Myron Ebell


Myron Ebell


  • M.Sc. from the London School of Economics. [1]
  • B.A. from Colorado College. [1]


Myron Ebell is the director of energy and global warming policy at the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) and director of Freedom Action, a “web-based grassroots activist organization loosely affiliated with CEI.” He is also the chair of the Cooler Heads Coalition. [1], [2]

According to an article in Vanity Fair, “Though he likes to bash scientists for working outside their degreed fields, Ebell, it turns out, isn't a scientist at all. He majored in philosophy at the University of California in San Diego, then studied political theory at the London School of Economics and history at Cambridge.” [3]

In March 2010, the Financial Times called Mr. Ebell “one of America's most prominent climate-change skeptics.” In July 2009, the Business Insider's Green Sheet named him third in its list of the Ten Most-Respected Global Warming Skeptics and commented that “Myron Ebell may be enemy #1 to the current climate change community.” [1]

In March 2001, the nonprofit Clean Air Trust named Ebell its “clean air villain of the month,” citing his “ferocious lobbying charge to persuade President Bush to reverse his campaign pledge to control electric utility emissions of carbon dioxide.” [4]

Stance on Climate Change

“True, the climate is always changing. The fact is, however, that a very moderate amount of warming that we've seen in the last century is not a very sound basis to believe that we're going to have a new ice age.” [5]

Key Quotes

July, 2016

Speaking at private, undisclosed meetings held by the Republican Attorneys General Association (RAGA) in Colorado, Ebell urged the GOP attorneys general to continue their effort to push back against ExxonMobil investigation led by NY AG Eric Schneiderman:

So what does the other side do?” Ebell said. “Well, the first thing they try to do is try to change reality. They try to change the facts. So they try to reinterpret the data… What a number of the attorneys general here today have done is support our rights to free speech and freedom of association…we are very grateful and I think it had a big impact.” [66]


“I think he's [the Pope] very ill-informed and he is ill-judged in doing this [climate change encyclical].” [6]


“The policies being promoted are insane… If you believe energy poverty is a good thing, you should support controls on carbon emissions. But most of the world disagrees with that.” [7]


“Every interview I do, when I'm asked about scientific issues, I say I'm not a climate scientist. I'm just giving you the informed layman's perspective. […]” [3]


In an October 2006 BBC interview, Ebell pointed out that ExxonMobil would probably not fund the CEI if it changed its stance on global warming. [8]


BBC: Myron Ebell why do you imagine that Exxon gives you money?

Ebbel: You know, I think that the attempt here to claim that only the purest of the pure can engage in the public policy debate…

BBC: Please answer the question Mr. Ebell, why do you imagine they give you money?

Ebell: Because we send them letters asking them to support our general programs which… our general program is simply this: we believe in free markets and we support policies that promote less regulation of people's daily lives.

BBC: And they would presumably not be giving you that money if they felt you for taking a different view on, say for example climate change.

Ebell: I suppose that's right. We develop our policies and then we try to find funding.


“We've always wanted to get the science on trial […] we would like to figure out a way to get this into a court of law […] this could work.”  [31]


“[A]s previous studies have concluded, the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are probably thickening rather than melting.” [9]


“Kyoto is dead and has been dead, but that doesn't mean that it hasn't done some real damage and won't continue to do some real damage,” “If global warming turns out to be a problem, which I doubt, it won't be solved by making ourselves poorer through energy rationing.” “It will be solved through building resiliency and capability into society and through long-term technological innovation and transformation.” [10]

Key Deeds

September, 2016

Myron Ebell was selected by Donald Trump to lead his U.S. EPA transition team, reports Scientific American. [64], [65]

“Ebell's views appear to square with Trump’s when it comes to EPA’s agenda. Trump has called global warming 'bullshit' and he has said he would 'cancel' the Paris global warming accord and roll back President Obama’s executive actions on climate change.” [65]

