Steven J. Milloy
- Juris Doctorate, University of Baltimore.
- Master of Laws (Securities regulation), Georgetown University Law Center.
- Master of Health Sciences (Biostatistics), Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health.
- B.A., Natural Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.
Steve Milloy was most recently the Director  of External Policy and Strategy at Murray Energy Corp, which claims to be the largest privately-owned coal producer in the United States. He held the position from October 2013 until May 2015. Milloy is the publisher of the websites JunkScience.com , a former columnist for Fox News , co-creator and manager of the Free Enterprise Action Fund, an adjunct scholar with the right-wing think-tank the Competitive Enterprise Institute  and the president of the business consulting firm Steven J. Milloy, Inc.  Milloy is also a Senior Policy Fellow at the Environment and Energy Legal Institute. 
On his website, Steve “The Junkman” Milloy proclaims himself a pioneer fighting against “faulty scientific data used to advance special, and often hidden, agendas.”
Steve Milloy has been associated with the major American tobacco companies since at least 1997. In 1997, he took over as the executive director of The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC), a front group set up by Philip Morris in 1993 and run by the public relations firm APCO & Associates . The main objective of TASSC was to question the science showing detrimental effects of cigarette smoke. The idea was for TASSC to create an extensive grassroots campaign where it would be promoted as a legitimate scientific source.
The coalition created materials and reprinted news articles to distribute to TASSC audiences, found “appropriate scientists/spokespeople” to participate in and promote the coalition's message, and established a nationwide media tour defaming “unsound science” on radio and television and in newspapers. According to PRWatch.org , Philip Morris budgeted $880,000 for TASSC in 1994. 
When Steve Milloy took over as executive director of TASSC in 1997, he cited  TASSC-sponsored website Junkscience.com, of which he was also publisher, as a tool in promoting the coalition's message. 
Philip Morris quietly retired TASSC in 1998. However, according to Tim Lambert's Deltoid blog  and The New Republic, Steve Milloy was still under contract as a consultant with Philip Morris through 2005. In both 2000 and 2001 Milloy charged Philip Morris $92,500 in fees and expenses for his consulting work. 
Stance on Climate Change
In the 2006 article, “The Greenhouse Myth ,” Steve Milloy stated that the “doubling of atmospheric CO2 from pre-Industrial Revolution days might increase global temperature from between 0.5 degrees Centigrade to 1.5 degrees Centigrade – that is, not much.” He went on to declare that anthropogenic climate change is not based on “actual temperature measurements and greenhouse physics – rather it comes from manmade computer models relying on myriad assumptions and guesswork.” 
“I think it [the encyclical] is going to be a big mistake for him [Pope Francis]. I think he is going to come out with a document that is going to be ripped to shreds.” 
Red Pope calls for 'CULTURAL REVOLUTION.' Been there, done that. pic.twitter.com/hpHYerA9PS — Steve Milloy (@JunkScience) June 18, 2015 
April 22, 2014
Speaking at The Heritage Foundation's Happy Earth Day: Dispelling Environmental Myths and Celebrating Human Achievement  event, Milloy, at 36:03 states:
“Coal is ground-zero in the environmental wars, and it is the most important battle that we’re fighting today. The overarching eco-myth that I will debunk is the one about coal being a dirty form of energy that our country can do without. First, I am going to talk about the need for coal and then discuss the wanton and reckless smearing and elimination of it. The coal industry helps generate about 40% of the U.S.’ electricity. Coal makes the lowest cost and most reliable electricity. The coal industry, directly or indirectly, employs about 800,000 people, generates 50 billion dollars in labor income, and contributes about 100 billion dollars to GDP. Yet, these impressive statistics don’t somehow come close to doing justice to the benefits America, and the world, derive from the tremendous natural resource that is coal, of which we are blessed to have a several hundred-year supply.” 
