American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)
The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) is an organization designed to link state legislators with corporations and create templates for state legislation. Some corporations ALEC has worked with include ExxonMobil, Koch Industries, Peabody Energy, and Reynolds Tobacco. , , 
ALEC describes its mission as to “advance limited government, free markets, and federalism at the state level through a nonpartisan public-private partnership of America’s state legislators, members of the private sector and the general public.” 
“ALEC is not a lobby; it is not a front group. It is much more powerful than that. Through ALEC, behind closed doors, corporations hand state legislators the changes to the law they desire that directly benefit their bottom line. Along with legislators, corporations have membership in ALEC. Corporations sit on all nine ALEC task forces and vote with legislators to approve 'model' bills.
They have their own corporate governing board which meets jointly with the legislative board. (ALEC says that corporations do not vote on the board.) Corporations fund almost all of ALEC's operations. Participating legislators, overwhelmingly conservative Republicans, then bring those proposals home and introduce them in statehouses across the land as their own brilliant ideas and important public policy innovations—without disclosing that corporations crafted and voted on the bills.” 
ALEC was initially formed in September, 1973 by a group of state legislators including Henry Hyde, Paul Weyrich, and Lou Barnett, among others. Weyrich helped found the Heritage Foundation in the same year, and also went on to found a range of other conservative think tanks including the Free Congress Foundation. , 
According to a former ALEC task force head Dennis Bartlett, members join “for the purpose of having a seat at the table. That’s just what we do, that’s the service we offer.” He added that “The organization is supported by money from the corporate sector, and, by paying to be members, corporations are allowed the opportunity to sit down at the table and discuss the issues that they have an interest in.” 
ALEC is closely related to the State Policy Network (SPN), CMD's PR Watch reported, describing SPN as an ALEC “sister organization.” The predecessor to SPN, the Madison Group, was introduced by ALEC in the 1980s through the Heritage Foundation, where ALEC was also housed. SPN was formally created in 1992 as an “umbrella organization” of “mini-Heritage Foundations” in the states, PR Watch reported. 
- Civil Justice
- Commerce, Insurance, and Economic Development
- Communications and Technology
- Education and Workforce Development
- Energy, Environment and Agriculture
- Federalism and International Relations
- Health and Human Services
- Justice Performance Project
- Tax and Fiscal Policy
- *Public Safety and Elections task force (since disbanded) 
A Brookings Institution study looked at a sample of 132 ALEC model bills that were introduced during the 2012 legislative season. Republicans sponsored over 90 percent of them. Their study found that the ALEC bills’ likelihood of passing was “strikingly high compared to the dismal rate at which all other bills are enacted into law.” 
In 2013, the CMD found at least 77 ALEC bills that year opposing renewable energy standards, supporting fracking and the controversial Keystone XL pipeline, or otherwise undermining environmental laws. 
Stance on Climate Change
Global Climate Change is Inevitable. Climate change is a historical phenomenon and the debate will continue on the significance of natural and anthropogenic contributions. ALEC will continue to monitor the issue and support the use of sound science. Regardless, the economy is becoming more energy efficient. Each year we emit less carbon dioxide per dollar of economic output. In fact, carbon dioxide emissions per dollar of GDP declined 41.3 percent between 1981 and 2005. This impressive improvement has taken place without greenhouse gas emissions regulations or taxes.
In an official position statement on renewables and climate change, ALEC attempts to counter the claim that “ALEC is a 'climate denier' organization”: 
“The EEA Task Force understands all discussions about energy policy are inextricably linked with discussions about climate and man’s impact on the planet. In regard to climate change, the Task Force has adopted the following language in ALEC’s Energy Principles, one of the Task Force’s guiding documents:
“Climate change is a historical phenomenon and the debate will continue on the significance of natural and anthropogenic contributions. ALEC will continue to monitor the issue and support the use of sound science to guide policy, but ALEC will also incorporate economic and political realism. Unilateral efforts by the United States or regions within the United States will not significantly decrease carbon emissions globally, and international efforts to decrease emissions have proven politically infeasible and unenforceable. Policymakers in most cases are not willing to inflict economic harm on their citizens with no real benefit. ALEC discourages impractical visionary goals that ignore economic reality, and that will not be met without serious consequences for worldwide standard of living.
“Further recognizing the fact that “[h]uman activity has and will continue to alter the atmosphere of the planet” and that “[s]uch activity may lead to demonstrable changes in climate, including a warming of the planetary mean temperature,” ALEC developed the Interstate Research Commission on Climactic Change Act in the mid-1990s. This policy was designed to address the scientific and economic aspects of the issue of climate change through the development of a multistate research commission with a strong emphasis on basic and applied research.
“ALEC has also been accused of promoting model policy that advocates for the teaching of “climate denial” in schools. The model Environmental Literacy Improvement Act seeks to ensure schools use sound science and provide for balanced discussion on issues pertaining to the environment and climate change. It does not deny climate change or direct educators to teach the denial of climate change.” 
After Google parted ways with ALEC due to its inaction on climate change, the group refuted allegations that it denies climate change, saying: “ALEC recognizes that climate change is an important issue,” and “no ALEC model policy denies climate change.” , 
January 21, 2004
Sandy Liddy Bourne, representing ALEC, said in 2004: “Carbon dioxide, the inescapable by-product of burning fossil fuels, is beneficial to plant and human life alike. The effort to regulate it as a greenhouse gas is an attempt to tax energy.” 
ALEC hosts conferences three times a year where they frequently invite prominent climate change skeptics. Here are a few sample statements made at ALEC conferences or by ALEC board members highlighted by AlecClimateChangeDenial.org, a joint project of the Centre for Media and Democracy, Forecast the Facts, and the Energy and Public Policy Institute: 
Joe Bast: “There is no scientific consensus on the human role in climate change.” ALEC Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas August, 2014
Craig Idso: “CO2 is not a pollutant. It is a benefit. It is the very elixir of life.” ALEC Conference, December 2014
Marc Morano: “The idea that there is a “scientific consensus” [on climate change] does not hold up.” ALEC Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas August, 2014
Christopher Monckton: “The science [of climate change] is bad, the consensus is wrong.” ALEC Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia July, 2009
Lisa Nelson (ALEC CEO): Asked if she accepts CO2 emissions are the primary driver of climate change: “I don't know the science on that.” Interview with National Journal, published October 2, 2014.