Desmog noted that earlier in August, climate change denier Kathleen Hartnett-White, director of the energy and environment project at the Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF) joined Trump's “Economic Advisory team.” [64]

July 11, 2016

Myron Ebell attended private, undisclosed meetings held by the Republican Attorneys General Association (RAGA) in Colorado to coordinate on defending ExxonMobil and push back against climate change legislation. [66]

Representatives at the event included representatives from the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) and the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM), both of which have received funding from the petroleum industry or ExxonMobil. [66]

The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) reports Ebell urged the GOP attorneys general to continue their effort to push back against ExxonMobil investigation led by NY AG Eric Schneiderman:

So what does the other side do?” Ebell said. “Well, the first thing they try to do is try to change reality. They try to change the facts. So they try to reinterpret the data… What a number of the attorneys general here today have done is support our rights to free speech and freedom of association…we are very grateful and I think it had a big impact.” [66]

Ebell spoke in a panel presentation titled “Climate Change Debate: How Speech is Being Stifled” alongside Attorneys General Luther Strange and Scott Pruitt, as well as Chet Thompson, President of the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers. [67]

July, 2016

Myron Ebell criticized a letter to Congress from 31 science associations advocating policies to combat climate change, reports The Washington Times. [61]

On June 28, 2016, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) issued the letter and a press release introducing the letter, describing it as a  partnership of 31 leading nonpartisan scientific societies “reaffirming the reality of human-caused climate change, noting that greenhouse gas emissions 'must be substantially reduced' to minimize negative impacts on the global economy, natural resources, and human health.” [62]

The letter (PDF) addresses Members of Congress, writing to remind “of the consensus scientific view of climate change.” [63]

Ebell claims most of the letter’s signers “have little or no expertise in climate science, and virtually none knows anything special about making public policies.” [61]

In this case, the policies being advocated will destroy millions of jobs and cost trillions of dollars, but many of the professionals represented by these associations will probably do very well from more government funding,” Ebell said. [61]

May 18, 2016

Myron Ebell was a signatory to a full page color advertisement in The New York Times titled “Abuse of Power” (PDF) sponsored by The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI).  The ad serves as an open letter from 43 signatories including organizations and individuals in response to  New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, U.S. Virgin Islands Attorney General Claude Walker, and the coalition of AttorneysGeneral investigating groups denying man-made climate change[58][59]

Attempts to intimidate CEI and our allies and silence our policy research are unconstitutional,” said CEI president Kent Lassman. “The First Amendment protects us and everyone has a duty to respect it – even state attorneys general.  CEI will continue to fight for all Americans to support the causes in which they believe.” [58]

The Competitive Enterprise Institute received a subpoena from AG Walker on April 7, 2016. On April 20, CEI filed an objection to the subpoena calling it “offensive,” “un-American,” and “unlawful,” and are contending that AG Walker is “violating CEI’s First Amendment rights.”  [58]

The “freedom of speech” argument was echoed by ExxonMobil's legal team, as well as numerous other conservative groups including the Pacific Legal Foundation, and Heritage Foundation and the recently-formed Free Speech in Science Project, a group created by the same lawyers who defended the Competitive Enterprise Institute in the past. [60]

The CEI letter lists the following signatories:

December 22, 2015

Myron Ebell, after attending the framework conference on climate change in Paris, went on Federalist Radio to discuss his views.

I don’t want to say it’s a disaster, but I think it is potentially a disaster for humankind and not necessarily any good for the planet,” Ebell said. With regards to Obama and John Kerry's comments that Global Warming is our largest security threat, Ebell said  “This is an attempt to change the subject. It’s to get off real dealing with problems that have very serious dangers and consequences and moving to this kind of feel-good issue of global warming.” [57]

Audio below.

