American Petroleum Institute (API)
Based in Washington DC, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest trade association for the oil and gas industry, representing over 600 corporate members “from the largest major oil company to the smallest of independents, come from all segments of the industry.” The API says its mission is to “influence public policy in support of a strong, viable U.S. oil and natural gas industry.” API describes itself as “the only national trade association that represents all aspects of America’s oil and natural gas industry.” 
API was initially established on March 20, 1919 in New York City and moved to Washington DC in late 1969. According to its website, API “speak[s] for the oil and natural gas industry to the public, Congress and the Executive Branch, state governments and the media. We negotiate with regulatory agencies, represent the industry in legal proceedings, participate in coalitions and work in partnership with other associations to achieve our members’ public policy goals.” , 
ExxonSecrets reports that API has funded organizations that oppose regulations aimed at combating global warming including the Cato Institute and Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE). API is also a member of the National Wetlands Coalition, a group suggesting government regulation on wetlands are “burdensome and ineffective regulations on private property.” According to Sourcewatch, The National Wetlands coalition has been relatively inactive since the 1990s, but was made up of a group of about 60 municipal associations, utilities and major industrial concerns, such as Exxon, Texaco and Kerr-McGee. ,  
API Promoted “Uncertainty” about Climate Change
A 1998 Communications Plan, obtained by the New York Times and reported on at Greenpeace, suggests that API was actively working to promote “uncertainty” about climate change science and linksd to fossil fuels. According to the document, “victory will be achieved when […] Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the 'conventional wisdom'”
“Unless 'climate change' becomes a non-issue, meaning that the Kyoto proposal is defeated and there are no further initiatives to thwart the threat of climate change, there may be do moment when we can declare victory for our efforts. It will be necessary to establish measurements for the science effort to track progress toward achieving the goal and strategic success,” the document reads.
InsideClimate News reports that API also knew of climate change as early as 1982. A Columbia University report titled “Climate Models and CO2 Warming, A Selective Review and Summary” (PDF) commissioned by the institute in 1982, cautioned that global warming “can have serious consequences for man's comfort and survival.” , 
Starting in 2009, the API led a coalition called “Energy Citizens” and held rallies opposing the Waxman-Markey Climate Bill, targeting states “whose Democratic Senators aren't strong supporters of a stringent bill, such as […] Sherrod Brown of Ohio and Mark Begich of Alaska.” 
According to Newsweek, API asked regional companies to urge their employees to participate in planned protests. A leaked memo revealed that “The objective of these rallies is to put a human face on the impacts of unsound energy policy and to aim a loud message at [20 different] states.” 
“Energy Citizens” is also supported by the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), American Farm Bureau, American Highway Users Alliance, National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC), Small Business and Entrepreneurship Council, FreedomWorks, American Conservative Union, Americans for Tax Reform, and Council for Citizens Against Government Waste. 
According toO'Dwyer's Magazine, in a February 2010 article titled “The Politics of Climate Change,”
“The group has loudly protested the EPA’s decision to have greenhouse gas emissions regulated under the Clean Air Act. API members include Chevron, ConocoPhillips,Exxon Mobil, GE, Halliburton and Shell.” 
Template fliers for the “Energy Citizens” rallies warned that “Climate change legislation being considered in Washington will cause huge economic pain and produce little environmental gain.” They additionally claimed the Waxman-Markey Climate Bill would “cost 2 million American jobs, raise gasoline and diesel prices up to $4.”
The EPA estimated the bill would cost U.S. households “about a postage stamp a day,” while the Energy Information Administration projected annual “energy bill costs could rise between $26 per household to $362 by 2020.” 
The company Democracy, Data & Communications (DDC), wrote in a case study that it “has actively partnered with the American Petroleum Institute (API) for years, designing,
executing, and managing all facets of their key national advocacy program” and was “asked with creating an on-the-ground campaign focused on raising the prole of Energy Citizens in support of natural gas production from the 'Marcellus Shale' formation in Pennsylvania.” 