Phil King (ALEC Board member): “I think the global warming theory is bad science.” TX House of Representatives Website, January, 2007.
John Piscopo (ALEC Board member): “The public has been hoodwinked…I have serious doubts about whether [climate change] is man made.” Connecticut Post, March, 2010.
The Centre for Media and Democracy (CMD) notes that since the 2011 launch of the website ALECExposed.org, many corporations have left and publicly distanced themselves from ALEC, including General Motors, Walgreens, Johnson & Johnson, Wal-Mart, Amazon, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, and GE. 
Since CMD launched their ALEC Exposed investigation in 2011, 108 corporations and 19 non-profits have left ALEC, including BP, Shell, Visa, Coca-Cola, Microsoft, McDonald's, and Google (now Alphabet). Documents obtained by CMD found that ALEC had received at least $504,700 from Koch Industries between 1995 and 1998, adding up to nearly $1 million from Koch-Controlled Foundations between 1998 and 2012. CMD additionally found that the tobacco conglomerate Philip Morris/Altria gave ALEC $1,426,700 between 1995 and 2010. , 
While ALEC does not publicly disclose its funding sources, public 990 records and data collected by the Conservative Transparency project reveal some of its funding sources. Note that not all of the below funding values have been verified by DeSmogBlog for accuracy.
ALEC as Recipient
|Searle Freedom Trust||$1,524,500|
|Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation||$1,149,712|
|The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation||$773,000|
|Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation||$720,000|
|Castle Rock Foundation||$650,000|
|Donors Capital Fund||$564,000|
|Jaquelin Hume Foundation||$270,000|
|Friedman Foundation For Educational Choice||$248,000|
|John M. Olin Foundation||$215,000|
|American Petroleum Institute||$88,000|
|The Randolph Foundation||$75,000|
|The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation||$75,000|
|Edison Electric Institute||$63,000|
|Scaife Family Foundation||$50,000|
|The Roe Foundation||$30,500|
|The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation||$28,500|
|The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation||$7,000|
|Joyce and Donald Rumsfeld Foundation||$7,000|
|American Chemistry Council||$2,500|
ALEC as Donor
|State Policy Network||$15,000|
According to data from Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets, ALEC has received $1,619,700 from ExxonMobil since 1998. 
Greenpeace investigations ALEC received a grand total of $1,882,690 from Koch-related foundations between 1997 and 2015. 
*Original tax forms prior to 1997 are no longer available for verification. If you include a $60,000 donation from 1993, the grand total Koch Funding jumps to $1,942,690 in Koch funding from 1993 to 2015.
|Year||Charles Koch Foundation||Charles Koch Institute||Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation||Grand Total|
*Original tax forms for data before 1997 is not available for verification.
Alpha Natural Resources Creditor
Alpha Natural Resources, one of the largest coal companies in the U.S., filed for bankruptcy in August of 2015. The American Legislative Exchange Council was among the Alpha Natural Resources creditors revealed in the bankruptcy documents. Others included organizations active in climate change denial such as the Heartland Institute, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and the Energy & Environmental Legal Institute (E&E Legal). 
While ALEC is registered as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit with the IRS, making donations tax-deductible, Common Cause, Clergy Voice, the Voters Legislative Transparency Project, and the Center for Media and Democracy/Progressive Inc. (CMD) have alleged that ALEC repeatedly violated federal law and should have its nonprofit status revoked. 
In 2013, ALEC began adding a disclaimer to the bottom of all its documents stating: “Because this is an internal ALEC document, ALEC believes it is not subject to disclosure under any state Freedom of Information or Public Records Act,” which CMD speculated could be an attempt to sidestep state public records laws. 
“The case shows that legislators who deny open records requests and seek refuge behind improbable claims of immunity will be held accountable by the public, the media and the legal system,” said Brendan Fischer, General Counsel for the Center for Media and Democracy.
|Rep. David Frizzell||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||First Vice Chairman|
|Rep. Harold Brubaker||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|Rep. John Piscopo||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Second Vice Chairman.|
|Rep. Noble Ellington||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||2011 National Chairman.|
|Rep. Tom Craddick||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Immediate Past Chairman.|
|Sen. Susan Wagle||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|Speaker Bill Howell||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|Rep. Alan Clemmons||Y||Y||Y||Board Member (South Carolina)|
|Rep. Dawn Pettengill||Y||Y||Y||Board Member (Iowa)|
|Rep. Jason Saine||Y||Y||Y||Board Member (North Carolina)|
|Rep. Phil King||Y||Y||Y||National Chair (Texas)|
|Sen. Andre E. Cushing, III||Y||Y||Y||Board Member (Maine)|
|Sen. Joel C. Anderson||Y||Y||Y||Board Member (California)|
|Sen. Leah Vukmir||Y||Y||Y||First Vice Chair (Wisconsin - Incoming National Chair for December, 2015)|
|Sen. Wayne Niederhauser||Y||Y||Y||Treasurer (Utah)|
|Speaker Linda Upmeyer||Y||Y||Iowa House|
|Speaker Philip Gunn||Y||Y||Mississippi House|
|Del. Kathy Byron||Y|
|Rep. Bill Seitz||Y|
|Rep. David Reis||Y|
|Rep. Yvette Herrell||Y|
|Sen. Brian Kelsey||Y|
|Sen. Debbie Lesko||Y|
|Sen. Gary Daniels||Y|
|Sen. Jim Smith||Y|
|Rep. Curry Todd||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|Sen. Jim Buck||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|Rep. Blair Thoreson||Y||Y||Board Member (North Dakota)|