August 5, 2015

Myron Ebell, of the Competitive Enterprise Institute, was interviewed alongside of the Environmental Defense Fund’s Jeremy Symons on the August 5 edition of CSPAN's Washington Journal. During the interview, EDF’s Symons “confronted” Ebell about his sources of funding, asking, “Isn't Murray Energy your biggest funder of your dinner? They're the biggest coal company in the United States for underground mining.” [11]

Ebell responded:

“I'd like to see a lot more funding from all of those companies, but unfortunately many of the coal companies are now going bankrupt … I would like to have more funding so that I can combat the nonsense put out by the environmental movement.” [11]

Watch Myron Ebell’s interview on CSPAN, below:

June 11-12, 2015

Myron Ebell was a speaker on Panel 14: “Action Items for Policymakers,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with Marc Morano and Bette Grande. [12]

View Myron Ebell’s Panel 14 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: [13]

June 18, 2015

Myron Ebell released a statement on Pope Francis's Encyclical on Climate Change at the Competitive Enterprise Institute. [14]

“Global warming is a moral issue, but a proper moral evaluation must include comparing the impacts of global warming, which may be bad, with the impacts of global warming policies, which will almost certainly be catastrophic.  The Pope’s encyclical misses that significant matter,” Ebell Writes. [14]

February, 2015

Ebell spoke up to defend Willie Soon after pieces were published in The Guardian and the New York Times that accuse Soon of failing to disclose a conflict of interest in recent scientific papers. The New York Times writes ”[Soon] has accepted more than $1.2 million in money from the fossil-fuel industry over the last decade while failing to disclose that conflict of interest in most of his scientific papers.” These articles were written in light of documents obtained by Greenpeace through freedom of information filings. [15], [16]

“Soon's integrity in the scientific community shines out,” says Ebell. “He has foregone his own career advancement to advance scientific truth. If he had only mouthed establishment platitudes, he could've been named to head a big university [research center] like Michael Mann.” [17]

July 7 - 9, 2014

Myron Ebell was a speaker at the Heartland Institute’s Ninth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC9) in Las Vegas, Nevada. [18]

DeSmogBlog researched speakers and sponsors from Heartland's ICCC9, noting the conference attempted to boost attendance by coordinating with “Freedomfest,” another conservative event. [19]

December, 2014

As a relatively new line of criticism coming from climate change skeptics, Myron Ebell argued that delegates from Third World countries largely appear at events such as talks in Lima just to collect a per diem payment and “shop in glamouris cities,” as phrased by the Republic Report in their article “Deniers' Latest Attack on UN Summit: Poor Countries' Delegates Show Up Just for the Per Diem.” [20]

“It's very desirable for them to go to international conferences in nice locales, and bring their wives and you know, have extra payments,” Ebell said. “The United Nations pays these delegates from poor countries to attend and so it's very attractive to keep it going.” [20]

May 21 - 23, 2012

Myron Ebell was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 7th International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC7) where he spoke on “Obama's War on Affordable Energy” (video below). [21]

DeSmogBlog researched the co-sponsors behind Heartland's ICCC7 and found that they had collectively received over $67 million from ExxonMobil, the Koch Brothers and the conservative Scaife family foundations. [22]

March 8-10, 2009

Myron Ebell was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 2009 International Conference on Climate Change. [23]


Myron Ebell participated in the “Climate Chains” video along with deniers Chris Horner, Marlo Lewis, Patrick Michaels, and Todd Wynn.

The video claims that “One of the greatest threats to freedom and prosperity in America is climate change legislation.” The video was organized by the Cascade Policy Institute. [24]

February 10, 2006

The George Marshall Institute (GMI) and Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) co-hosted a panel discussion titled “The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond: A Roundtable Discussion on the Future of International and U. S. Climate Policy”  that included Senator James Inhofe, Myron Ebell, William O'Keefe, Christopher Horner, and Andrew Wheeler. [37]

“The Senator will present four short speeches questioning the four pillars on which the alarmist view of climate change is based: the 2001 National Academy of Sciences report, the IPCC‘s reliance on Michael Mann‘s discredited ―hockey stick‖ model, the Arctic climate impact assessment report, and the flawed data produced by climate models,” read the event summary. [37]

May 11, 2005

Myron Ebell / the Competitive Enterprise Institute may have been involved in emails relating to the investigation of climate scientists by the U.S. House Energy and Commerce Committee under Republican representatives Joe Barton and Ed Whitfield.

