Acton Institute

Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty

Background

The Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty is a classical Liberal think tank founded in 1990 in Grand Rapids, Michigan by Robert A. Sirico and Kris Alan Mauren. The Acton Institute also maintains affiliates in Latin America, Africa, Europe, and an office in Rome. The Acton Institute is a member of the Atlas Networka global group of free market think tanks. [1], [2]

The Acton Institute's stated mission is to “promote a free and virtuous society characterized by individual liberty and sustained by religious principles.” [3]

In 2005, Mother Jones magazine listed the Acton Institute among a group of organizations who had received funding from ExxonMobil, pointing to a $155,000 donation. ExxonSecrets reports that the Acton Institute has received at least $315,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [4][5]

The Acton Institute appears to have connections with the Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation (formerly Interfaith Stewardship Alliance, or ISA), a group that believes Earth's climate will be able to correct itself from any damage done by humans. The Acton Institute was present when the ISA announced the formation of the “Cornwall Network,” which would provide “solidly Biblical information to religious leaders” as well as “sound scientific and economic information” regarding the environment and other issues. [6], [7]

Stance on Climate Change

July, 2015
“Is it clear that whatever agreement might arise out of the COP 21 meeting is morally obligatory for governments to adhere to and or churches to bless? Church advocacy to this effect would lead us to conclude as much. But it is not at all clear that there is only one morally acceptable path forward for different nations and peoples to undertake with regard to stewardship of the climate. So despite intentions to the contrary, this level of church advocacy only deepens the uncertainty surrounding climate change and responsible Christian stewardship.” [8]

December, 2013

“[A]s Butler and Morriss remind us, 'our Creator also granted us energy stored in coal, oil, and natural gas, as well as embedding it within the bonds of matter, enabling us to meet our needs by responsibly using those sources of energy as well.'
While Bartholomew worries about the possible future harm of global climate change on those in poverty, I am far more concerned with the harm of poverty on the poor today. […]” — Research Fellow Dylan Pahman. [9]

June, 2010

“Unfortunately, the public-policy response to global warming proposed by some evangelicals makes actually helping the global poor more difficult. […]
“To hear a Western (i.e., rich!) evangelical environmentalist tell the poor that they must sacrifice the technologies that would improve the length and quality of life for them and their families in order to achieve a merely speculative benefit they will never see can only make the poor less likely to listen to the gospel that the evangelical brings. Such disillusionment will only deepen when it is realized that those evangelicals continue to enjoy the same lifesaving technologies they are effectively asking the poor to forego.” [10]

May, 2008

“We've seen 31,000 scientists just came out who are skeptical of global warming. And they're worried that the policies people are proposing are actually going to harm the planet and they're going to make people poorer. We also see some of the effects these regulations can have on the developing countries where serious poverty is a real problem.” 

“There's a lot of skepticism about global warming. One: Climate change. Is it happening? And most people say 'yes, this is happening', but how is it happening? You saw perhaps a new study that just came out predicting global cooling over the next 10 years based on ocean currents.” […]

”[…] Environmentalist policies that may or may not work, that are based on not certain data, could actually harm [the poor] and prevent economic development.” — Michael Miller, Director of Programs at the Acton Institute.  [11]

April, 2008

“Climate is changing all the time, the real question is if humans are causing it.” — Acton Institute's Media Director, Jay W. Richards (Audio below): [12]


2001 (?)

“Global warming, for instance, which remains speculative and based on incomplete computer models rather than on demonstrated science, might cost man and nature a great deal if we rush to impose dramatic limits on fossil-fuel use in a misguided attempt to solve a problem that may not even exist. Just twenty-five years ago, some of the current proponents of global warming were warning us about global cooling.33 Because ecology is still in its infancy, we need to utilize all that we know to help us find prudent solutions for these complex problems. We must also recognize that science alone is insufficient for resolving these matters, especially since these issues have moral implications. Thus, in recognizing that we will have to make unavoidable tradeoffs in striking a balance between human need and a clean environment, we must exercise prudence in addressing environmental concerns.” [13]

Funding

The Conservative Transparency Project lists the Acton Institute's funding as follows. Note that not all individual values have been verified by DeSmogBlog for accuracy. [14] 

See attached spreadsheet for additional information on Acton Institute funding by year (.xlsx). 

Note that two of the Acton Institute's largest funders are DonorsTrust (DT) and its sister organization, Donors Capital Fund (DCF). It has also received funding from Koch-related foundations, the Sarah Scaife Foundation, ExxonMobil, and numerous other conservative and industry funders.