At 39:52 Milloy goes on to say:
“Of the many guises of the “War on Coal,” global warming is perhaps the most used excuse… Simple math shows that the Obama war on coal, for purposes of climate control, is futile. Even if U.S.’ CO2 emissions stopped today and were to be zero for the remainder of this century, atmospheric CO2 levels would only decrease by about 3%. There would be no measurable impact on global climate, at a cost of 25% of global GDP. We can debate the science of global warming to our heart’s content, and we should, but the reality is worldwide hydrocarbon use is increasing. By itself, China is adding the equivalent of the entire U.S. coal fleet between now and 2020, India is adding 71 gigawatts of coal power between now and 2018—almost as much as the Obama EPA has already shuttered. Obama’s unilateral actions are all based on “junk science” that will accomplish nothing except hurt our standard of living, devastate coal communities, raise electricity prices for all, and cause power outages.” 
June 21, 2012
“There's really only about 25 of us doing this. A core group of skeptics. It's a ragtag bunch, very Continental Army. I'm happy to be a denier.” 
May 26, 2011
“Yes, what logic … brilliant… . I don’t know anything … so rather than keeping my big fat mouth shut until I learn something, I'll side with the likes of Al Gore, Osama bin Laden, Charles Manson, the Discovery Channel gunman, Nancy Pelosi, Barack Obama, Harry Reid, Henry Waxman, Bobby Rush and every other whacked out, intellectually and morally bankrupt believer in global warming.” 
February 1, 2006
“Our opposition to global warming alarmism is based on three points. First, we don't believe the available scientific data indicate that human activity is measurably changing global climate - history shows that natural climate change can be far more significant than any slight change in climate that may have occurred over the last 200 years.
“Second, even if human activity is altering global climate to some extent, such climate change might actually be beneficial - historically, civilization has fared better in warmer climatic conditions as opposed to cooler climatic conditions.
“Third, even if humans are undesirably affecting global climate, the best path forward may be adaptation to that climate change rather than harming the global economy through the expenditure of hundreds of billion dollars under the questionable rationale that greenhouse gas regulation can act as some sort of global thermostat.” 
“When the Clean Air Act was enacted in 1970, air pollution in the U.S. was more of an aesthetic than a public health problem. That is even more the case today. Few people realize this after 30 years of non-stop junk science-fueled alarmism from environmental activists.” 
September 1, 2015
“Virtually every environmental policy I've seen since the early 1990s has been basically politics and not science.” 
May 18, 2016
Steve Milloy was a signatory to a full page color advertisement  in The New York Times titled “Abuse of Power” (PDF)  sponsored by The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) . The ad serves as an open letter from 43 signatories including organizations and individuals in response to New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, U.S. Virgin Islands Attorney General Claude Walker, and the coalition of Attourneys General investigating groups denying man-made climate change . , 
“Attempts to intimidate CEI and our allies and silence our policy research are unconstitutional,” said CEI president Kent Lassman. “The First Amendment protects us and everyone has a duty to respect it – even state attorneys general. CEI will continue to fight for all Americans to support the causes in which they believe.” 
The Competitive Enterprise Institute  received a subpoena from AG Walker on April 7, 2016. On April 20, CEI filed an objection to the subpoena calling it “offensive,” “un-American,” and “unlawful,” and are contending that AG Walker is “violating CEI’s First Amendment rights.” 
The “freedom of speech” argument was echoed by ExxonMobil's legal team , as well as numerous other conservative groups including the Pacific Legal Foundation , and Heritage Foundation  and the recently-formed Free Speech in Science Project , a group created by the same lawyers who defended the Competitive Enterprise Institute in the past. 