Deep Climate reported that the Energy and Commerce Committee “refused the offer of a proper scientific review from the National Academy of Sciences in favour of an investigative process that was ad hoc, biased and unscientific.” The original Barton-Whitfield investigation was inspired by the allegations of Steve McIntyre, with the defining impetus being “a little known Cooler Heads Coalition-Marshall Institute sponsored presentation by McIntyre and sidekick economist Ross McKitrick in Washington barely a month beforehand.” [43]

McIntyre's “Upcoming Washington Trip” on Capitol Hill which would be their second presentation for the CHC/GMI. See M&M’s presentation here. [50] Both Jeff Keuter of the Marshall Institute and Myron Ebell (representing CEI) were present.

McIntyre presented technical analysis where he purported to show various techniques of “cherrypicking” among paleoclimatologists. He also discussed his complaints regarding Michael Mann's data, as had been previously mentioned in a Wall Street Journal article. [42]

Drawing from this analysis and the roundtable discussion, committee chair Joe Barton and subcommittee chair Ed Whitfield launched an investigation of “hockey stick” authors Michael Mann, Raymond Bradley and Malcolm Hughes. The investigation began with letters of inquiry sent to Mann, Bradley and Hughes, that focused on both data and details of funding and past research associations. Letters were later sent to Rajenda Pachauri, IPCC chair, and Arden Bement, director of the National Science Foundation. [44], [45], [46], [47], [48]

At the time, Myron Ebell boasted to BBC News

We’ve always wanted to get the science on trial,” and “we would like to figure out a way to get this into a court of law,” adding “this could work.” [31]

John Mashey notes that Myron Ebell sent out a combined document of the Barton/Whitfield letters to Perhach just 90 minutes after the documents were created by McGinley, suggesting that he may have had early access to the letters: [49][54] 

“McGinley created 5 PDF files from 4:11PM to 4:15PM, and presumably placed them on the
House website about that time or a little later (A.9.6). But Perhach received a combined copy from Ebell
around 5:47PM, about 90 minutes later, impressive work for late Friday afternoon, unless Ebell had gotten
text files even earlier. The email‘s blind copy (BCC) format strongly hints that it was sent to other people
as well. This was efficient electronic execution, especially compared to faxing letters to people who might
well be away on travel.

How did Ebell know? Why were the letters in Ebell’s hands before recipients were guaranteed to have
seen them? Does this sound like a legitimate request, or a PR tactic to put these letters in “friendly” hands
before the recipients could possibly take action on them?”

Mashey notes several emails showing Ebell's relationship with Cooney and Perhach, while others promoted the McKitrick and Essex talk. Recipients lists “included an interesting mix of Senate and House
staffers, ExxonMobil, Peabody Energy, Singer, Ferguson, and at least some lobbyists.” Some emails of interest include the following:

6/03/02 Email Ebell to Cooney (“Phil, thanks for calling and asking for our help.”) [52]
Shows clear communication between Cooney and Ebell.