DonorsTrust has been described as the “Dark Money ATM” of the conservative movement, and distributed over $80 Million to conservative causes between 2004 and 2013. By using “donor-advised funds,” DonorsTrust and Donors Capital Fund can distribute funds without revealing the original source of the funds, providing a layer of secrecy for donors. [15]

As Donor

Recipient Total
DonorsTrust $242,350
Citizens for Community Values $10,000
Campus Crusade for Christ $25,000
Aquinas College $10,000
Grand Total $287,350

As Recipient

Donor Name Total
Donors Capital Fund $4,814,609
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $2,732,000
DeVos Urban Leadership Initiative $2,330,000
Herrick Foundation $2,070,000
Dick and Betsy DeVos Family Foundation $1,284,750
John Templeton Foundation $1,240,004
The Randolph Foundation $816,250
Robert and Marie Hansen Foundation $642,062
William E. Simon Foundation $590,000
Earhart Foundation $559,500
DonorsTrust $501,100
Scaife Family Foundation $465,000
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation $436,250
John M. Olin Foundation $390,500
Searle Freedom Trust $375,000
Sarah Scaife Foundation $360,000
Exxon Mobil $315,000
Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation $290,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia $288,620
George Edward Durell Foundation $175,000
Philip M. McKenna Foundation $158,000
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation $115,000
JM Foundation $100,000
Fred C. and Mary R. Koch Foundation $75,000
The Rodney Fund $68,000
The Roe Foundation $67,500
Charlotte and Walter Kohler Charitable Trust $50,000
Chiaroscuro Foundation $50,000
Aequus Institute $42,500
National Christian Charitable Foundation $51,025
Atlas Economic Research Foundation $30,000
Castle Rock Foundation $25,000
William H. Donner Foundation $20,000
The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation $15,000
Orville D. and Ruth A. Merillat Foundation $12,000
John William Pope Foundation $10,000
Robert P. Rotella Foundation $5,000
Dorothy D. and Joseph A. Moller Foundation $2,500
Grand Total $21,572,170

990 Forms

Koch Funding

According to Greenpeace, the Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty has received a grand total of $648,750 in Koch foundation grants from 1998 to 2015. [16]

*Original tax forms prior to 1997 are no longer available for verification. If you include these values, the grand total jumps to $716,250 from 1991 to 2015[16]

Year Charles Koch Foundation Charles Koch Institute Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation Grand Total
1991* $11,000 $11,000
1992* $25,000 $25,000
1993* $1,500 $1,500
1996* $30,000 $30,000
1998 $40,000 $40,000
2000 $10,000 $10,000
2001 $10,000 $10,000
2003 $25,000 $25,000
2004 $60,000 $60,000
2005 $25,000 $25,000
2006 $25,000 $25,000
2009 $153,750 $153,750
2010 $25,000 $25,000
2011 $50,000 $50,000
2012 $10,000 $10,000
2013 $50,000 $50,000
2015 $150,000 $15,000 $165,000
Grand Total $586,250 $15,000 $115,000 $716,250

ExxonMobil Funding

Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets Project reports that the Acton Institute has received at least $315,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [5]