|Rep. Gary Banz||Y||Y||Secretary (Oklahoma)|
|Rep. Norine Kasperik||Y||Y||Board Member (Wyoming)|
|Sen. Bill L. Cadman||Y||Y||Board Member (Colorado)|
|Sen. Bill Seitz||Y||Y||Board Member (Ohio). Also past Co-Chair of Civil Justice Task Force. |
|Sen. Judson Hill||Y||Y||Board Member (Georgia)|
|Speaker Ray Merrick||Y||Y||Board Member (Kansas)|
|Rep. Linda Upmeyer||Y||Y||Y||Treasurer.|
|Rep. Bobby Hogue||Y||Chair Emeritus (Arkansas)|
|Rep. Dolores Mertz||Y||Chair Emeritus (Iowa)|
|Rep. Joe Harrison||Y||Board Member (Louisiana)|
|Rep. Philip Gunn||Y||Board Member (Mississippi)|
|Sen. Steve Faris||Y||Chair Emeritus (Arkansas)|
|Rep. Jim Ellington||Y||Y|
|Rep. Liston Barfield||Y||Y||Secretary.|
|Rep. Steve McDaniel||Y||Y|
|Sen. Billy Hewes III||Y||Y|
|Sen. Chip Rogers||Y||Y|
|Sen. Curt Bramble||Y||Y|
|Sen. Dean Rhoads||Y||Y|
|Sen. Kent Cravens||Y||Y|
|Sen. Michael Lamoureux||Y||Y|
|Sen. Owen Johnson||Y||Y|
|Sen. Ray Merrick||Y||Y|
|Sen. William Seitz||Y||Y|
|Rep. Fred SteenII||Y|
|Sen. Bill Raggio||Y|
|Spkr. Bill Howell||Y|
Board of Scholars
|Bob Williams||Y||Y||Y||Y||State Budget Solutions. Founder and Senior Fellow, Evergreen Freedom Foundation|
|Dr. Arthur B. Laffer||Y||Y||Y||Y||Founder and chairman of Laffer Associates. Co-chair of the policy council for the Free Enterprise Fund (FEF).|
|Dr. Richard Vedder||Y||Y||Y||Y||Ohio University|
|Rob Natelson||Y||Y||Senior fellow, Independence Institute.|
|Stephen Moore||Y||Senior economics writer, The Wall Street Journal. Past founder and president of the Club for Growth.|
|Victor Schwartz||Y||Y||Y||Y||Shook, Hardy & Bacon LLP|
Private Enterprise Advisory Council
Representation by Name:
Representation by Company
|Altria Client Services||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|American Bail Coalition||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|State Farm Insurance Companies||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|Koch Companies Public Sector, LLC||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|Asian American Hotel Owners Association||Y||Y||Y|
|Guarantee Trust Life Insurance Company||Y||Y||Y|
|National Federation of Independent Business||Y||Y||Y|
|State Budget Solutions||Y||Y||Y|
|Americans for Prosperity||Y||Y|
|Automotive Trade Association Executives||Y||Y|
|Energy Future Holdings||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|United Parcel Service||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|Johnson & Johnson||Y||Y|
|Kraft Foods, Inc.||Y||Y|
|Reed Elsevier, Inc.||Y||Y|
|Reynolds American Inc.||Y||Y|
|Salt River Project||Y||Y|
|Koch Industries, Inc.||Y|
|Lisa B. Nelson||Y||Y||Y||Chief Executive Officer. Former lobbyist for VISA and AOL Time Warner. Also worked for Newt Gingrich and GOPAC. , |
|Amy Kjose Anderson||Y||Y||Y||Director, Civil Justice Task Force|
|Michael Bowman||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Policy|
|Bartlett Cleland||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Center for Innovation and Technology|
|Seth Cooper||Y||Y||Amicus Counsel|
|John Eick||Y||Y||Director, Energy, Environment, and Agriculture Task Force|
|William Freeland||Y||Research Analyst, Task Force on Tax and Fiscal Policy|
|Jonathon Hauenschild||Y||Y||Y||Director, Communications and Technology Task Force|
|Brian Hawkins||Y||Y||Policy Coordinator|
|Michael Hough||Y||Y||Director, Task Force on Commerce, Insurance and Economic Development and Justice Performance Project|
|Karla Jones||Y||Y||Y||Y||Director, International Relations and Federalism Task Force|
|Theodore Lafferty||Y||Legal Research Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force|
|Hon. Jon Russell||Y||Y||Y||Director, American City County Exchange|
|Lindsay Russell||Y||Director, Task Force on Education|
|Kati Siconolfi||Y||Y||Y||Legislative Manager, Center for State Fiscal Reform|
|Daniel Turner||Y||Y||Y||Legislative Analyst, Education and Workforce Development Task Force|
|Jonathan Williams||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Center for State Fiscal Reform|
|Ben Wilterdink||Y||Y||Director, Commerce, Insurance and Economic Development|
|Bill Meierling||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Public Affairs|
|Christine Phipps||Y||Y||Y||Director, Art and Creative|
|Ashley Varner||Y||Y||Y||Senior Director, Strategic Communications|
|Molly Fuhs||Y||Director, Media and Public Relations|
|Shana Sally||Y||Y||Coordinator, Media and Public Affairs|
|Rek LeCounte||Y||Y||Manager, Digital Media|
|Jeff Lambert||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Member Relations|
|Sarah McManamon||Y||Director, Events|
|Marie Vulaj||Y||Y||Y||Senior Director, Nonprofit and Corporate Relations|
|Laurel Buckley||Y||Y||Director, Development|
|Courtney Cook||Y||Y||Y||Director, Events|
|Spencer Chretien||Y||Y||Coordinator, Membership|
|Alex McGee||Y||Development Coordinator|
|Lisa Bowen||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Finance and Administration|
|Genneya Briscoe||Y||Y||Y||Director of Employee Relations, Finance and Administration|
|Jose Fernandez||Y||Y||Office Manager|
|Alyssa Hackbarth||Y||Manager, Public Affairs and Digital Strategy|
|Caden G. Rosenbaum||Y||Accountant|
|Christine Smith||Y||Coordinator, Center for State Fiscal Reform|
|Elliot Young||Y||Research Analyst, Center for State Fiscal Reform|
|Erica York||Y||Legislative Analyst|
|Jason Bethke||Y||Salesforce Administrator and Developer|
|Jay Hamilton||Y||Public Affairs & Media Relations|
|Joel Griffith||Y||Director, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force|
|Mason Hunt||Y||Coordinator, Events|
|Robert Ordway||Y||Task Force Director of Commerce, Insurance and Economic Development|
|Sarah Hunt||Y||Director, Center for Innovation and Technology|
|Sarah Spaulding||Y||Executive Assistant the to CEO|
|Shelby Emmett||Y||Director, Center to Protect Free Speech|
|Thurston Powers||Y||Legislative Analyst|
|Tom McLaughlin||Y||Project Manager|