02/22/03 Email Sills to Perhach, etc, recommending Essex&McKitrick talk [53]

06/24/05 Email Ebell to Perhach (and likely, others) Barton/Whitfield Letters [54] 

06/29/05 Email Ebell to Perhach (and likely, others) on “McLieberman”) [55]

February 9, 2005

Myron Ebell was a panelist at a congressional and media briefing titled “The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond
: A Roundtable Discussion on the Future of International and U. S. Climate Policy
” sponsored by the Cooler Heads Coalition (CHC) and the George C. Marshall Institute. [38]

The following panelists were listed: [38]

  • Senator James M. Inhofe (R- Oklahoma), Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee
  • Dr. Harlan L. Watson, Senior Climate Negotiator and Special Representative at the U.S. Department of State
  • William O’Keefe, CEO of the George C. Marshall Institute
  • Myron Ebell, Director of Global Warming Policy at the Competitive Enterprise Institute
  • Christopher C. Horner, Counsel to the Cooler Heads Coalition
  • Jeff Kueter, Moderator, President of the George C. Marshall Institute

March 20, 2004

Myron Ebell was a speaker at “NCPA Earth Day Briefing on Global Warming' titled “What Do We Really Know vs. What We Are Told.” [25]

November, 2004

In 2004 The British House of Commons censured Myron Ebell “in the strongest possible terms” for his “unfounded and insulting criticism of Sir David King, The Government's Chief Scientist.” King has notably argued that “climate change is the most severe problem that we are facing today.” [26], [27]

November 18, 2003

The Competitive Enterprise Institute/Cooler Heads Coalition sponsored a visit from Ross McKitrick and Stephen McIntyre (M&M) at a “Washington Roundtable on Science and Public Policy” introducing them to the George Marshall Institute (GMI). The CEI and GMI paid for McIntyre's expenses: [36]

Myron Ebell: “As you probably all know, we have done a lot of these. I think this is one of the most interesting ones, because I think we are just at the beginning of what I think will be a major controversy.” [36]

Stephen McIntyre: “My name is Steve McIntyre. I‘d like to express my appreciation to Marshall Institute and CEI for paying my expenses down here.” [36]

Deep Climate reports that MckItrick and McIntyre's Washington Roundtable visit came shortly after they had published their first joint paper in the Energy and Environment titled “Corrections to the Mann et al (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemispheric Average Temperature Series” (PDF). [39], [40]

David Appell questioned M&M about the rigour of the paper's peer-review, given the short timeframe of publication, but “met with stonewalling from McKitrick.” Deep Climate reports E&E editor-in-chief Sonia Boehmer-Christiansen had rushed the paper into publication for “policy impact reasons, e.g. publication well before COP9.” [39]

At the time, both the CEI and the Marshall Institute were receiving funding from ExxonMobil. Myron Ebell and the Marshall Institute president (and American Petroleum Institute ex-COO) William O’Keefe were both implicated in Bush administration efforts to water down official reports on climate science, according to the Government Accountability Project report “Redacting the Science of ClimateChange” (PDF). [41]

The Wall Street Journal reports that McKitrick was paid $1,000 and had his travel costs covered by the Competitive enterprise Institute, while McIntyre said he took no payment. [42]

February 27, 2003

Myron Ebell was listed as the contact for a Cooler-Heads-Coalition-sponsored “Congressional and Media Briefing” with Christopher Essex and Ross McKitrick at the Senate Everett Dirksen Building where Essex and McKitrick promoted their new book, Taken By Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming. [34]

September 30, 2002

The Cooler Heads Coalition (CHC) sponsored a Congressional briefing by climate change denier Richard Lindzen titled “On The Meaning of Global Warming Claims.” [51]

June 3, 2002

Ebell collaborated with Phil Cooney, chief of staff at the White House Council on Environmental Quality, to cover up the findings of an EPA report on climate change. President Bush's staff insisted on several major alterations to the report. [28]

October 11, 2001

The Cooler Heads Coalition (CHC), which Ebell chairs, sponsored a US Congress briefing by Ross McKitrick titled “What’s Wrong With Regulating Carbon Dioxide Emissions?[35]

The briefing concludes, “sound reasoning rejects all forms of regulations on CO2 emissions for the foreseeable future.” [35]

April, 1998

Myron Ebell was listed as a member of the “Global Climate Science Communications Team” (GCSCT) who contributed to a 1998 Global Climate Science Communications Plan organized by the American Petroleum Institute (API).