The CEI letter lists the following signatories:
- Kent Lassman — President & CEO, Competitive Enterprise Institute
- C. Boyden Gray  — Former White House Counsel
- Andrew C. McCarthy — Former Chief Assistant United States Attorney, Southern District of New York
- Michael B. Mukasey — U.S. Attorney General, 2007-2009; U.S. District Judge, 1988-2006
- Ross McKitrick  — Professor of Economics, University of Guelph
- Ronald D. Rotunda — Distinguished Professor of Jurisprudence, Chapman University
- Richard S. Lindzen  — Professor Emeritus of Atmospheric Sciences, MIT
- William Happer  — Emeritus Professor of Physics, Princeton University
- Jim DeMint — President, The Heritage Foundation 
- James H. Amos, Jr. — President & CEO, National Center for Policy Analysis 
- John A. Baden  — Chairman, Foundation for Research on Economics & the Environment 
- Lisa B. Nelson — CEO, American Legislative Exchange Council 
- Paul Driessen — Author & Energy Policy Analyst
- Thomas J. Pyle  — President, Institute for Energy Research 
- Steven J. Allen — Vice President & Chief Investigative Officer, Capital Research Center 
- David Ridenour  — President, National Center for Public Policy Research 
- Steven J. Milloy  — Publisher, JunkScience.com 
- Brooke Rollins — President & CEO, Texas Public Policy Foundation 
- Paul Gessing — President, Rio Grande Foundation 
- Ron Arnold  — Researcher & Author
- William Perry Pendley — President, Mountain States Legal Foundation 
- Adam Brandon — President & CEO, FreedomWorks 
- Hank Campbell — President, American Council on Science and Health 
- Craig Rucker  — Executive Director, Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow
- Tom McCabe — CEO, Freedom Foundation
- Richard B. Belzer — Economist
- Heather R. Higgins  — President & CEO, Independent Women's Voice 
- Joseph G. Lehman — President, Mackinac Center for Public Policy 
- Sabrina Schaeffer — Executive Director, Independent Women's Forum 
- Joseph Bast  — President, The Heartland Institute 
- John C. Eastman — Founding Director, The Claremont Institute’s Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence
- Robert Alt — President & CEO, The Buckeye Institute 
- Michael Pack — President & CEO, The Claremont Institute 
- Josh Blackman — Assistant Professor, South Texas College of Law
- Lynn Taylor — President, Tertium Quids
- David Rothbard — President, Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow 
- Tracie Sharp  — President & CEO, State Policy Network 
- Kenneth Haapala  — President, Science and Environmental Policy Project 
- Tim Phillips  — President, Americans for Prosperity 
- Myron Ebell  — Director of the Center for Energy & Environment, Competitive Enterprise Institute 
- George Landrith  — President, Frontiers of Freedom 
- John Tillman — CEO, Illinois Policy Institute 
- Craig D. Idso — Chairman, Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change 
September 1, 2015
Steve Milloy is one of several climate change skeptics cc'd on an email from S. Fred Singer  in hopes of countering the documentary film “Merchants of Doubt,” which exposes the network of climate change skeptics and deniers trying to delay legislative action on climate change.
The October, 2014 email was leaked to journalists before the documentary was released. “Can I sue for damages?” Singer asked in the email. “Can we get an injunction against the documentary?”
InsideClimate News reports in their article “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists ,” how “Many of those copied on the email thread, such as Singer and communications specialist Steven Milloy, have financial ties to the tobacco, chemical, and oil and gas industries and have worked to defend them since the 1990s.” 
InsideClimate News also documented all those who were cc'd on the email, including the following skeptics and groups:
- Ron Arnold 
- Timothy Ball 
- Joseph “Joe” Bast 
- Joe Bastardi 
- Michael Bastasch
- William Briggs 
- Russell Cook 
- Judith Curry 
- Joe D'Aleo 
- James Delingpole 
- David Paul Driessen 
- James Enstrom 
- Steve Goddard 
- Pierre Gosselin
- Greenie Watch
- William Happer 
- Jim Lakely
- Patrick J. Michaels 
- Steven J. Milloy 
- Christopher Monckton 
- Marc Morano 
- Joanne Nova 
- Roger Pielke Sr. (Or Roger Pielke Jr.  - Unclear in Email)
- Thomas P. Sheahen
- S. Fred Singer 
- Wei-Hock (Willie) Soon 
- Roy Spencer 
- James Taylor 
- Anthony Watts 
DeSmogBlog covered the emails here: “Merchants of Doubt Film Debuts, Textbook Denial Attack Campaign Led By Fred Singer Ensues ” and DeSmogBlog also archived a full copy of the Singer email thread (PDF) .