Key People

Board of Directors

Name 2000[37] 2001[36] 2002[35] 2005[34] 2006[33] 2009[32] 2010[31] 2011[30] 2013[29] 2014[28] 2016[17] Description
Alejandro A. Chafuen Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Atlas Economic Research Foundation. Senior Fellow, Acton Institute
Alejandro Garza-Lagüera Y Y Y Y Y Savia, S.A., Pulsar International
Barry Conner Y Y Y Y Y Y America's Home Place
Bernard T. Lomas Y Y Y Albion College (ret.)
Betsy DeVos Y Y Y Y Treasurer. The Windquest Group, Inc.
Carol Erickson Martino Y Y Consultant, Ambrosetti Group
David C. Humphreys Y Y Tamko Building Products, Inc.
David H. Padden Y Y Padden and Company
David Humphreys Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Tamko Building Products, Inc.
David Milroy Y Y Y Y Y Chief Administrative Officer
Edwin J. Feulner,  Jr. Y Y Y Jr, The Heritage Foundation
Elsa D. Prince Broekhuizen Y Y Y EDP Management
Frank J. Hanna,  III Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Hanna Capital, LLC
Gaylen J. Byker Y Y Y Y Y Y President Emeritus, Calvin College
George W. Strake,  Jr. Y Y Strake Trading Group, Inc.
J.C. Huizenga Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y National Heritage Academies
James C. Rahn Y Y Kern Family Foundation
Jeff D. Sandefer Y Y Y Chairman. Sandefer Capital Partners, Inc.
John C. Kennedy III Y Y Y Y Y Y Autocam Medical
John Crowe Y Y Y Y Y President, John P. Crowe Co.
John M. Gordon,  Jr. Y Y Y Gordon Food Service
Kenneth J. Muraski Y Y Y Y Y Kent Manufacturing Co.
Kris A. Mauren Y Y Y Y Y Executive Director, Acton Institute
Leonard P. Liggio Y Atlas Economic Research Foundation
Ren Broekhuizen Y Y Y Y Y Pastor (Retired), Ridge Point Community Church
Robert A. Sirico Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y President, Acton Institute
Robert Costello Y Y Y Y Y Y Americans for Limited Government
Sean M. Fieler Y Y Y Equinox Partners
Sidney J. Jansma,  Jr. Y Y Y Y Y Wolverine Gas and Oil Corporation
Wade Fetzer III Y Y Goldman Sachs

Board of Advisors

Name 2000[37] 2003[39] 2004[38] 2010[31] Description
Alejandro A. Chafuen Y Atlas Economic Research Foundation. Senior Fellow, Acton Institute
Alejandro Garza-Lagüera Y Savia, S.A., Pulsar International
Barry Conner Y America's Home Place
Betsy DeVos Y Treasurer. The Windquest Group, Inc.
Carol Erickson Martino Y Consultant, Ambrosetti Group
David Humphreys Y Tamko Building Products, Inc.
David Milroy Y Chief Administrative Officer
Doug Bandow Y Y Y Citizen Outreach
Edmund Opitz Y Y Foundation for Economic Education (ret.)
F. Joseph Bradley Y Y Y Bradley Enterprises, LLC, dba Investors Hotline
Frank J. Hanna,  III Y Hanna Capital, LLC
Harry Veryser Y Y Y University of Detroit Mercy
Hon. William E. Simon Y John M. Olin Foundation
J.C. Huizenga Y National Heritage Academies
James C. Holland Y Y Y Shepherd College
James L. Johnston Y Y Y Amoco Corporation (ret.)
James Sadowsky Y Y Y Fordham University
James V. Schall Y Y Y Georgetown University
Jennifer Roback Morse Y Y Y Senior Fellow in Economics
John Michael Beers Y Y Y Pontifical College Josephinum
Joseph Ganssle Y Y Y Marian Associates
Leonard P. Liggio Y Y Atlas Economic Research Foundation
Michael Novak Y Y Y American Enterprise Institute
Rabbi Daniel Lapin Y Y Y Toward Tradition
Ren Broekhuizen Y Pastor (Retired), Ridge Point Community Church
Robert A. Sirico Y President, Acton Institute
Robert Costello Y Americans for Limited Government
Rocco Buttiglione Y Y Y International Academy of Philosophy
Ronald Nash Y Y Reformed Theological Seminary
Rufus Fears Y Y Y University of Oklahoma
Sidney J. Jansma,  Jr. Y Wolverine Gas and Oil Corporation
Sr. Connie Driscoll Y Y St. Martin de Porres House of Hope
Steve Hanke Y Y Y Johns Hopkins University
William B. Allen Y Y Y Michigan State University

Staff

As of March, 2016, the following staff members were listed on the Acton Institute's website. [18]

Executive

  • Rev. Robert A. Sirico — President
  • Kris Alan Mauren — Executive Director
  • Holly Rowley — Executive Assistant
  • Katharine Harger — Executive Assistant
  • David Milroy — Chief Administrative Officer
  • Jim Healy — Advisor to the President
  • Ken Larson — Advisor to the President
  • Diane Baum Verploegh — External Relations Associate