The New York Times described the GCSCT as “An informal group of people working for big oil companies, trade associations and conservative policy research organizations” who oppose a treaty to fight global warming. [32]

The following is taken from the 1998 memo by the API: [33]

“Victory Will Be Achieved When

“Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the “conventional wisdom”
Media 'understands' (recognizes) uncertainties in climate science
Media coverage reflects balance on climate science and recognition of the validity of viewpoints that challenge the current “conventional wisdom”
Industry senior leadership understands uncertainties in climate science, making them stronger ambassadors to those who shape climate policy
Those promoting the Kyoto treaty on the basis of extent science appears to be out of touch with reality.

“Current Reality

Unless 'climate change' becomes a non-issue, meaning that the Kyoto proposal is defeated and there are no further initiatives to thwart the threat of climate change, there may be no moment when we can declare victory for our efforts. It will be necessary to establish measurements for the science effort to track progress toward achieving the goal and strategic success.”

Members of the “Global Climate Science Communications Team” who the API said  “contributed to the development of the plan” were listed as follows: [33]


Freedom Action is a “grassroots movement” founded in 2009 by the CEI.

Freedom Action believes in “individual rights,” “free markets” “and limited governments.” Links to three of Ebell's articles appear on the site including one that describes Al Gore as “the leader of the forces of darkness.” All three of the articles were published by Fox News. [30]


Myron Ebell has not published any articles in peer-reviewed journals on the subject of climate change. He has published many articles skeptical of climate change in newspapers, blogs, and magazines. A list of Ebell's publications is available at the Competitive Enterprise Institute.

Notable Publications


  1. Myron Ebell: Director, Center for Energy and Environment,” Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived December 29, 2011.

  2. Myron Ebell: Director, Center for Energy and Environment,” Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived May 29, 2016. WebCite URL

  3. Michael Shnayerson. “A Convenient Unruth,” Vanity Fair, May 2007. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  4. Clean Air Villain of the Month,”, March 15, 2001. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  5. Myron Ebell on Fox Hannity and Colmes,” The Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 25, 2004. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  6. Suzanne Goldenberg. “Republicans' leading climate denier tells the pope to butt out of climate debate,” The Guardian, June 11, 2015. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  7. Associated Press on Climate Hearing: Warmists Clash With Skeptics in 3-Hour Congressional Global Warming Debate: AGW Called 'Sub-prime science' - Carbon-based energy like coal is 'one of the greatest liberators in the history of mankind,'” Climate Depot, May 30, 2013. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite

  8. Kevin Grandia. “The Competitive Enterprise Institute and all that's fit to spin,” DeSmogBlog, October 18, 2006.

  9. Second Senate Vote on Kyoto-Lite Bill is Delayed Again,” Cooler Heads Digest, Vol. VIII, No 14 (July 7, 2004). Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL]

  10. Into Thin Air,” New York Times, December 4, 2003. Republished by Archived May 30, 2016.

  11. Competitive Enterprise Institute's Myron Ebell: ‘I’d Like To See A Lot More Funding’ From Big Coal,” Media Matters For America, August 5, 2015. Archived August 11, 2015. WebCite URL

  12. Speakers,” Archived June 30, 2015.], [“Myron Ebell,” Archived Jue 23, 2015. 

  13. Panel 14: Action Items for Policymakers with Marc Morano, Bette Grande, and Myron Ebell,” Heartland Institute, June 11, 2015. Archived July 15, 2015.

  14. Myron Ebell. “Statement on Pope's Encyclical on Climate Change,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, June 18, 2015. Archived June 24, 2015. WebCite URL

  15. Suzanne Goldenberg. “Work of prominent climate change denier was funded by energy industry,” The Guardian. February 21, 2015. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  16. Justin Gillis and John Schwarts. “Deeper Ties to Corporate Cash for Doubtful Climate Researcher,” The New York Times. February 21, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  17. Henry Payne. “Global Warming: Follow the Money,” National Review, February 25, 2015. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  18. Speakers,” 9th International Conference on Climate Change. Archived July 14, 2014.