April 22, 2014
Milloy is a speaker at The Heritage Foundation's “Happy Earth Day: Dispelling Environmental Myths and Celebrating Human Achievement ” event. 
See the video footage here:
March 6, 2014
At the 2014 Conservative Political Action Conference, Milloy is a speaker on a panel alongside other mainstays of the climate denial movement , including the Heartland Institute ’s Joe Bast , CFACT’s Marc Morano , CEI’s Marlo Lewis  and Frontiers of Freedom  president George Landrith. Milloy's affiliation is listed as Murray Energy.
October 31, 2013
Milloy attends a White House meeting at the Federal Department of Labor on behalf of Murray Energy Corp alongside other coal industry personnel and lobbyists to discuss proposed rule changes by the Mine Safety and Health Administration aimed at reducing miners' exposure to coal dust.
The meeting is to discuss proposed changes to MSHA rules to lower acceptable levels of respirable dust in mines to reduce the risk of workers contracting potentially fatal Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis - also known as black lung disease - and other diseases.
In a follow-up letter , Murray Energy Corporation Corporate Safety Director Pat Brady claimed the proposals, which also included the use of continuos personal dust monitors, were unworkable and would put jobs and coal production in “substantial jeopardy”.
October 15, 2013
Milloy joins Murray Energy Corp, the largest privately-owned coal producer in the United States, as Director of External Policy and Strategy. As of at least March 7 2014, the position goes undeclared on Milloy's biography on his JunkScience.com website.
Milloy joins the American Tradition Institute (now renamed the Energy and Environment Legal Institute) as a senior policy fellow. The ATI and E&E Legal  has launched a series of Freedom of Information requests to obtain records and emails from climate scientists and environmental regulators.
January 27, 2012
Milloy will appear  in the movie An Inconsistent Truth , hosted by radio talk show host Phil Valentine and directed by Shayne Edwards. The movie suggests that “everything you've been told about global warming is a lie,” and appears focused on discrediting Al Gore.
Milloy was criticized for his “Carbon Criminal” campaign that had displayed members of the U.S. Climate Action Partnership who had campaigned for cap and trade in congress on “Wanted' posters . 
November 8, 2007
DemandDebate.com conducted a “survey of IPCC Climate Experts” (PDF ). According to the website, “The survey results indicate that when asked routine questions about the climatic role of manmade CO2, the IPCC scientists surveyed responded for the most part with the Pavlovian manmade-CO2-is-bad view seemingly demanded of them by the IPCC. But when you ask questions that are off the usual script, the supposed consensus seems to readily fall apart.” 
Scholars & Rogues investigated  the survey and found that the presentation of the survey data was included “obvious bias,” and gave readers the “correct” interpretation of the data, which suggested that the survey may not have been as even and balanced as claimed. They also looked at individual questions presented in the survey, and found that some were “specifically designed to produce results that can be spun by DemandDebate.com and Mr. Milloy for they own political ends.” 
Milloy's project DemandDebate.com  produces a video juxtaposing scenes from the Al Gore film “An Inconvenient Truth” with interviews with climate science sceptics, mostly taken from the film “The Global Warming Swindle”.
In a press release  promoting the video, Milloy's “experts” say “there is no evidence carbon dioxide drives global temperature change”.
The website project, which appears to have only been active for a year or so with very little content, claimed its mission was “educating and empowering students and parents to eliminate bias in environmental education”.
The DemandDebate website also sold t-shirts with the slogan “I'm more worried about the intellectual climate” and offered resource kits to parents and teachers, which appeared to consist of copies of documentary “The Great Global Warming Swindle”, a film about the “dark side of environmentalism” and a book called “The Sky's Not Falling: Why It's OK To Chill about Global Warming” written by Holly Fretwell.
July 7, 2007
Milloy engineered what he called the “'Live Earth' Invasion” and “air raid” where he sponsored a group of college students to attend the Live Earth concert and distribute DemandDebate.com's message. 
This consisted of distributing DebandDebate.com beach balls, and sending an airplane with the banner “Don't Believe Al Gore. DemandDebate.com” that flew over the event just as Al Gore walked on stage. See their video here . 