DDC said it helped to convene two roundtable meetings with local congressional representatives for the Energy Citizens campaign, as well as get 170 letters of support published and sent to Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale Commission. According to IRS tax filings reviewed by DeSmog, API paid DDC $29.3 million for its work between 2011 and 2015, DeSmog reported. 
DDC has also worked with the tobacco company Phillip Morris on a website fighting against tobacco regulation. DDC is also an Associate Member of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), which has also paid DDC at least $1.8 million since 2012 for PR work according to the IRS. 
API & the American Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA) Merger
On November 18, 2015, the American Petroleum Institute and the American Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA) announced a merger to create a “single voice promoting the industry” while working under the name of the American Petroleum Institute. ANGA was founded in 2009 and is funded by natural gas producers, and has worked against federal limits on methane emissions. 
|Year||Total Lobbying Expenditure|
Stance on Climate Change
In its most recent “Climate and Energy” primer, API claims that the use of natural gas is enough to reduce CO2 emissions, and that we should recognize “the many benefits that oil and natural gas provide our nation”: 
“CO2 emissions from power generation in 2016 were near 30-year lows, in large part due to greater use of natural gas. And increased use of natural gas in the power generation sector has helped to reduce total CO2 emissions to their lowest level in nearly 25 years.
“This proves that Americans do not have to make the false choice between utilizing our nation’s energy resources and protecting the environment.
“The oil and gas industry considers climate change a very important issue and is engaging constructively to address this complex global challenge.
United States climate policy must recognize the vital role of petroleum products in modern society, and the many benefits that oil and natural gas provide our nation and the world.”
An archived version of the American Petroleum Institute website admits that “emissions from [energy] production and use may be helping to warm our planet by enhancing the natural greenhouse effect of the atmosphere. That’s why oil and gas companies are also working to reduce their greenhouse emissions.” 
“While we rely on them for most of our energy and will likely do so for years to come, as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) notes:'Scientists are certain that human activities are changing the composition of the atmosphere, and that increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases will change the planet’s climate. However, they are not sure by how much it will change, at what rate it will change, or what the exact effects will be.'Despite these uncertainties it is clear that climate change is a serious problem that requires research for solutions and effective policies that allow us to meet our energy needs while protecting the environment. That's why oil and gas companies are working to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.”
API's 1998 ”Global Climate Science Communications Plan” (PDF), reported by the New York Times and authored by the American Petroleum Institute's Joe Walker, revealed the institute's stance on climate change.
According to the plan, “victory will be achieved when”: 
- Average citizens “understand” (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the “conventional wisdom”
- Media “understands” (recognizes) uncertainties in climate science
- Media coverage reflects balance on climate science and recognition of the validity of viewpoints that challenge the current “conventional wisdom”
- Industry senior leadership understands uncertainties in climate science, making them stronger ambassadors to those who shape climate policy
- Those promoting the Kyoto treaty on the basis of extant science appear to be out of touch with reality.”
Under the heading “Climate Reality,” the document continues:
“Unless 'climate change' becomes a non-issue, meaning that the Kyoto proposal is defeated and there are no further initiatives to thwart the threat of climate change, there may be do moment when we can declare victory for our efforts. It will be necessary to establish measurements for the science effort to track progress toward achieving the goal and strategic success.”
InsideClimate News reports that the American Petroleum Institute knew of climate change as early as 1982: A Columbia University report titled “Climate Models and CO2 Warming, A Selective Review and Summary” (PDF) commissioned by the American Petroleum Institute in 1982, cautioned that global warming “can have serious consequences for man's comfort and survival.” , 
American Petroleum Institute Funding (As Donor)
There are 374 transactions on record for the American Petroleum Institute as a Donor in the Conservative Transparency Database. Note that not all of the following funding values have been confirmed by DeSmogBlog. 
