American Council on Science and Health (ACSH)
ACSH is a New-York-based 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization founded in 1978 by Dr. Elizabeth Whelan and Frederick J. Stare. ACSH describes itself as an “education consortium” founded by a group of scientists “who had become concerned that many important public policies related to health and the environment did not have a sound scientific basis.” , 
ACSH's mission is to “ensure that peer-reviewed mainstream science reaches the public, the media, and the decision-makers who determine public policy […]” 
Although it has taken a position against the dangers of tobacco, describing itself as having advocated for smoking cessation, ACSH has taken an apologetic stance towards most health and environmental products produced by major industries. (See some examples of recent ACSH publications). The Council has received funding from numerous corporations including ExxonMobil, Coca-Cola, Kellogg, General Mills, Pepsico, and the American Beverage Association. 
Consumer advocate Ralph Nader once described ACSH as “a consumer front organization for its business backers. It has seized the language and style of the existing consumer organizations, but its real purpose, you might say, is to glove the hand that feeds it.” 
According to analysis by PR Watch, “Although the American Council on Science and Health styles itself as a 'scientific' organization, it does not carry out any independent primary research. Instead, it specializes in generating media advisories that criticize or praise scientists depending on whether they agree with ACSH's philosophy. It has mastered the modern media sound byte, issuing a regular stream of news releases with catchy, quotable phrases responding to hot-button environmental issues.” 
Dr. Gilbert Ross & Racketeering
Dr. Gilbert Ross, ACSH's Senior Director of Medicine and Public Health, was “convicted of racketeering, mail fraud and conspiracy,” and was “sentenced to 47 months in jail, $40,000 in forfeiture and restitution of $612,855” for defrauding the Medicaid system, reports United Press International. , , 
Stance on Climate Change
October 1, 1997
“[I]f global climate change occurs as gradually as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has predicted, policymakers can safely take several decades to plan a response, and scientists will have enough time to develop cost-effective and anti-climate-change strategies. Implementation of current proposals for mitigation measures–measures to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere–would be both costly and ineffective.” 
January 1, 1998
“[T]here is no scientific consensus concerning global warming. The climate change predictions are based on computer models that have not been validated and are far from perfect.” 
ACSH on Chemicals, DDT, Heavy Metals & Pesticides
“Although this is obviously not a comprehensive report, it is safe to say that DDT’s reputation as a deadly poison is not based on real evidence. In fact, it’s the opposite.” 
“There is no evidence that BPA [bisphenol A] in consumer products of any type, including cash register receipts, are harmful to health.” 
Exposure to mercury “in conventional seafood causes no harm in humans.” 
“The scientific evidence is clear. There has never been a case of ill health linked to the regulated, approved use of pesticides in this country.” 
ACSH on Fracking
“Fracking doesn’t pollute water or the air. There have been zero confirmed occurrences of ground water contamination from more than one million wells accessed in the last 50 years,” said past ACSH president Dr. Elizabeth Whelan. “And unlike coal or oil, natural gas obtained from fracking produces almost no smog or asthma-causing particulates. That is helping lower the disturbingly high asthma rates among children in the U.S.” 
Fracking “doesn’t pollute water or air.” 
ACSH on Secondhand Smoke (2012)
“There is no evidence that exposure to secondhand smoke involves heart attacks or cardiac arrest.” 
ACSH displays the following statement on funding on their website:
“ACSH accepts unrestricted grants and donations on the condition that it is solely responsible for the conduct of its research and the dissemination of its work to the public. The organization does not perform proprietary research, nor does it accept support from individuals or individual corporations for specific research projects.” 
According to an archive of their website (as of 2012), ACSH received financial support “from about 300 different sources, including foundations, trade associations, corporations and individuals.” 