|Victoria Eberlein||Y||Manager, Membership and Development|
|Jimmy Wall||Y||Executive Assistant to the CEO|
|Ron Scheberle||Y||Executive Director since January, 2010.|
|Meaghan Archer||Y||Research Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force.|
|Christine Harbin||Y||Research Manager, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force.|
|Christie Herrera||Y||Director, Health and Human Services Task Force.|
|Amy Kjose||Y||Director, Civil Justice Task Force.|
|Stephanie Linn||Y||Policy and Intern Manager.|
|David Myslinski||Y||Director, Education Task Force.|
|Courtney O’Brien||Y||Director, Commerce, Insurance, and Economic Development & Public Safety and Elections Task Forces.|
|Sean Riley||Y||Legislative Analyst, Health and Human Services Task Force.|
|John Stephenson||Y||Director, Telecommunications and Information Technology Task Force.|
|Cara Sullivan||Y||Legislative Analyst, Public Safety and Elections Task Force.|
|Kailee Tkacz||Y||Research Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force.|
|Bryan Weynand||Y||Legislative Analyst, Civil Justice & Energy, Environment, and Agriculture Task Forces.|
|Todd Wynn||Y||Director, Energy, Environment and Agriculture Task Force.|
|Wes Fisher||Y||Y||Coordinator, Development|
|Nathan Brinkman||Y||Communications Coordinator, Center for State Fiscal Reform|
|Molly Drenkard||Y||Director, Media Relations and Public Affairs|
|Inez Feltscher Stepman||Y||Y||Director, Education and Workforce Development Task Force|
|Mia Heck||Y||Y||Director, Health and Human Services Task Force|
|Joe Horvath||Y||Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy|
|Montana Hyde||Y||Executive Assistant, Office of the CEO|
|Ted Lafferty||Y||Legal Research Analyst, Tax and Fiscal Policy|
|Ronnie Lampard||Y||Y||Director, Criminal Justice Reform Task Force|
|Lacey White||Y||Y||Coordinator, Events|
Other People (2004)
- Sandy Liddy Bourne — Past “Environment, Natural Resources, and Agriculture Task Force Director.” 
Media Coverage on ALEC
The Moyers and Company television program aired on public television stations, relying heavily on research by the Center for Media and Democracy's ALEC Exposed project, as well as first-hand interviews. , 
Video below. (View transcript here).
September 21, 2017
The Center for Media and Democracy's PR Watch reported, using information from a newly available database of corporate violations data titled “Violations Tracker,” that eight ALEC member companies had been penalized with more than $6.2 billion in federal fines due to misconduct or federal crimes since 2000. The companies examined pay to sit on the “Private Enterprise Advisory Council” of ALEC. Members leading in penalties included: 
|Exxon Mobil||$715 million|
|Koch Industries||$657 million|
|United Parcel Service||$35 million|
|Peabody Energy||$16 million|
July 19-21, 2017
ALEC hosed a meeting in Denver featuring Republican legislators and representatives from corporate groups including Koch Industries, ExxonMobil, K12 Inc., Peabody Energy, and PhRMA. CMD reported that among those present included Secretary Betsy DeVos, Labor Secretary Alexander Acosta, Secretary of the Interior Ryan Zinke, Newt Gingrich, and other “Trump loyalists.” 
One of the items on the agenda was a model bill to repeal the 17th Amendment. The “Draft Resolution Recommending Constitutional Amendment Restoring Election Of U.S. Senators To The Legislatures Of The Sovereign States” would be debated by ALEC's Federalism and International Relations Task Force. 
CMD notes that repeal of the 17th amendment, which established the popular election of United States Senators in 1913, would allow Republicans to take 17 U.S. Senate seats from Democrats with state legislatures given the right to pick Senators. 
Part of the resolution excerpted below:
“Section 1. The seventeenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
“Section 2. Senators shall be elected exclusively by the State legislature, upon a majority vote of legislators present and voting in a joint session. If a vacancy shall exist for more than one hundred-eighty days, then the Governor shall appoint the Senator to serve the remainder of the vacant term. This procedure may not be modified by state initiative or referendum.” 
February 22 - 25, 2017
July 29, 2016
As reported by Greenpeace, ALEC's 2016 annual meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana attracted a range of corporate sponsors including companies like ExxonMobil, Koch Industries, and Peabody Energy. The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) reported that ExxonMobil was a top sponsor at the meeting, alongside the State Policy Network (SPN), Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF), and others. View the sponsors list here. , 
ALEC Indianapolis 2016 sponsors, via Greenpeace
Greenpeace noted that Americans for Prosperity, a “Director-Level” sponsor, as well as exhibitors including The Charles Koch Institute, The Heritage Foundation, The Heartland Institute, and the Mercatus Center were all members of the State Policy Network (SPN), which was itself a “Chair-Level” sponsor. Each of the SPN groups represented at the conference had received support from Koch-controlled foundations.
July 12, 2016
The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), represented by Lisa B. Nelson, was among 22 groups represented in a “Coalition” open letter pushing back against what the Heartland Institute describes as an “affront to free speech.” The groups are responding to the recent Web of Denial Resolution brought up in the Senate, calling out fossil fuel industry-funded groups denying climate change. 
According to the Climate Investigations Center, all but one of the open letter's signatory organizations have taken money (totalling at least $92 million since 1997) from the “climate denial web” including Koch Brothers' various foundations, ExxonMobil, and two “Dark Money” organizations, Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund. 