View the attached spreadsheet for further details on the American Petroleum Institute's funding by year (.xlsx).
|Oil and Natural Gas Industry Labor Management Committee||$3,597,648|
|National Association of Manufacturers||$2,026,150|
|2012 Tampa Bay Host Committee||$2,022,473|
|Coloradans for Responsible Reform||$1,493,247|
|Independent Petroleum Association of America||$1,287,356|
|American Chemistry Council||$1,187,000|
|Ground Water Protection Council||$1,040,800|
|Health Effects Institute||$910,000|
|Business Industry Political Action Committee||$775,000|
|State Review of Oil and Natural Gas Environmental Regulations||$775,000|
|University of Connecticut||$700,531|
|Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute||$672,500|
|University of California Davis||$622,490|
|Americans for Tax Reform||$607,500|
|Business Institute for Political Analysis||$525,000|
|Democratic Governors Association||$480,000|
|University of Colorado||$455,133|
|Coalition for American Jobs||$412,969|
|American Council for Capital Formation||$350,000|
|Consumer Energy Alliance||$332,500|
|Republican Governors Association||$305,000|
|America's Wetland Foundation||$300,000|
|Energy Policy Research Foundation||$300,000|
|Plumbers & Pipefitters||$267,500|
|Congressional Coalition on Adoption Institute||$260,000|
|60 Plus Association||$253,000|
|American Action Network||$250,000|
|Maine Energy Marketers Association||$240,000|
|Environmental Council of the States||$223,750|
|The Keystone Center||$220,500|
|Congressional Black Caucus Foundation||$210,000|
|Coloradans for a Stable Economy||$200,000|
|Ohio Oil & Gas Energy Education Forum||$200,000|
|US Chamber of Commerce||$186,500|
|Building and Construction Trades Department AFL-CIO||$185,000|
|Massachusetts Institute of Technology||$180,000|
|National Fish and Wildlife Foundation||$165,500|
|Institute for Energy Research||$160,000|
|Small Business and Enterpreneurship Council||$150,000|
|Republican State Leadership Committee||$150,000|
|Energy Equipment and Infrastracture Alliance||$150,000|
|Americans for Prosperity||$139,000|
|National Ocean Policy Coalition||$130,000|
|Petroleum Association of Wyoming||$130,000|
|Montana Department of Environmental Quality||$117,274|
|University of Massachusetts Dept of Microbiology||$117,000|
|Congressional Black Caucus Institute||$115,000|
|American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research||$110,000|
|Greater North Dakota Chamber of Commerce||$107,193|
|National Foreign Trade Council||$101,000|
|National Retail Federation||$100,000|
|Alliance to Save Energy||$100,000|
|National Taxpayers Union||$100,000|
|Michigan State University||$100,000|
|National Academy of Sciences||$100,000|
|American Legislative Exchange Council||$98,000|
|National Black Chamber of Commerce||$97,500|
|University of California Berkeley||$94,402|
|University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign||$93,900|
|North Carolina State University||$93,135|
|100 Black Men of America||$90,000|
|Association for Environmental Health and Sciences||$86,000|
|US News and World Report - US News Stem Solutions||$85,000|
|National Conference of State Legislatures||$84,000|
|Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States||$81,000|
|George Mason University Foundation||$80,000|
|George Mason University||$80,000|
|Northwestern University School of Law||$80,000|
|Capitol Hill Publishing Corp.||$79,500|
|Pipeline Research Council||$77,500|
|The Foreign Policy Group||$75,000|
|Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute||$75,000|
|International Conservation Caucus Foundation||$75,000|
|Nebraska Ethanol Board||$71,212|
|Common Ground Alliance||$70,000|
|American Conservative Union||$66,000|
|Offshore Energy Center||$65,000|
|United States Association for Energy Economics||$62,500|
|Sustainable Remediation Forum||$60,000|
|James Madison Institute||$60,000|
|American GI Forum of the United States||$60,000|
|Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility||$55,000|
|National Marine Sanctuary Foundation||$52,500|
|Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research||$52,500|