In 2013, the investigative news magazine Mother Jones released leaked documents on ACSH funding that found “ACSH depends heavily on funding from corporations that have a financial stake in the scientific debates it aims to shape” including major corporations and the tobacco Industry (original documents available here): , 
- “According to the ACSH documents, from July 1, 2012, to December 20, 2012, 58 percent of donations to the council came from corporations and large private foundations. ACSH's donors and the potential backers the group has been targeting comprise a who's-who of energy, agriculture, cosmetics, food, soda, chemical, pharmaceutical, and tobacco corporations. ACSH donors in the second half of 2012 included Chevron ($18,500), Coca-Cola ($50,000), the Bristol Myers Squibb Foundation ($15,000), Dr. Pepper/Snapple ($5,000), Bayer Cropscience ($30,000), Procter and Gamble ($6,000), agribusiness giant Syngenta ($22,500), 3M ($30,000), McDonald's ($30,000), and tobacco conglomerate Altria ($25,000). Among the corporations and foundations that ACSH has pursued for financial support since July 2012 are Pepsi, Monsanto, British American Tobacco, DowAgro, ExxonMobil Foundation, Phillip Morris International, Reynolds American, the Koch family-controlled Claude R. Lambe Foundation, the Dow-linked Gerstacker Foundation, the Bradley Foundation, and the Searle Freedom Trust.”
- “ACSH planned to receive a total of $338,200 from tobacco companies between July 2012 and June 2013. Reynolds American and Phillip Morris International were each listed as expected to give $100,000 in 2013, which would make them the two largest individual donations listed in the ACSH documents.” 
SourceWatch reports that ACSH stopped recording their funding sources early in the 1990s. The following values are based on data collected from both Sourcewatch and the Conservative Transparency Project, with the highest available funding values listed. See the attached spreadsheet for details on ACSH funders by year (.xlsx): , 
|Funder||Highest Avail. Funding Value|
|Olin Foundation, John M.||$915,500|
|Kirby, F.M. Foundation||$532,000|
|Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation||$300,000|
|Bradley Foundation, Lynde and Harry||$270,000|
|Sarah Scaife Foundation||$205,000|
|Searle Freedom Trust||$100,000|
|Lambe, Claude R. Foundation||$95,000|
|Donors Capital Fund||$89,500|
|Dodge Jones Foundation||$42,000|
|Vanguard Charitable Endowment Program||$39,400|
|American Petroleum Institute||$37,500|
|Distilled Spirits Council of the United States||$30,000|
|Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation||$27,500|
|Grocery Manufacturers Association||$25,000|
|Tober, Barbara and Donald Foundation||$23,500|
|Fragrance Materials Association of the United States, Inc.||$20,000|
|Personal Care Products Council||$20,000|
|Friedmann, Philip M. Family Charitable Trust||$11,900|
|Gerstacker, Rollin M. Foundation||$10,000|
|International Formula Council||$10,000|
|Koch, David H. Foundation||$6,000|
|Procter and Gamble||$6,000|
|Amvac Chemical Corporation||$5,000|
|Roger and Susan Stone Family Foundation||$5,000|
|Texmark Chemicals (David Smith)||$5,000|
|The Safe Cig||$4,100|
|Griffin, Dorothy G. Charitable Foundation||$3,000|
|Kayser Family Foundation||$2,500|
|Tepper Family Foundation||$1,750|
|McNutt, Amy Shelton Charitable Trust||$1,500|
|Cox Family Foundation||$1,000|
|Finley, A.E. Foundation||$1,000|
|Penn, Arthur S. and Marilyn Charitable Trust||$500|
|Nolan, David P. Foundation||$250|
|Roberts, Gilroy and Lillian P. Charitable Foundation||$200|
|Conrad Family Foundation||$100|
*Original tax forms prior to 1997 are no longer available for verification. If you include these values, the grand total increases to $161,000 in Koch funding from 1986 to 2015. 