  19. Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmogBlog, July 7, 2014.

  20. Lee Fang. “Deniers' Latest Attack on UN Summit: Poor Countries’ Delegates Show Up Just for the Per Diem,” Republic Report, December 11, 2014.

  21. Myron Ebell, ICCC7,” Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  22. Brendan DeMelle. “Heartland Denial-a-Palooza Sponsors Have Received $67 Million From ExxonMobil, Koch and Scaife Foundations,” DeSmogBlog, May 22, 2012.

  23. Heartland Institute/International Conference on Climate Change (2009),” SourceWatch.

  24. About the Experts,” Archived April 1, 2010. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  25. NCPA Earth Day Briefing on Global Warming: 'What Do We Really Know vs. What We Are Told',” U.S. Newswire, March 20, 2004. Archived January 30, 2006. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  26. Chris Mooney. “Some Like It Hot,” Mother Jones, May/June 2005 Issue. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  27. Motion to Censure Myron Ebell,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, November 16, 2004. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  28. Bush covers up climate research,” The Observer, September 21, 2003. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL:

  29. About Us,” Freedom Action. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL:

  30. Myron Ebell. “Al Gore Returns,”, March 2, 2010. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  31. Roland Pease. “Politics plays climate 'hockey',” BBC News, July 19, 2005. Archived May 30. 2016. WebCite URL

  32. John H. Cushman Jr. “INDUSTRIAL GROUP PLANS TO BATTLE CLIMATE TREATY,” The New York Times, April 26, 1998.  Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  33. “Global warming: The campaign by the American Petroleum Institute,” e_wesker. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  34. Cooler Heads Coalition Briefing With Christopher Essex And Ross McKitrick,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, February 26, 2003. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  35. Ross McKitrick. “What’s Wrong With Regulating Carbon Dioxide Emissions?” (PDF), October, 2001. Retrieved from McKitrick's web page at the University of Guelph. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  36. Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick. “The IPCC, the 'Hockey Stick' Curve, and the Illusion of Experience” (PDF), George C. Marshall Institute, November 18, 2003. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  37. U.S. Climate Policy After Kyoto’s Ratification” (PDF), George C. Marshall Institute News, Vol. 7, No. 1 (March, 2005). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. 

  38. William Yeatman. “The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond: Roundtable discussion on the future of climate policy,” The Cooler Heads Coalition, February 9, 2005. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  39. Steve McIntyre and Ross McKitrick, part 1: In the beginning,” Deep Climate, February 4, 2010. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL:

  40. Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick. CORRECTIONS TO THE MANN et. al. (1998) PROXY DATA BASE AND NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC AVERAGE TEMPERATURE SERIES” (PDF), Energy & Environment, Vol. 14, No. 6 (2003). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  41. Tarek Maassarani and Jay Dyckman. REDACTING THE SCIENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE: AN INVESTIGATIVE AND SYNTHESIS REPORT” (PDF), Government Accountability Project, March 2007. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  42. Antonio Regalado. “In Climate Debate, The 'Hockey Stick' Leads to a Face-Off,” The Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2005. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  43. Steve McIntyre and Ross McKitrick, part 2: The story behind the Barton-Whitfield investigation and the Wegman Panel,” DeepClimate, February 8, 2010. Archived May 30, 2016. WebCite URL

  44. “Dear Dr. Mann” (PDF), June 23, 2005. Retrieved from Archived.pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  45. “Dear Dr. Bradley” (PDF), June 23, 2005. Retrieved from Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  46. “Dear Dr. Hughes” (PDF), June 23, 2005. Retrieved from 

  47. “Dear Chairman Pachauri” (PDF),  June 23, 2005. Retrieved from Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  48. “Dear Dr. Bement” (PDF), June 23, 2005. Retrieved from Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

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