|University of Tulsa||$52,353|
|University of Oklahoma||$52,194|
|Congressional Sportsmen's Foundation||$51,000|
|NM Association Conservative District||$50,000|
|Texas State Society of Washington DC||$50,000|
|National Ocean Policy||$50,000|
|Council of Great Lakes Governors||$50,000|
|National Industrial Sand Association||$50,000|
|The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences||$50,000|
|Michigan Chamber PAC II||$50,000|
|Citizens Against Government Waste||$50,000|
|National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners||$50,000|
|National Journal Group||$50,000|
|Nicholls State University||$45,000|
|The Bryce Harlow Foundation||$42,500|
|Council of State Governments||$41,000|
|Ford's Theatre Society||$40,000|
|American Association of Blacks in Energy||$40,000|
|Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy||$40,000|
|Formula Sports Group||$40,000|
|National Conference of Black Mayors||$40,000|
|Saj Media (Greater Wilmington Business Journal)||$40,000|
|A Wider Circle||$40,000|
|Consensus Building Institute||$40,000|
|American National Standards Institute (ANSI)||$39,951|
|University of Rochester||$38,695|
|Pennsylvania Independent Oil and Gas Association||$37,500|
|Washington Humane Society||$37,500|
|American Council on Science and Health||$37,500|
|University of New Hampshire||$36,000|
|Wright State University||$35,000|
|Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment||$35,000|
|Coordinating Research Council||$35,000|
|Western Governors' Association||$35,000|
|Friends of New Orleans||$35,000|
|University of Houston - Clear Lake||$34,000|
|Federal Water Quality Coalition (Barnes & Thornburg)||$31,000|
|Conservative Political Action Conference||$31,000|
|Washington Press Club Foundation||$30,285|
|Virginia Chamber of Commerce||$30,000|
|NALEO Educational Fund||$30,000|
|Girl Scout Council of the Nation's Capital||$30,000|
|University of California||$30,000|
|Coastal America Foundation||$30,000|
|Fund for Peace||$30,000|
|Taxpayers for Common Sense||$30,000|
|Western Michigan University||$28,000|
|North Carolina Agricultural Foundation||$28,000|
|Citizens to Protect Pennsylvania||$26,000|
|American Tort Reform Association||$25,100|
|University of Vermont||$25,000|
|Bloomberg Finance LP||$25,000|
|The Ripon Society||$25,000|
|Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers||$25,000|
|American Highway Users Alliance||$25,000|
|Southern Christian Leadership Conference||$25,000|
|Consortium of Catholic Academies of the Archdiocese of Washington||$25,000|
|Southern Republican Leadership Conference South Carolina||$25,000|
|Jefferson Island Club||$25,000|
|Hispanic Alliance for Prosperity Institute||$25,000|
|National Association of Hispanic Publications||$25,000|
|Hispanic Alliance for Progress Institute||$25,000|
|Competitive Enterprise Institute||$25,000|
|Western Business Roundtable||$25,000|
|National Association of Wholesaler Distributors (LIFO Coalition)||$25,000|
|Arizona State University||$25,000|
|Battelle Memorial Institute||$25,000|
|Tread Lightly Inc.||$25,000|
|American Forest and Paper Association||$21,700|
|Nebraska Ethanol Industry Coalition||$20,212|
|Western States Air Resources Council||$20,000|
|Carbon Sequestration Council||$20,000|
|Fight For Children||$20,000|
|Fund for American Studies||$20,000|
|HM&C Center Stage LLC||$20,000|
|March of Dimes Maryland?National Capital Area Chapter||$20,000|
|Boy Scouts of America||$20,000|
|Boy Scouts of America - National Capital Area Council||$20,000|
|Mahoning County Democratic Party||$17,500|
|American Institute of Chemical Engineers||$17,500|
|North American Metals Council||$17,000|
|Everybody Wins! DC||$16,400|
|Foreign Policy Association||$15,000|
|The Tax Foundation||$15,000|
|New York Academy of Sciences||$15,000|
|US Conference of Mayors||$15,000|
|Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars||$15,000|
|The National Center for American Indian Enterprise||$15,000|
|Professional Dairy Managers of Pennsylvania||$15,000|
|Flag Credit Union||$15,000|
|The Corbett Cawley Inaugural Committee||$15,000|
|Nevada State AFL-CIO||$15,000|