|Year||Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation||David H. Koch Charitable Foundation||Grand Total|
Early Funders (1984)
|ALCOA Foundation||Kraft General Foods (now part of Altria Group)|
|Allied Signals Foundation, Inc.||Licensed Beverage Information Council|
|American Cyanamid Company||Thomas J. Lipton Foundation, Inc.|
|American Meat Institute||M&M Mars|
|Amoco Foundation, Inc.||Merck Company Foundation|
|Anheuser-Busch Foundation||Mobil Foundation, Inc.|
|Archer Daniels Midland Company||Monsanto Fund|
|Ashland Oil Foundation||National Agricultural Chemicals Association|
|Boise Cascade Corporation||National Dairy Council|
|Bristol-Myers Fund, Inc.||National Soft Drink Association|
|Burger King Corporation||National Starch and Chemical Foundation|
|Campbell Soup Company||Nestlé|
|Carnation Company||Samuel Roberts Nobel Foundation, Inc.|
|Chevron Environmental Health Center||Northwood Institute|
|Ciba-Geigy Corporation||NutraSweet Company|
|Coca-Cola Company||John M. Olin Foundation Inc.|
|Consolidated Edison||Oscar Mayer Foods|
|Cooper Industries Foundation||Pepsico Foundation Inc. (Pepsi-Cola)|
|Adolph Coors Foundation||Pfizer Inc.|
|Crystal Trust||Pillsbury Company|
|Shelby Cullum Davis Foundation||PPG Industries Foundation|
|Dow Chemical Canada, Inc.||Procter & Gamble Fund|
|Dow Corning Corporation||Ralston Purina|
|E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company||Rohm & Haas Company|
|Ethyl Corporation||Salt Institute|
|Exxon Corporation||Sarah Scaife Foundation, Inc.|
|FMC Foundation||Schultz Foundation|
|Ford Motor Company Fund||G.D. Searle Charitable Trust|
|Frito-Lay||Joseph E. Seagrams & Sons, Inc.|
|General Electric Foundation||Shell Oil Company Foundation|
|General Mills, Inc.||Stare Fund|
|General Motors Foundation||Starr Foundation|
|Gerber Products Company||Sterling Drug, Inc.|
|Rollin M. Gerstacker Foundation||Stouffer Company|
|Hershey Foods Corporation Fund||Stroh Brewery Company|
|Heublein, Inc.||Sugar Association, Inc.|
|ICI Americas Inc.||Sun Company, Inc.|
|Johnson & Johnson||Syntex Corporation|
|Johnson's Wax Fund, Inc.||Union Carbide Corporation|
|Kellogg Company||Uniroyal Chemical Co.|
|Ester A. and Joseph Klingenstein Fund, Inc.||USX Corp.|
|David H. Koch Charitable Foundation||Warner-Lambert Foundation|
|Kraft Foundation||Wine Growers of California|
Board of Trustees (2016)
- Nigel Bark (Chairman)
- Steven Modzelewski (Vice Chairman)
- James E. Enstrom
- Jack C. Fisher
- Thom Golab
- Herbert I. London
- Fred L. Smith Jr.
- Daniel T. Stein
- Stephen T. Whelan
As of February, 2016, ACSH listed the following staff members on their website: 
- Cheryl E. Martin — Director of Development
- Jonathan (Josh) Bloom — Director of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Lila Abassi — Director of Medicine
- Hank Campbell — President
- Ruth Kava — Senior Nutrition Fellow
- Gilbert Ross — Senior Director of Medicine and Public Health
- Erik Lief (Media Contact) — Communications
- Ana Marcelo (Media Contact) — Executive Assistant to the President
As of February, 2016, ACSH listed the following individuals in their “Founders Circle: 
- Elizabeth M. Whelan (1943 - 2014)— Founder of the American Council on Science and Health
- Fredrick J. Stare (1910 - 2002) — Founder, Harvard Department of Nutrition
- Norman E. Borlaug (1914 - 2009) — Father of the “Green Revolution,” Nobel Laureate
Past Staff (2011)
As of December, 2011, the following additional staff were also listed on the ACSH Website: 
- Judith A. D'Agostino — Executive Assistant to the President.
- Margareta Becker — Accountant.
- Jody Manley — Director of Development and Media.
- William McCain — Development Assistant.
- Alyssa Pelish — Director of Publications.
- Lana Spivak — Director of Public Health.
Past Scientific Advisors (2011)
As of December, 2011, the following Scientific Advisors were also listed on the ACSH Website: 
- Dennis T. Avery — Hudson Institute.