On behalf of the Free Enterprise Action Fund, Milloy drafted the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission the first climate skeptic shareholder resolution over the challenge of the General Electric Co.
The Free Enterprise Action Fund had called on GE to stop advocating global warming regulation:
“'We're not sure GE's management performed the necessary due diligence before embracing the global warming hypothesis,' said Milloy. 'We asked management for its global warming assessment but management never responded to our request. We hope shareholders will take advantage of our resolution and send GE CEO Jeff Immelt the message that company policy on global warming must be supported by factual analysis, not executive bias.'” 
The resolution didn’t pass at the shareholder meeting, but had enough votes for GE to include it on the ballot for the following year. Milloy also defended the global warming resolution in 2007  and 2008 . , 
Milloy bought up the web domain http://www.cop5.org  in advance of a United Nations climate meeting in Bonn, also known as COP5, and redirects the address to his JunkScience.com website.
Representatives from the American Petroleum Institute, Chevron, Exxon Corporation and The Southern Company join with a number of conservative think tank operatives to form the Global Climate Science Communications Team. Steve Milloy is a member of the team, representing The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition.
In documents unearthed by Greenpeace, the GCSCT group devises a communications plan , estimated to cost at least $2 million, which aimed to make climate change a “non-issue” by reaching out to media and the public.
The 1998 API memo  noted the “current reality” the industry faced:
Unless 'climate change' becomes a non-issue, meaning that the Kyoto proposal is defeated and there are no further initiatives to thwart the threat of climate change, there may be no moment when we can declare victory for our efforts.
February 16, 1996
Milloy registered JunkScience.com. According to PR Watch, Milloy then began calling himself “the Junkman,” and “he offered daily attacks on environmentalists, public health and food safety regulators, anti-nuclear and animal rights activists, and a wide range of other targets that he accused of using unsound science to advance various political agendas.” 
The JunkScience.com describes  “Junk Science” as “faulty scientific data and analysis used to advance special interests and hidden agendas.” The website features a prominent picture of Michael Mann with the header “Hide the Decline” and “Mann-Made Global Warming.” 
Energy and Environment Legal Institute — Senior Policy Fellow 
American Tradition Institute - Fellow  until organisational name change in October 2013
The National Environmental Policy Institute (NEPI)  — Director.
Citizens for the Integrity of Science (CFIS)  — Operator (according to SourceWatch).
Milloy has published three of his five books through the Cato Institute:
- Junk Science Judo: Self-defense Against Health Scares and Scams, Cato Institute, 2001.
- Silencing Science, Cato Institute, 1999, (with Michael Gough).
- Science Without Sense: The Risky Business of Public Health Research, Cato Institute, 1996
His other books are titled Green Hell: How Environmentalists Plan to Control Your Life and What You Can Do to Stop Them (Regnery Publishing, 2009) and Science-Based Risk Assessment: A Piece of the Superfund Puzzle which was published by the National Environmental Policy Institute  in 1995.
Milloy has not published any articles in peer-reviewed journals.
“About Steve Milloy ,” JunkScience.com. Accessed January, 2012.
Steve Milloy. “Pickens Hops Aboard the Public Health Bandwagon ,” Fox News, December 11, 2008.
“Steven J. Milloy ,” JunkScienceArchive.com. Accessed January, 2012.
Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber. “How Big Tobacco Helped Create 'the Junkman'” (PDF) , PR Watch, Third Quarter 2000, Volume 7, No. 3. Archived July 25, 2015.
“Re: Annual Report ,” The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition, January 7, 1998. Reproduced by Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, Bates #2065254885/4890.
Tim Lambert. “The Big Shill ,” Deltoid, January 27, 2006.
Steven Milloy. “The Greenhouse Myth ,” Fox News, April 20, 2006.
Steve Milloy. “Chris Christie: New Jersy's Al Gore ,” JunkScience.com, May 26, 2011.
“GE Loses Bid to Block Global Warming Shareholder Resolution; Mutual Fund Calls On GE to Stop Advocating Global Warming Regulation ,” PR Newswire, February 1, 2006.
