee, Lisa Song, and David Hasemyer. “Exxon's Own Research Confirmed Fossil Fuels' Role in Global Warming Decades Ago,” InsideClimateNews, September 16, 2015. Archived May 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/82IbI

  33. Brendan DeMelle and Kevin Grandia. “'There is no doubt': Exxon Knew CO2 Pollution Was A Global Threat By Late 1970s,” DeSmogBlog, April 26, 2016.

  34. (Press Release). “Leading Free-Market Activists Score Major Concession on Global Warming-Related Spending from General Electric,” National Center for Public Policy Research. Archived August 3, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/L31uN

  35. BONNER COHEN, PH.D. SENIOR FELLOW,” The National Center for Public Policy Research. Archived May 13, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/NLFAo

  36. Newspaper Articles – Bonner R. Cohen,” Heartland Institute. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/YheyL

  37. NationalCenter.org Homepage. Archived June 8, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/oXdYO

  38. About Us,” National Center for Policy Analysis. Archived August 2, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/doZZK

  39. CERA Experts,” Center for Environmental and Regulatory Affairs. Archived August 2, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/C2ko6

  40. CERA Experts,” Center for Environmental and Regulatory Affairs. Archived August 5, 2012. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/PQZBM

Other Resources