- Patrick J. Michaels — University of Virginia.
- Jay H. Lehr — Environmental Education Enterprises, Inc.
- Kenneth Green — American Enterprise Institute.
- A. Alan Moghissi —Institute for Regulatory Science.
- C.S. Prakash — Tuskegee University.
- S. Fred Singer — Science & Environmental Policy Project.
Other People (2011)
- Sallie Baliunas — Reviewer of ACSH special report, “global climate change and human health” (PDF).
- Thomas Gale Moore — Reviewer of ACSH special report, “global climate change and human health” (PDF).
The American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) advocates for the use of DDT as a solution to the outbreak of the Zika virus:
“Perhaps there is one legitimate solution: DDT. While it is not perfect (some resistance to the chemical may have emerged in the past), it may represent the best chance to hold this epidemic at least partly in check,” writes ACSH's Senior Director of Medicine and Health, Gilbert Ross. 
ACSH's Dr. Gil Ross praised the “CAS Speakers Series” in a blog post titled “Billion Dollar Green Campaigns Kill Poor Children.” Ross said the CAS series was created “to use facts to counter the perceived tendency of college students to follow the environmentalist mantra without too much thought … the concept of being afraid of genetic engineering is akin to looking under the bed for hobgoblins such as Godzilla, awakened by the atomic tests of the Cold War.” 
November 8, 2005
The American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) awarded author Michael Crichton its 2005 “Sound Science Prize” for “his defense of sound scientific principles and critiques of junk science” in his novel State of Fear. 
James Hansen, who had been quoted in the book, critiqued Crichton's use of the “scientific method,” and said that the book's primary purpose was to “discredit concerns about global warming.” 
“Crichton writes fiction and seems to make up things as he goes along. He doesn’t seem to have the foggiest notion about the science that he writes about. Perhaps that is o.k. for a science fiction writer,” Hansen writes. 
State of Fear was further critiqued by the scientists at RealClimate who also point out how James Hansen had been quoted largely out of context in the book. 
Chris Mooney, who examined Crichton's footnotes in an article in the Boston Globe, interviewed climatologist Douglas Hardy who said that Crichton was distorting his work:
Crichton is doing ''what I perceive the denialists always to do,'' says Hardy. ''And that is to take things out of context, or take elements of reality and twist them a little bit, or combine them with other elements of reality to support their desired outcome.'' 
March 27, 2009
The American Council on Science and Health released a report titled “Jerry M. Cuttler and Myron Pollycove. 
ACSH claims the report “dispels some of the most common fears about nuclear energy” and describes nuclear as a “safe and highly efficient source of energy” 
October 14, 1997
Published a position paper entitled “Global Climate Change and Human Health” (PDF). The paper presents the following position statement on the health effects of projected climate change:
- “Nearly all of the potential adverse health effects of projected climate change are significant, real-life problems that have long persisted under stable climatic conditions. Bolstering efforts to eliminate or alleviate such problems would both decrease the current incidence of premature death and facilitate dealing with the health risks of any climate change that might occur.”
- “Policies that weaken economies tend to weaken public health programs. Thus, it is likely that implementation of such policies would (a) increase the risk of premature death and (b) exacerbate any adverse health effects of future climate change.” 
ACSH suggests we avoid implementing policies that would “impair economies”:
“The optimal approach to dealing with prospect of climate change would (a) include improvement of health infrastructures (especially in developing countries) and (b) exclude any measures that would impair economies and limit public health resources.” 
The report contends that implementing proposals designed to mitigate climate change would “significantly weaken the global economic system” and that the optimal approach to dealing with the prospect of adverse climate-change–related health effects would be largely adaptational.“ 
ACSH Contact & Location
As of June 2016, the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) listed the following contact information on its website: 
American Council on Science and Health (ACSH)
110 East 42nd Street, Suite 1300, New York, NY 10017
212-362-7044 | Toll Free: 866-905-2694 | Fax: 212-362-4919
e-mail: [email protected]
Note that of the Organizations listed as funders of ACSH in 1984 many reduced or stopped their funding when ACSH adopted its position against tobacco.