Championed by Senators Whitehouse, Markey, Schatz, Boxer, Merkley, Warren, Sanders, and Franken, the resolution condemns what they are calling the #WebOfDenial — “interconnected groups – funded by the Koch brothers, major fossil fuel companies like ExxonMobil and Peabody Coal, identity-scrubbing groups like Donors Trust and Donors Capital, and their allies – developed and executed a massive campaign to deceive the public about climate change to halt climate action and protect their bottom lines.” 
The open letter addresses the senators, calling them “tyrants”:
“We hear you. Your threat is clear: There is a heavy and inconvenient cost to disagreeing with you. Calls for debate will be met with political retribution. That’s called tyranny. And, we reject it.” 
The full list of signatories and their respective organizations is as follows:
- Grover Norquist — Americans for Tax Reform
- Lisa B. Nelson — American Legislative Exchange Council
- John A. Charles, Jr. — Cascade Policy Institute
- David Rothbard — Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow
- Kent Lassman — Competitive Enterprise Institute
- Nicole Neily — Franklin Center for Government and Policy Integrity
- Benita Dodd — Georgia Public Policy Foundation
- Bridgett Wagner — The Heritage Foundation
- Fred Birnbaum — Idaho Freedom Foundation
- Joseph Bast — The Heartland Institute
- J. Robert McClure III — James Madison Institute
- Brett Healy — The John K. MacIver Institute for Public Policy
- Kory Swanson — John Locke Foundation
- Dave Trabert — Kansas Policy Institute
- Jason Hayes — Mackinac Center for Public Policy
- Brent Mead — Montana Policy Institute
- Sharon J. Rossie — Nevada Policy Research Institute
- Sally Pipes — Pacific Research Institute
- Kevin Kane — Pelican Institute for Public Policy
- Paul J. Gessing — Rio Grande Foundation
- Lynn Taylor — Virginia Institute for Public Policy
- Carol Platt Liebau — Yankee Institute for Public Policy
June 13, 2016
The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD/PRWatch) reports the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) was named as a creditor in Peabody Energy's recent bankruptcy filings. Additionally, the documents list funding a number of ALEC events including the following: 
- ALEC Arkansas State Scholarship Fund
- ALEC Colorado State Scholarship Fund
- ALEC Illinois State Scholarship Fund
- ALEC Indiana State Scholarship Fund
- ALEC Missouri State Scholarship Fund
- ALEC Montana State Scholarship Fund
- ALEC New Mexico State Scholarship Fund
- ALEC Scholarship Fund-Arizona
- ALEC Texas State Scholarship
- ALEC Wyoming Scholarship Fund
- ALEC-MO Night
Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie Soon, Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for Prosperity, American Legislative Exchange Council, CFACT, Institute for Energy Research, State Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. 
“These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”
The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]
Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]
“The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.
“We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”
Notable organizations listed in the initial documents include:
- 60 Plus Association
- The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity
- American Energy Alliance
- Alliance For Energy And Economic Growth
- American Energy Alliance
- American Legislative Exchange Council
- Americans For Prosperity Oklahoma
- Atlas Economic Research Foundation
- Berman And Company, Inc
- Consumer Energy Alliance
- Center For Clean Air Policy
- Center for Energy and Economic Development
- Center For The Study Of Carbon Dioxide And Global Change
- Coalition for Responsible Regulation
- Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow
- Council on State Taxation
- DCI Group AZ, LLC
- Ducks Unlimited
- Energy & Environment Legal Institute
- Edison Electric Institute
- Franklin Center for Government and Public Integrity
- Free Market Environmental Law Clinic
- Frontiers Of Freedom Institute
- George C. Marshall Institute
- Hill Knowlton Strategies
- Hill Knowlton, Inc
- Hudson Institute
- Hunton & Williams
- Independence Institute
- Institute For Energy Research
- Institute for Liberty
- National Association of Manufacturers
- National Black Chamber of Commerce
- National Conference of State Legislatures
- National Mining Association
- National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
- National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
- NextGen Energy Council
- PACE (May refer to Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy)
- Science & Public Policy Institute
- Sidley Austin LLP
- State Policy Network
- Texas Conservative Coalition Research Institute
- Texas Public Policy Foundation
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce
- Western Business Roundtable
Notable individuals named in the initial documents include the following:
The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) was among organizations named in a Massachusetts subpoena looking for communications between ExxonMobil and organizations denying climate change, reports The Washington Times. 
Organizations named in the Massachusetts subpoena include the following: 
- The Centre for Industrial Progress
- The Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty
- The American Enterprise Institute
- Americans for Prosperity
- The American Legislative Exchange Council
- The American Petroleum Institute
- The Beacon Hill Institute at Suffolk University
- The George C. Marshall Institute
- The Heartland Institute
- Mercatus Center at George Mason University
This latest inquiry by Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey is one in a series of investigations into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US. 
March 24, 2016
The Sierra Club Virginia Chapter and Center for Media and Democracy released a report detailing ALEC's attempts to delay action on climate change in Virginia. The report, “AMERICAN LEGISLATIVE EXCHANGE COUNCIL (ALEC) EXPOSED: Corporate Polluters Undermining Clean Power in Virginia” (PDF) details how ALEC and its political allies have worked to combat state climate and clean energy policy. , 
“I was pleased that during the 2016 General Assembly session we were able—at least so far—to fend off ALEC’s attempt to derail Virginia’s plan to curb emissions and comply with the Clean Power Plan,” said Virginia Delegate Rip Sullivan (D-48). “It is disappointing and troubling, though, that ALEC-inspired HB2 and SB21 passed the General Assembly–thankfully not by veto-proof majorities. Virginia should be leading the way on clean energy, but sadly, we lag far behind. I will continue to work hard to push for meaningful progress, moving Virginia toward a new clean energy economy.”
Seth Heald, chair of the Seirra Club Virginia Chapter, notes that corporations “simply cannot be serious about reducing carbon pollution and addressing climate change while also supporting ALEC.” 
Royal Dutch Shell announced it would sever ties with ALEC due to the group's “continued denial of the science of climate change,” The Guardian reported.
Shell released a statement, saying that “Alec advocates for specific economic growth initiatives, but its stance on climate change is clearly inconsistent with our own.” 