Instituto Action

  • Kishore Jayabalan — Director of Istituto Acton
  • Michael Severance — Operations Manager
  • Rita De Vecchi — Special Projects Coordinator
Research
  • Samuel Gregg — Director of Research
  • Jordan Ballor — Research Fellow and Executive Editor, Journal of Markets & Morality
  • Charissa Reul — Conference and Program Manager
  • Julie Dudderar — Conference Coordinator
  • Dylan Pahman — Managing Editor of JMM, and Research Fellow
  • Anthony B. Bradley — Research Fellow
  • Alejandro A. Chafuen — Senior Fellow
  • Marvin Olasky — Senior Fellow
  • Jennifer Roback Morse — Senior Fellow in Economics
  • Kevin E. Schmiesing — Research Fellow
  • Glenn Sunshine — Research Fellow
  • Andreas Widmer — Research Fellow in Entrepreneurship
  • Jonathan Witt — Research Fellow
  • Michael Matheson Miller — Research Fellow, Producer of Poverty, Inc.
Programs and Education
  • Chris Robertson — Program Outreach Coordinator
  • Mike Cook — Manager of Programs; Acton Lecture Series and Acton University
  • Michelle Hornak — Programs Assistant and AU Coordinator
  • Mel Flikkema — Senior Advisor, Abraham Kuyper Translation Society
International
  • Todd Huizinga — Director of International Outreach
PovertyCure
  • Jonathan Moody — Managing Director of PovertyCure
  • Patrick Oetting — PovertyCure Strategy & Engagement Manager
Communications
  • John Couretas — Director of Communications, Executive Editor, Religion & Liberty
  • Sarah Stanley — Communications Associate
  • Bob Thomson — Web Developer
  • Marc Vander Maas — Audio/Visual Manager
  • Joe Carter — Senior Editor
  • Raymond J. de Souza — Editor at Large, Religion & Liberty

Past People

  • Jay W Richards — Media Director.

Actions

June, 2016

The Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty was among organizations named in a Massachusetts subpoena looking for communications between ExxonMobil and organizations denying climate change, reports The Washington Times. [26]

Organizations named in the Massachusetts subpoena include the following: 

This latest inquiry by Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey is one in a series of investigations into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US. [27] 

January, 2015
In the letter, Kishore Jayabalan (Director of the Acton Institute) suggests “Catholic environmentalists” have found environmentalism as a “substitute for their religious faith”:
“It is probably not surprising that some Catholic environmentalists are less interested in traditional religious matters such as what one believes about God and how one practices the faith than in making sure the birds and fish of the planet were protected from greedy industrialists. In fact, some have a hard time in calling God 'Father' because of its patriarchal significance. I got the distinct feeling that environmentalism was at least a large component if not a substitute for their religious faith.”
Jayabalan concludes by calling for Pope Francis to “avoid the Scylla of no-growth environmentalism and the Charybdis of technological conquest of nature.”

Michael Sean Winters criticizes Jayabalan's letter at the National Catholic Reporter. [20]
“It is pretty difficult to believe that there is not an organized effort among Catholic conservatives to rebut in advance whatever Pope Francis might say in his forthcoming encyclical on the environment, what we might call a 'prebuttal',” Winters writes. 

“[…] I would add that the libertarian, spread eagle capitalist right which calls Acton its home is right to be worried about the issue of environmentalism because their variety of capitalism has precisely no solutions to problem of environmental degradation and has, in fact, been a large part of the problem.”
Jayabalan responded to Winters, who he groups with “the high priests of leftist Catholic environmentalism,” saying that “Contrary to what Winters assumes, I am not recommending that Catholic social teaching worship Hayek or laissez-faire economics.” [21]
Jayabalan adds he was “disinvited from the recent Vatican seminar on climate change because of a false rumor that the Acton Institute was involved with a Heartland Institute parallel event.”

May, 2008

Michael Miller, Director of Programs at the Acton Institute, appeared on Jacksonville's progressive talk radio station, AM 1460 WZNZ, to discuss “Global Warming and how Republican presidential candidate John McCain plans to address it.” [11]

Miller comments on McCain's Cap and Trade proposal and moves to the topic “whether or not modern environmentalism is pantheistic, and a discussion of the dangers of a moral system based on pantheism,” the event description notes. 

Excerpts:

“We've seen 31,000 scientists just came out who are skeptical of global warming. And they're worried that the policies people are proposing are actually going to harm the planet and they're going to make people poorer. We also see some of the effects these regulations can have on the developing countries where serious poverty is a real problem,” says Miller.

“There's a lot of skepticism about global warming. One: Climate change. Is it happening? And most people say 'yes, this is happening', but how is it happening? You saw perhaps a new study that just came out predicting global cooling over the next 10 years based on ocean currents.” […]

“And then there's debate. These 31,000 scientists say it's not happening. You have other scientists say it is happening. and McCain has said a long time ago that the science is settled. Well, I think there is an underlying political problem that is very interesting here. And that is that he, in the way he used his rhetoric, he basically put out of the picture any very serious person who's concerned about the environment but is skeptical about global warming. So that becomes an impossible thing.