According to ACSH, “ACSH's warnings about cigarette smoking resulted in the loss of substantial contributions from food manufacturers that had been acquired by tobacco companies. A metal pipe manufacturer withdrew its support after ACSH defended the safety of the proper use of plastic pipes.” 
“ACSH challenges animal tests as cancer indicator in humans,” ACSH, April 11, 2005. Archived February 11, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6fE7oJK3t
“Publications,” ACSH. Archived February 1, 2016.
Mark Megalli, Andy Friedman. Masks of Deception: Corporate Front Groups in America. (Essential Information), 1991, p. 23.
“RE: In the Matter of Gilbert Ross, M.D.” (PDF - Mail Correspondence), State of New York Department of Health, March 1, 1995. Archived February 19, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Martin Donohoe. “Corporate front groups and the abuse of science: The American Council on Science and Health (ACSH),” Spinwatch, June 25, 2010. Archived February 19, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6fQH0Mtd3
“Department of Health and Human Services, Departmental Appeals Board, Civil Remedies Division, In the Cases of Gilbert Ross, M.D. and Deborah Williams M.D., Petitioners, v. The Inspector General” (PDF), June 16, 1997. Docket Nos. C-94-368 and C-94-369. Decision No. CR478. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Archived February 19, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“TASSC: The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition,” p. 9. Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, University of California, San Francisco. November 21, 2001. Bates No. 2048294227-2048294237. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“FRACKING: A SAFE AND EFFICIENT PATH TO ENERGY INDEPENDENCE,” ACSH, June 13, 2014. Archived June 19, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6fE9gpS26
“Fund the Facts: How you can support science and health research,” ACSH. Archived February 12, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6fERHSI9D
“FAQ,” American Council on Science and Health. Archived February 3, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Andy Kroll and Jeremy Schulman. “Leaked Documents Reveal the Secret Finances of a Pro-Industry Science Group,” Mother Jones, October 28, 2013. Archived February 19, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6fQHkTb6z
“American Council on Science and Health Financial Summary,” Mother Jones. Archived .pdf documents on file at DeSmogBlog.
“American Council on Science and Health,” SourceWatch. Accessed February 11, 2016.
“American Council on Science and Health,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved June 29, 2016.
“American Council on Science and Health (ACSH): Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived March 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/7gCEd
“American Council on Science and Health Seventh Annual Report,” American Council On Science and Health, July 1, 1984. Retrieved from Truth Tobacco Industry Documents library. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“Scientific Advisors,” American Council on Science and Health. Archived November 9, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Sidney Shindell, M.D., LL.B., and Jack Raso, M.S., R.D. “the american council on science and health presents: global climate change and human health” (PDF). Archived August 15, 2000 at acsh.org. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Gilbert Ross. “Stopping Zika Virus in Its Tracks, by Unleashing DDT,” American Council on Science and Health, February 2, 2016. Archived February 19, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6fQ8tle8S
(Press Release) “Michael Crichton Accepts Award from ACSH,” American Council on Science and Health, November 8, 2005. Archived May 8, 2010. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
James Hansen. “Michael Crichton’s 'Scientific Method'” (PDF), Retrieved from Columbia University, 2005. Archived February 19, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“Michael Crichton’s State of Confusion,” RealClimate, December 13, 2004.
Chris Mooney. “Checking Crichton's footnotes” (Page 2), The Boston Globe, February 6, 2005. Archived March 22, 2005. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“Nuclear Energy and Health, And the Benefits of Low-Dose Radiation Hormesis” (PDF), Dose-Response, 7:52-89, 2009. Accessed February 11, 2016 from Scribd. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Gary Ruskin. “Why You Can’t Trust the American Council on Science and Health,” US RTK, April 17, 2015. Archived February 19, 2016.
“Integrity Ain't Cheap,” PR Watch, Fourth Quarter 1998, Volume 5, No. 4.
“ACSH Defended,” PR Watch, Second Quarter 1999, Volume 6, No. 2.