In a previous interview with the Guardian in May, a Shell spokesman said: “We have long recognized both the importance of the climate challenge and the critical role energy has in determining quality of life for people across the world. As part of an ongoing review of memberships and affiliations, we will be letting our association with Alec lapse when the current contracted term ends early next year.” 
Shell isn't the first oil company to sever its ALEC ties. British Petroleum (BP) also joined the list of companies leaving ALEC's ranks, severing ties in May 2015. Other companies to leave ALEC since 2014 include Google, Yahoo, Facebook, eBay and Yelp — all in the face of criticism over ALEC's climate change views.
BP’s exit came a few months after Occidental Petroleum (Oxy) announced it would depart from ALEC, and a year after ConocoPhillips, an American multinational energy corporation, did the same. Shell is the fourth to leave ALEC. 
At a July 2015 meeting in San Diego, ALEC’s energy committee — which includes Mr. Mike Duncan, the president of the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (One of the nation's top coal lobbying groups) — enacted a model bill designed to directly support state attorneys general who legally challenge President Obama's climate change plan.
The bill would allow states to create funds, which could be funded by corporate donations, to support legal challenges to the climate change rules. In early 2014, shortly after Obama announced regulations at the White House, West Virginia’s attorney general, Patrick Morrisey, announced that a group of at least 15 Republican state attorneys general were preparing a joint legal challenge to the proposal.
Opposition at the time came from a group headed in part by Roger R. Martella Jr., a top environmental official in the George W. Bush administration, and Peter Glaser, a prominent Washington lobbyist, as reported by the New York Times. The NY Times describes ALEC as an “Important Ally in the effort.” 
May 13, 2015
The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) and Common Cause filed an 18-page supplemental complaint to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) calling for the termination of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)'s status as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization and requesting civil and criminal charges be brought against ALEC. 
The complaint included more than 220 pages of evidence demonstrating how ALEC operates more like a “corporate bill mill” than it does a 501(c)(3) organization. It was an update to an original complaint that Common Cause made in 2012, as well as a 2013 supplement added by CMD and Common Cause. 
Among the exhibits cited in the supplement are examples of corporations themselves admitting that ALEC serves as a useful lobbying tool. Those on the list of corporations include Chevron, BP, ExxonMobil, Duke Energy and Peabody Energy.
The IRS supplemental complaint also points to a Minnesota Campaign Finance and Public Disclosure Board investigation published in February 2015 concluding that ALEC's “primary purpose” is to bring together legislators and lobbyists. 
As reported by the Center for Media and Democracy's (CMD) PR Watch, ALEC's 2015 annual meeting was supported primarily by energy companies and their supporters. 
Of the 54 identified corporate sponsors, twenty-two are energy related firms, their front groups, or firms representing energy interests.
On the agenda of ALEC's closed-door Energy, Environment, and Agriculture task force meeting is a model “Environmental Impact Litigation Act” that would allow companies to pay into a fund for the state to sue against environmental laws including the Clean Air Act.
The CMD listed financial underwriters of the ALEC event as the following (*Asterisks indicating membership on ALEC’s corporate board of directors):
President's Level - $100,000
Chair's Level - $50,000
- American Electric Power (AEP)
- Balanced Energy for Texas
- American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (ACCCE)
- Cigar Association of America
- An Inquiry into The Nature and Causes of the Wealth of States* (new book by Travis Brown & ALEC board member Stephen Moore, ALEC advisor Art Laffer, and Missouri political financier Rex Sinquefield)
- Luminant (subsidiary of Energy Future Holdings)*
- State Policy Network (SPN)
- Citizens for Self-Governance
Vice Chair's Level - $25,000
- Altria (Phillip Morris tobacco parent company)*
- American Bail Coalition*
- Encore Capital Group (subsidiary of Energy Future Holdings)*
- Guarantee Trust Life (GTL)*
- Collaborative for Student Success
- Texas Automobile Dealers Association (TADA)
Director's Level - $10,000
- Astellas Pharma
- Breitling Energy
- CenterPoint Energy
- Crown Packaging
- Duke Energy
- Excelsior College
- Oncor (subsidiary of Energy Future Holdings)*
- Ryan (tax services company)
- Time Warner Cable
Trustee's Level - $5,000
- Association of Bermuda Insurers & Reinsurers (ABIR)
- Capelo Law Firm
- Devon Energy
- The Graydon Group LLC
- Bright House Media Strategies
- Piedmont Natural Gas
- Renovate America
- Sunovion Pharmaceuticals
- Tenaska Capital Management
- Texas Alliance of Energy Producers
- Texas Cable Association
- Texas Medical Association
- Texas Association of Builders
- Texas Business Roundtable
- Texas Oil and Gas Association (TXOGA)
- Texans for Lawsuit Reform
- The Schlueter Group
- Texas Strategy Group
- Texas Star Alliance Energy Solutions
Shortly after the loss of a number of high-profile sponsors, ALEC threatened legal action against groups that had accused it of denying climate change.
Attorneys for ALEC sent letters to Common Cause and the League of Conservation Voters asking them to immediately “cease making false statements” and “remove all false or misleading material” suggesting that ALEC does not believe in global warming, reports The Washington Post. 
While ALEC claims not to deny climate change, and says they will be making efforts to be more transparent and welcoming to divergent views, environmental groups still question the group's commitment:
“We don’t think ALEC or organizations like it are done attacking progress on climate change,” said Kert Davies, an environmental activist running the nonprofit Climate Investigations Center. “It is hard to imagine these organizations turning a corner and suddenly being open to an honest discussion of real environmental policy.”
The Center for Media and Democracy's (CMD) obtained an internal tracking document from the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), dated March 2014 (See .xls spreadsheet), that revealed ALEC tracking 131 bills that “amongst other things, roll back state renewable energy standards, increase costs for American households with solar, hype the Keystone XL pipeline, push back on proposed EPA coal regulations that protect human health, and create industry-friendly fracking rules despite growing national and international concerns about fracking.” 
The Center for Media and Democracy's (CMD) PR Watch reports that the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) adopted a “model” bill that would fight against regional low-carbon fuel standards (LCFS) in the states. 