“Series 1: Q and A With Steve Milloy ,” The Cato Institute. Archived February 1, 2006.
Steve Milloy. “Must-see Cinema: An Inconsistent Truth ,” JunkScience.com, January 12, 2012.
“WANTED: 'CARBON CRIMINALS'; JunkScience.com Launches Poster Campaign Spotlighting USCAP CEOs Who Betray America by Lobbying for Cap-and-Trade ” (Media Release), JunkScience.com. September 15, 2009.
Harriette Johnson. “Expert Availability: 2008 International Conference on Climate Change ,” The Heartland Institute, March 12, 2008.
“Survey of IPCC Climate Experts” (PDF ), DemandDebate.com, November 8, 2007.
Brian Angliss. “We Berate, You Deride – DemandDebate.com’s survey on the scientific consensus surrounding global heating ,” Scholars & Rogues, November 26, 2007.
“CRASH'D: Al Gore's Live Earth ,” YouTube video, uploaded by bureaucrash on July 13, 2007.
“GE Loses Bid to Block Global Warming Shareholder Resolution; Mutual Fund Calls On GE to Stop Advocating Global Warming Regulation ,” PR Newswire, February 1, 2006.
“GE Loses Bid to Block Global Warming Shareholder Proposal; Free Enterprise Action Fund (Ticker: FEAOX) Calls On GE to Justify Lobbying for Global Warming Regulation ,” Free Enterprise Action Fund, February 12, 2007.
“SEC denies General Electric bid to block global warming shareholder proposal; Amid economic downturn, GE should justify lobbying for economy-harming climate legislation, says Free Enterprise Action Fund (Ticker: FEAOX) ,” Free Enterprise Action Fund, January 24, 2008.
“What is junk science? ”, JunkScience.com. Accessed January, 2012.
United States Senate Lobby Filing Disclosure Program , listing Milloy as a lobbyist for the EOP Group from 1998-2000. Archived January 23, 2005.
“Milloy, Steve ,” OpenSecrets.org. Accessed January, 2012.
“Cato Experts: Adjunct Scholars ,” The Cato Institute. Archived December 29, 2004.
“Steven J. Milloy: Adjunct Scholar ,” Competitive Enterprise Institute. Accessed March, 2014.
“Heartland Experts: Steven Milloy ,” The Heartland Institute. Accessed January, 2012.
“Steve Milloy ,” Tech Central Station. Archived November 5, 2003.
“Steven J. Milloy ,” SourceWatch profile.
Brian Agliss. “We Berate, You Deride – A closer look at the background of Steven J. Milloy, executive director of DemandDebate.com ,” Scholars & Rogues, November 27, 2007.
Brian Angliss. “We Berate, You Deride – A look at Steven J. Milloy’s current affiliates and backers ,” Scholars & Rogues, November 28, 2007.
“Steven Milloy ,” Wikipedia entry.
“The Battle Over Climate Science ,” Pop Sci, June 21, 2012.
“Fellows & Advisors ,” Energy and Environment Legal Institute (formerly American Tradition Institute). Accessed April 28, 2014.
“Happy Earth Day: Dispelling Environmental Myths and Celebrating Human Achievement ,” The Heritage Foundation, April 22, 2014. Archived April 30, 2014.
Katherine Bagley. “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists ,” InsideClimate News. March 12, 2015.
Suzanne Goldenberg. “Republicans' leading climate denier tells the pope to butt out of climate debate ,” The Guardian, June 11, 2015.
“Power Hour: Steve Milloy on the Science and Policy of Emissions ,” Center for Industrial Progress, September 1, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6bd0MAsFK 
“CEI Runs “Abuse of Power” Ad In New York Times ,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 18, 2016. Archived May 31, 2016.
“Abuse of Power: All Americans have the right to support causes they believe in” (PDF) , Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Steve Horn. “Exxon's Lawyer in Climate Science Probe Has History Helping Big Tobacco and NFL Defend Against Health Claims ,” DeSmogBlog, May 10, 2016.