|NCLS Foundation for State Legislatures||$15,000|
|National Board of Professional Teaching Standards||$15,000|
|Missouri Chamber of Commerce and Industry Education Foundation||$12,500|
|Radio Television Digital News Association||$12,000|
|Public Lands Advocacy||$11,000|
|Center for Legislative Energy and Environmental Research||$10,785|
|New Mexico Community Capital||$10,000|
|Foundation to Eradicate Duchenne||$10,000|
|Montana Economic Developers Association||$10,000|
|Republican Governors Public Policy Committee||$10,000|
|Freedom Foundation of Minnesota||$10,000|
|A Better Missouri Nixon for Governor||$10,000|
|Council of State Chambers (COSC)||$10,000|
|National Association of Black Journalists||$10,000|
|Ohioans For Change||$10,000|
|National Association of Energy Officials||$10,000|
|National Urban League||$10,000|
|Federal Recycling and Remediation Coalition (Barnes & Thornburg)||$10,000|
|Committee for Economic Development||$10,000|
|California Climate Action Registry||$10,000|
|Kasich-Taylor New Day Inaugural Committee||$10,000|
|University of Texas at Arlington||$10,000|
|Volta Live Inc.||$10,000|
|Stop Oil Seeps California||$10,000|
|Gulf of Mexico Alliance||$10,000|
|Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation||$10,000|
|Institute for Policy Innovation||$10,000|
|National Chamber Foundation||$10,000|
|United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce||$10,000|
|Center for Excellence in Education||$10,000|
|Colorado State University||$10,000|
|Texas Oil and Gas Association||$10,000|
|Jobs for America's Graduates||$10,000|
|Hydrogen Sulfide Coalition||$10,000|
|Junior League of Raleigh||$10,000|
|National Endangered Species Act Reform Coalition||$10,000|
|Canadian Club of Chicago||$10,000|
|Abate of Illinois||$10,000|
|Community Leaders of America||$10,000|
|Citizens for Sound Conservation||$10,000|
|March of Dimes Foundation||$10,000|
|Diabetes Research Institute Foundation||$10,000|
|Ohio Democratic Party||$10,000|
|The Horinko Group||$10,000|
|Virginia Sustainable Building Network||$10,000|
|National Foundation for Women Legislators||$10,000|
|Ohio Republican Party||$10,000|
|Illinois Institute of Technology||$10,000|
|Congressional Award Foundation||$10,000|
|Alliance for Consumer Education||$10,000|
|Foundation for American Communications||$10,000|
|Bryce Harlow Foundation||$7,500|
|New Jersey Lawsuit Reform Alliance||$7,500|
|Missouri Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association||$7,500|
|Rockwood Labor Club||$7,500|
|Illinois Legislative Black Caucus Foundation||$7,500|
|Climate Action Reserves||$7,500|
|Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs||$6,511|
|University of Texas at Austin||$6,500|
|Hart Energy Publishing LLP||$6,500|
|San Antonio Hispanic Chamber||$6,000|
|Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors||$6,000|
|American Society for Testing and Materials||$6,000|
|Pennsylvania Chamber of Business and Industry||$5,333|
|Utilities Telecom Council||$5,100|
|National Association of Neighborhoods||$5,000|
|National Conference of State Societies||$5,000|
|Hispanic College Fund||$5,000|
|Asian Pacific American Institute for Congressional Studies||$5,000|
API Leadership Team
|Erik Milito||Y||Y||Group Director, Upstream & Industry Operations|
|Frank Macchiarola||Y||Group Director, Downstream and Industry Operations|
|Gerardo Uria||Y||Director, Membership and Development|
|Jack Gerard||Y||Y||President & CEO|
|John Robertson||Y||Y||Vice President & Chief Financial Officer, Administration and Finance|
|Kyle Isakower||Y||Y||Vice President, Regulatory & Economic Policy. (Also oversees API's climate policy development) |
|Linda Rozett||Y||Y||Vice President, Communications|
|Lisa Salley||Y||Vice President, Global Industry Services|
|Louis Finkel||Y||Y||Executive Vice President, Government Affairs. Advised oil and natural gas pipeline companies for two D.C.consulting firms. |
|Marty Durbin||Y||Executive Director, Market Development|
|Robert Greco||Y||Group Director, Downstream and Industry Operations|
|Robin Rorick||Y||Y||Group Director, Midstream and Industry Operations|