Now that's very interesting also because Alexis de Tocqueville, the writer of Democracy in America, wrote two things. He said what sometimes happens in democratic societies is that, it's not in a totalitarian way where you're punished for it, but the limits of discussion become very narrow. And we're seeing this happen with global warming where you can't even have a serious discussion about what to do because 'the science is settled' according to  McCain. When, in fact, the science is not settled.

Second, Tocqueville predicted that democratic societies would move towards pantheism. When we see this global warming, what we're seeing really is this view that somehow humans are a scourge on the planet. It's an economic fallacy because it only sees humans as consumes and not also as producers and innovators, including being innovators of alternative technology sources which we see the market doing without government intervention […]”

“[…] Environmentalist policies that may or may not work, that are based on not certain data, could actually harm [the poor] and prevent economic development.”

April 16, 2008

Jay W. Richards, the Acton Institute's past Media Director, presented at an Acton Institute lecture titled “
Is it Hot In Here? What Should Christians Think About Global Warming?[22]

Video below:



April 19, 2006

The Acton Institute co-hosted a special Capitol Hill luncheon titled 
Pulpits, Pews and Environmental Policy: How the Cornwall Declaration is helping define the mandate of Biblical stewardship” where the Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation (formerly the Interfaith Stewardship Alliance, or ISA) announced the creation of the “Cornwall Network.” [7]

The ISA/Cornwall Alliance describes the Cornwall Network as “a nationwide network of churches which are partnering with the ISA on biblical stewardship and environmental issues.” [7]
“Not only does it answer the Bible’s call for God’s image bearers to care for the earth,” Dr E. Caliven Beisner, national spokesman for ISA said, “but also it shows that a growing number of people are reaching the level of economic security that permits them to focus on such concerns. For most poor people, environmental problems might pose significant threats to their well being, but their own poverty prevents them from paying very much attention to them.”
“Our aim with the Cornwall Network is to provide solidly Biblical information to religious leaders,” he explained, “coupled with sound scientific and economic information, to help point laypeople toward creation care that recognizes God’s extraordinary gifts to mankind, enlists those gifts to enhance the environment, and puts top priority on promoting human well being, especially among the world’s poor.”
According to the event description, “The briefing featured top theologians and policy experts who articulated a vision of Biblical stewardship, based upon the Cornwall Declaration, which has been signed by over 1,500 clergy, theologians, scientists, economists and other people of faith.”

Speakers at the event included:
The Cornwall Declaration is the founding document of the Interfaith Stewardship Alliance/Cornwall Alliance and expresses concern over the “unfounded or undue concerns” of environmentalists such as “fears of destructive manmade global warming, overpopulation, and rampant species loss.” [23]

2001 (?)

The Acton Institute released a public policy document titled 
The Catholic Church and Stewardship of Creation.” The publication date is not listed, however the earliest it was archived online was April, 2000[24]
According to the document, regulations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are a “misguided attempt to solve a problem that may not even exist.”

The following “Editorial Board” is listed at the end of the document:
  • Father J. Michael Beers, Ph.D., S.S.L., Associate Professor in Historical Theology, Pontifical College Josephinum
  • Dr. Russell Hittinger, Warren Professor of Catholic Studies, University of Tulsa
  • Father Matthew Lamb, S.T.L., Professor of Theology, Boston College
  • Father Richard John Neuhaus, President, Institute for Religion and Public Life
  • Dr. Robert Royal, President, Faith and Reason Institute
  • Father Robert A. Sirico, President, Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty
The Acton Institute's document refers to “Environmental Stewardship” 13 times. Notably, this term was also used in the Cornwall Alliance's “Cornwall Declaration on Environmental Stewardship” which similarly presents doubt about man's influence on climate, and whether action needs to be taken regarding global warming. [23]

Acton Institute Contact & Location

The Acton Institute listed the following contact information in its website as of May, 2016: [25]

Headquarters
The Acton Institute
98 E. Fulton Street
Grand Rapids, MI 49503

Phone: 616.454.3080
Fax: 616.454.9454
Toll Free: 1.800.345.2286
E-mail: [email protected]


Rome Office
Istituto Acton Italia
Corso Vittorio Emanuele II (Map)
No. 294
00186 Roma, ITALY