CMD reports that the model bill, called “Restrictions on Participation in Low-Carbon Fuel Standards Programs,” was sponsored at a November, 2012 ALEC conference in Washington by Steve Higley, a lobbyist from the U.S.-based industry group American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM). AFPM includes members from both Koch Industries and ExxonMobil, who are also represented on ALEC's Private Enterprise Advisory Council.
Huffington Post reports how Chevron and the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) worked together to oppose the 1973 Endangered Species Act, and its supposed challenges to energy developers. 
Chevron sponsored a workshop as part of ALEC's policy summit in Washington, D.C. that covered how the law “often negatively impacts and stifles energy development of all kinds,” according to a planning document (PDF).
July 13, 2011
The Center for Media Democracy (CMD) and The Nation published a leaked file that revealed over 800 examples of ALEC's model legislation. The Nation attributes the leak to Aliya Rahman, an Ohio-based activist who helped organize protests at ALEC’s Spring Task Force meeting in Cincinnati. 
CMD now hosts the website “ALEC Exposed” which houses examples of ALEC's model legislation previously unavailable to the public. The website also provides tools to track politicians, corporations, and bills with ties to ALEC.
The Nation devoted a special edition of their magazine to the breaking story, and included the following articles published in the August 1-8 edition of the magazine, and online on July 12, 2011:
- John Nichols. “ALEC Exposed.”
- Joel Rogers and Laura Dresser. “ALEC Exposed: Business Domination Inc.”
- Wendell Potter. “ALEC Exposed: Sabotaging Healthcare.”
- Lisa Graves. “ALEC Exposed: The Koch Connection.”
- Julie Underwood. “ALEC Exposed: Starving Public Schools.”
- John Nichols. “ALEC Exposed: Rigging Elections.”
Around the same time, the Los Angeles Times reported that government watchdog Common Cause was challenging ALEC's nonprofit status, arguing “it spends most of its resources lobbying, in violation of the rules governing nonprofit organizations.” 
OpenSecrets.org reports that the 23 companies represented on ALEC's private enterprise board spent large amounts lobbying the government on health and environmental measures such as bills that would block the EPA from regulating greenhouse gas emissions. 
ALEC orchestrated opposition against EPA regulations on greenhouse gasses with their model legislation, “Resolution in Opposition to EPA's Plan to Regulate Greenhouse Gases Under the Clean Air Act.”
The model legislation opposes “EPA's endangerment finding and any regulation of greenhouse gases, citing the massive economic burden that would result and the global nature of climate emissions.”
ALEC said it would “continue to support the efforts of state legislatures in resisting the EPA’s regulatory agenda” and “urges Congress to take the concerns of these states seriously and stop this regulatory train wreck in order to avoid the enormous negative impacts the EPA’s overreaching regulations will have.” 
ALEC also offers a document titled “EPA’s Regulatory Train Wreck: Strategies for State Legislators” that “outlines best practices for state legislators (including following the many states that are considering resolutions in 2011 to call for Congress to slow and stop this regulatory onslaught [by the EPA]).”
ALEC has published materials downplaying the risks of global warming before, including “Climate Change Overview for State Legislators” (PDF) written by Daniel Simmons, previously associated with the Mercatus Institute (an organization founded and funded by Koch Industries).
Clint Woods of ALEC said that the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and other cap-and-trade greenhouse gas reduction plans would become the “new battlefield” after federal climate legislation fell through. 
April 23, 2010
ALEC launched opposition to “Son of Kyoto” legislation across the country.
“States should reject every form of Kyoto legislation for the very same reasons as our leaders in Washington, D.C.,” said Alexandra Liddy Bourne. “The Kyoto Protocol is just another highly regressive energy tax on America's working families, with no measurable benefit to environmental or human health.” 
ALEC was mentioned in a leaked 1998 ”Global Climate Science Communications Action Plan” by the American Petroleum Institute (API). As reported by the Climate Investigations Center, ALEC was named as a “Potential fund allocator” along with the Committee for a Construcive Tomorrow (CFACT), Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), Frontiers of Freedom (FoF), and the Marshall Institute. , 
According to the plan, “victory will be achieved when”: 
- Average citizens “understand” (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the “conventional wisdom”
- Media “understands” (recognizes) uncertainties in climate science
- Media coverage reflects balance on climate science and recognition of the validity of viewpoints that challenge the current “conventional wisdom”
- Industry senior leadership understands uncertainties in climate science, making them stronger ambassadors to those who shape climate policy
- Those promoting the Kyoto treaty on the basis of extant science appear to be out of touch with reality.”
Under the heading “Climate Reality,” the document continues:
“Unless 'climate change' becomes a non-issue, meaning that the Kyoto proposal is defeated and there are no further initiatives to thwart the threat of climate change, there may be do moment when we can declare victory for our efforts. It will be necessary to establish measurements for the science effort to track progress toward achieving the goal and strategic success.” 
American Legislative Exchange Council Contact & Location
2900 Crystal Drive, 6th Floor
Arlington, VA 22202
SourceWatch maintains a full list of organizations working behind-the-scenes with ALEC.
“What is ALEC?” ALECExposed.org. Archived August 6, 2015.
“Mission,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived July 31, 2015.
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Molly Jackman. “ALEC’s Influence over Lawmaking in State Legislatures,” Brookings Institution, December 6, 2013. Archived August 6, 2015.
Anne Landman. “ALEC and the Tobacco Industry,” PR Watch, July 15, 2011. Archived August 6, 2015.
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(Press Release) “'Sons-of-Kyoto' Legislation: States React to the Myth of Global Warming,” US Newswire, January 21, 2004. Archived March 12, 2004.
Brian Fung. “Google: We’re parting with the climate change skeptics at ALEC,” The Washington Post. September 22, 2014.
Neela Banerjee. “What's Behind ALEC's Denial That It Denies Climate Change?“ Inside Climate News. April 14, 2015. Archived August 6, 2015.
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“Civil Justice,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived December, 2011.
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Nick Surgey. “Peabody Energy Lobbyist Schools Legislators on Getting More ALEC Travel Perks,” PR Watch, March 5, 2014. Archived August 9, 2015.