|Stacy Linden||Y||Y||Vice President, General Counsel & Corporate Secretary, Office of the General Counsel|
Officers, Trustees, Etc. (Via 990 forms)
|Al Monaco||Y||Board Member|
|Al Walker||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Alan S Armstrong||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Aubrey McClendon||Y||Board Member|
|Bill Maloney||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Charles R Williams||Y||Y||Exec Dir Ctr For Offshore Safety|
|Clarence P Cazalot JR||Y||Chairman of the Board|
|Daniel W Rabun||Y||Y||Board Member|
|David Fanta||Y||Y||Board Member|
|David J Lesar||Y||Y||Board Member|
|David T Seaton||Y||Y||Board Member|
|David W Williams||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Doug J Suttles||Y||Board Member|
|Douglas R Matthews||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Drew P Cobbs||Y||Executive Director, MDPetroleum Council|
|Eric G Milito||Y||Group Director|
|Eric J Wohlschlegel||Y||Y||Director|
|Erik G Milito||Y||Group Director|
|G Steven Farris||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Gary G Rich||Y||Board Member|
|Gary R Heminger||Y||Y||Board Member & Chair Fin Cmte|
|Greg C. Garland||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Hank A True III||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Harry M NG||Y||Y||Gen Counsel & Corp Sec Until 9/30/14|
|Harry N Pefanis||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Howard J Feldman||Y||Senior Director|
|J Larry Nichols||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Jack B Moore||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Jack N Gerard||Y||Y||President And CEO|
|James F Justiss JR||Y||Board Member|
|James P McGregor||Y||Y||Board Member|
|James T Hackett||Y||Board Member|
|John B Hess||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John Bannerman||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John C Felmy||Y||Y||Chief Economist|
|John C Minge||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John D Modine||Y||Y||Vice President|
|John E Robertson||Y||Y||Vice President And Cfo|
|John S Watson||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John T Gremp||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Joseph Bryant||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Karen Wright||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Khalid S Alnaji||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Kyle B Isakower||Y||Y||Vice President|
|Lamar McKay||Y||Board Member|
|Lee M Tillman||Y||Board Member|
|Linda G Rozett||Y||Y||Vice President|
|Louis A Finkel||Y||Executive Vice President|
|Marin L Durbin||Y||Executive Vice President|
|Martin S Craighead||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Marvin Odum||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Morton Arntzen||Y||Board Member|
|Nadeel Amudi||Y||Board Member|
|Paul L Howes||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Paul Stevens||Y||Board Member|
|Peter Evensen||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Ralph A Hill||Y||Board Member|
|Ray L Hunt||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Rex Tillerson||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Ricardo Darre||Y||Board Member|
|Richard Muncrief||Y||Board Member|
|Robert Doug Lawler||Y||Board Member|
|Robert L Greco||Y||Group Director|
|Robert L Parker Jr||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Rod Nelson||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Roger Jenkins||Y||Board Member|
|Rolf W Hanson||Y||Y||Senior Director|
|Ryan M Lance||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Stacy R Linden||Y||Gen Counsel & Corp Sec As Of 10/24/14|
|Stephen I Chazen||Y||Y||Chairman Of The Board|
|Thomas Burke||Y||Board Member|
|Tim J Cutt||Y||Board Member|
|Tomothy C. Felt||Y||Board Member|
|Tracy W Krohn||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Troy W Thacker||Y||Board Member|
|Virginia Gigi B Lazenby||Y||Y||Board Member|
|W Herbert Hunt||Y||Y||Board Member|
|W Matt Ralls||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Timothy C. Felt||Y||Board Member|
- Red Cavaney — Past President and Chief Executive Officer. 