Tel: (+39) 06.688.92500
Fax: (+39) 06.682.14003
E-mail: [email protected]

Related Organizations

  • Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation (Formerly Interfaith Stewardship Alliance — Present at the formation of the “Cornwall Network.” [7]

Resources

  1. Global Directory: Acton Institute,” Atlas Network. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fhD0KdSp

  2. Convissor, Kate (August 1999). “The Acton Institute: Of Morality & the Marketplace,” Grand Rapids Magazine 36-37.

  3. About the Acton Institute,” Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fhDChK6k

  4. Put a Tiger In Your Think Tank,” Mother Jones, (May/June 2005). Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fhDmCI1q

  5. FACTSHEET: ACTON INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF RELIGION AND LIBERTY,” ExxonSecrets. Accessed March 1, 2016.

  6. Global warming: a battle for evangelical Christian hearts and minds,” SkepticalScience, October 2, 2014.

  7. (Press Release). “ISA Announces Launch of Cornwall Network at Senate Luncheon,” Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation, April 19, 2006. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  8. Jordan Ballor. “Christian Reformed Church Backs UN Climate Change Agenda,” Acton Institute, July 8, 2015. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6fiPOL93i

  9. Dylan Pahman. “Solar Power Simplicity: A First-World Luxury,” Acton Institute, December 4, 2013. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiYPCBw1

  10. Benjamin B. Phillips. “Evangelicals and Global Warming,” Acton Institute, June 23, 2010. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiY3SF4H

  11. John McCain and Climate Change,” Acton Institute. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiSz4Swc

  12. An Earth Day Review of Global Warming,” Acton Institute. Archived March 1, 2016.

  13. The Catholic Church and Stewardship of Creation,” Acton Institute. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fhEAGVK4

  14. Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrived May 18, 2017.

  15. Andy Kroll. “Exposed: The Dark-Money ATM of the Conservative Movement,” Mother Jones, February 5, 2013. Archived July 24, 2015.

  16. Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty: Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” GreenPeace USAArchived May 1, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/dFb9h

  17. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiOuQIu5

  18. Acton Institute Staff,” Acton Institute. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiOuDPr8

  19. Kishore Jayabalan. “Letter from Rome: What will Pope Francis say about the environment?” Acton Institute, January 7, 2015. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiUt1mTQ

  20. Michael Sean Winters. “Another 'Prebuttal' of Pope's Encyclical on Environment,” National Catholic Reporter, January 8, 2015. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiVLhRQU

  21. Kishore Jayabalan. “Christian Stewardship or UN Sustainability?” Acton Institute, June 3, 2015. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiVleJPe

  22. Is it Hot In Here? What Should Christians Think About Global Warming?” Acton Institute, April 16, 2008. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fiTxCaP6

  23. “The Cornwall Declaration on Environmental Stewardship” (PDF), The Cornwall Alliance. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  24. The Catholic Church and Stewardship of Creation,” Acton Institute. Archived March 2, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fhEAGVK4

  25. Contact,” Acton Institute. Archived May 29, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hrEx5dUr

  26. Valerie Richardson. “Exxon fights Mass. AG’s ‘political’ probe into climate change dissent,” The Washington Times, June 15, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iVfnzUhc

  27. Ben Jervey. “State Investigations Into What Exxon Knew Double, and Exxon Gets Defensive,” Desmog, April 1, 2016.

  28. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived December 20, 2014. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/WgVTr

  29. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived February 14, 2013. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/BQUxy

  30. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived December 25, 2011. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/EYTzD

  31. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived December 24, 2010. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/kySdK

  32. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived June 25, 2009. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/XKNL7

  33. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived September 27, 2006. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/M1sAP

  34. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived September 1, 2005. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/uGLgk

  35. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived June 15, 2002. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/Uj5FG

  36. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived December 21, 2001. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/kZ45J

  37. Board of Directors,” Acton Institute. Archived August 23, 2000. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/zT4jN

  38. About the Acton Institute,” Acton Institute. Archived August 20, 2004. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Rs4eR

  39. About the Acton Institute,” Acton Institute. Archived August 1, 2003. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/8snuj

Other Resources

  • Acton Institute,” SourceWatch profile.

  • Acton Institute,” Wikipedia.

  • Cory Andrews. “Acton Institute,” American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia (2006), Wilmington, DE: ISI Books.