“Meet Our Staff,” ALEC. Archived August 9, 2015.
American Legislative Exchange Council, Lisa Nelson, organizational biography (originally from Ulysses Consulting, Inc.). Archived August 9, 2015.
Nora Chokshi. “ALEC, the free-market group liberals love to hate, gets a new boss,” July 8, 2014. Washington Post, July 8, 2014.
“Board of Directors,” ALEC. Archived January 5, 2012.
“Board of Scholars,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived January, 2012.
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“Private Enterprise Board,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Accessed January, 2012.
Karl Mathieson and Ed Pilkington. “Royal Dutch Shell cuts ties with Alec over rightwing group's climate denial,” The Guardian, August 7, 2015. Archived August 9, 2015.
Terry Macalister and Damian Carrington. “Shell boss endorses warnings about fossil fuels and climate change,” The Guardian, May 22, 2015.
Amy Westervelt. “BP joins list of companies fleeing Alec,” The Guardian, March 23, 2015.
Coral Davenport and Julie Hirschfeld Davis. “Move to Fight Obama’s Climate Plan Started Early,” The New York Times, August 3, 2015.
Nick Surgey. “ALEC Conference Funding Dominated by Big Polluters,” PR Watch, July 23, 2015. Archived August 10, 2015.
Tom Hamburger, Joby Warrick, and Chris Mooney. “This conservative group is tired of being accused of climate denial — and is fighting back,” The Washington Post, April 5, 2015.
John Nichols. “ALEC Exposed,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
Tom Hamburger and Neela Banerjee. “State legislative bills raise conservative group's profile,” Los Angeles Times, July 13, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
“ALEC Responds to Deceptive Common Cause Report,” American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived January 4, 2012.
Brad Hooker. “Corporations Represented on ALEC's Private Enterprise Board Are Big Spenders in Washington,” OpenSecrets (blog), September 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
“ALEC State Legislators Push Back EPA’s Onslaught of Regulations: ALEC’S EPA Regulatory Train Wreck proving to be successful,” (Press Release) American Legislative Exchange Council, June 14, 2011. Archived January 16, 2012.
Darren Samuelsohn. “States are climate battlegrounds,” Politico, September 15, 2010. Archived August 9, 2015.
“Coal Ash: Blatantly and Egregiously Hazardous,” PolluterWatch, November 18, 2010.
Globalwarming.org, archived August 9, 2015.
Steve Horn. “Groups File IRS Complaint Alleging ALEC is a Lobbying Vehicle, Not a Charity,” DeSmogBlog, May 13, 2015.
“Supplemental Complaint 2015,” Common Cause. Accessed October 30, 2015.
“STATE OF MINNESOTA CAMPAIGN FINANCE AND PUBLIC DISCLOSURE BOARD: Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law, and Order In the Matter of the Complaint of Common Cause Minnesota Regarding the American Legislative Exchange Council” (PDF), retrieved from CommonCause.org.
“Watch This Atlanta TV Station Expose ALEC's Influence On Local Legislators,” Media Matters, May 22, 2015.
Brendan Keefe and Media King. “Legislators and corporate lobbyists meet in secret at Georgia resort,” WXIA-TV Atlanta, June 2, 2015.
“Their Speakers,” alecclimatechangedenial.org. Archived October 30, 2015.
“United States of ALEC — A Follow-Up,” Moyers & Company, June 21, 2013.
Nick Surgey. “ALEC Tours Tar Sands, Works with Industry Groups to Block Low-Carbon Fuel Standards,” PR Watch, June 17, 2013. Archived October 31, 2015.
Nick Surgey. “Revealed: ALEC’s 2014 Attacks on the Environment,” PR Watch, April 23, 2014. Archived October 30, 2015.
Kate Sheppard. “Chevron And ALEC Take On The Big, Bad Lesser Prairie Chicken,” Huffington Post, April 12, 2014.
Brendan Fischer. “Dirty Hands: 77 ALEC Bills in 2013 Advance a Big Oil, Big Ag Agenda,” PR Watch, August 1, 2014. Archived October 31, 2015.
“After Unprecedented Claim of Legislative Immunity, Vukmir Releases ALEC Records, Pays Damages,” PR Watch, March 28, 2014.
Rebekah Wilce. “Some ALEC Funders Flee, but Koch, Big Tobacco, and PhRMA Remain Loyalists,” PR Watch, August 1, 2014. Archived October 31, 2015.
“American Legislative Exchange Council,” (Site Search), performed April 12, 2016.
(Press Release). “New Report Reveals the Dangerous Influence of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) on Climate Policy in Virginia,” eNews Park Forest, March 24, 2016. Archived April 12, 2016.
“ALEC EXPOSED: Corporate Polluters Undermining Clean Power in Virginia” (PDF), Sierra Club, VA Chapter and Center for Media and Democracy. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Elliott Negin. “Coal Companies’ Secret Funding of Climate Science Denial Exposed,” Huffington Post, April 12, 2016. Archived April 12, 2016.
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Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,” PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016.
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Farron Cousins. “Court Documents Show Coal Giant Peabody Energy Funded Dozens Of Climate Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, June 13, 2016.
Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016.
Valerie Richardson. “Exxon fights Mass. AG’s ‘political’ probe into climate change dissent,” The Washington Times, June 15, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016.
Ben Jervey. “State Investigations Into What Exxon Knew Double, and Exxon Gets Defensive,” Desmog, April 1, 2016.
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Jim Lakely. “#WebOfDenial Push by Senate Dems Exposes Their Hatred of Free Speech,” Somewhat Reasonable (Heartland Institute Blog), July 12, 2016. Archived July 14, 2016.
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Kert Davies. “ALEC EXPOSED: Polluter Front Group's Dirty Secrets Revealed,” Greenpace, July 13, 2011. Archived July 16, 2011.
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Wendell Potter. “ALEC Exposed: Sabotaging Healthcare,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
Lisa Graves. “ALEC Exposed: The Koch Connection,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
Julie Underwood. “ALEC Exposed: Starving Public Schools,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
John Nichols. “ALEC Exposed: Rigging Elections,” The Nation, July 12, 2011. Archived August 9, 2015.
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