- William F. O'Keefe — Past executive vice president. 
- Lee R. Raymond — Past Trustee and Vice Chairman. 
- Philip A. Cooney — Past “climate team leader” and lobbyist at API (before 2001). 
September 13, 2017
“What we don't support is unnecessary, redundant, costly regulations that provide no benefit to society, yet cost industry a lot,” Gerard said. “Our emissions of carbon are down to a 30-year low. That was brought to us primarily by cleaner-burning, fuel-efficient natural gas,” he said. “So when you put all that in context, I think we need to look at that holistically, but I think the deregulatory agenda needs to continue.”[ 66]
February 22 - 25, 2017
February 5, 2017
API launched a new advertising campaign called Power Past Impossible to tout the uses of oil and natural gas. They released one of their ads during Super Bowl 51 (see video below). According to The Hill, API estimated that the ad would have reached an estimated 110 million people. 
API plans to run the ad for several years in different media. They also launched a website, Powerpastimpossible.org, as part of their campaign.
“The Power Past Impossible campaign features a few of the countless products and technological advances made possible from natural gas and oil, from life-saving medical devices to cosmetics to drug stores, from plastics in our toys to cell phones to 3D printers,” Gerard said. 
The Hill reported that Gerard said that while deregulation wasn't the primary focus of the campaign, it tied in nicely.
“Those regulatory burdens, when they’re unnecessary or duplicative, add costs that make us less competitive,” he said.
“We support appropriate regulation. We believe regulation has a role. What we need to do is fix it so it’s smart, commonsense regulation.” 
June 8, 2016
API Director of Upstream and Industry Operations Erik Milito claimed that government reports have already proven hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to be safe. Milito points to an EPA report that, while it did conclude that fracking could potentially impact drinking water, had also said it did not find “evidence that these mechanisms have led to widespread, systemic impacts on drinking water resources in the United States.” 
“Hydraulic fracturing is being done safely under the strong environmental stewardship of state regulators and industry best practices,” Milito said. “Yet, since releasing the report, the EPA continues to face a barrage of politically based attacks attempting to tamper with scientific conclusions.” 
Notably, the EPA report that Milito links to includes a prominent notice which describes it as a “draft report,” of which peer review would begin in the first quarter of 2015. , 
“This assessment provides a review and synthesis of available information concerning the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas on drinking water resources in the United States. This is a draft report that has been made available for public comment and shared with the EPA Science Advisory Board for expert peer review.” 
The American Petroleum Institute (API) was among organizations named in a Massachusetts subpoena looking for communications between ExxonMobil and organizations denying climate change, reports The Washington Times. 
Organizations named in the Massachusetts subpoena include the following: 
- The Centre for Industrial Progress
- The Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty
- The American Enterprise Institute
- Americans for Prosperity
- The American Legislative Exchange Council
- The American Petroleum Institute
- The Beacon Hill Institute at Suffolk University
- The George C. Marshall Institute
- The Heartland Institute
- Mercatus Center at George Mason University
This latest inquiry by Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey is one in a series of investigations into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US. 
May 23, 2016
The American Petroleum Institute released a statement celebrating the passage of the FY17 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) in the U.S. House of Representatives which would revise Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export provisions. 
“U.S. LNG exports will create American jobs, significantly strengthen the global energy marketplace, and bolster our strategic alliances,” API Executive Vice President Louis Finkel said. “Today’s action by the U.S. House of Representatives to approve LNG exports provisions as part of the defense authorization bill further cements the critical role U.S. energy plays at home and abroad.
“It’s time for our nation to fully embrace the vast economic and geopolitical opportunities unleashed by the energy renaissance. U.S. LNG exports ensure that consumers across the globe have access to stable, diverse energy supplies, protect America’s role as a global energy leader, further enhance national security in the homeland and help our allies break dependence on nations that use their energy resources as a political weapon.” 
A group of 21 kids and teenagers (including those as young as eight years old) are suing the US government and the fossil fuel industry over climate inaction, appearing in an Oregon courtroom on March 9. , 
“It may sound like a long shot, but fossil fuel industry groups are taking the lawsuit seriously,”The Nation writes. 
In November, lobbyists representing ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron, Koch Industries, and energy companies petitioned the judge for permission to join the case alongside the government: The American Petroleum Institute, the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers, and the National Association of Manufacturers. The groups called the case “extraordinary,” and asked the court to dismiss the case. , 
Among those suing the US government:
“Nathaniel, a teenager from Fairbanks whose asthma has worsened with the wildfires that now sweep across Alaska each summer; Alex, whose family farm in Oregon has been parched by record heat waves and drought; Journey, a member of the Yankton Sioux Tribe living in Hawaii, whose family fled from flooding in 2012; and Levi, an 8 year old who lives on a low-lying barrier island in Florida that is already grappling with sea level rise.” 
The American Petroleum Institute has pushed to remove the crude oil export ban in the U.S. Jack Gerard, API President and CEO, said in a press conference “blocking trade in crude oil harms consumers when they fill up, it harms the economy, it inflates the trade deficit, it limits job creation, and it undermines America’s ability to protect our allies.”
“[T]he hazardous increases in oil production that could come with the removal or weakening of the crude export ban presents much greater dangers that simply cannot be ignored. Everyday, dangerous fracking wells, sprawling rail lines carrying so-called 'bomb trains' and a network of leaking pipelines threaten our communities with spills and explosions with far-too-frequent regularity. If the highest estimates of increased oil production are realized, eliminating the crude oil export ban could lead to as much as a doubling of crude-by-rail traffic from today’s already perilous levels.”
The American Petroleum Institute released an updated “Primer” (PDF) on Hydraulic Fracturing, bearing the same title as their previous reports (“Hydraulic Fracturing: Unlocking America's Natural Gas Resources”). According to the report, Fracturing is “largely responsible for changing America’s energy narrative from one of limited options to one of nearly limitless plenty.”
API makes the claim that “There are zero confirmed cases of groundwater contamination” due to hydraulic fracturing. They also divert blame of earthquakes caused by fracturing, citing studies that found it was “impossible to say with a high degree of certainty whether or not these earthquakes were triggered by natural means or by the nearby hydraulic-fracturing operation.” According to API, Fracturing is a “Safe, proven technology.”
Since the API's Report, the Environmental Protection Agency has released a long-awaited draft of its assessment of fracking's impact on drinking water. The EPA fracking assessment found that fracking indeed contaminates drinking water: “From our assessment, we conclude there are above and below ground mechanisms by which hydraulic fracturing activities have the potential to impact drinking water resources,” the EPA wrote. 
API launched a campaign in South Portland with the goal of influencing a referendum to ban tar sands in the area. The referendum was the result of local activists gathering almost 4,000 signatures in their city of about 25,000 to get the issue on the ballot.
“Some of you may be concerned about tar sands, which may have prompted you to sign a Waterfront Protection Ordinance petition. But the ordinance is not about tar sands.”
December 16, 2011
Jack Gerard spoke at a press briefing teleconference on oil sands where he criticized President Obama's decision to delay the Keystone XL project.
He claimed that Obama's decision was “driven by politics” and that environmental studies had already found that there would be “no significant impacts' on the environment” by the pipeline. 
July 19, 2010
The API released a “primer” (PDF) on hydraulic fracturing (fracking) that concludes (based on two studies) that there has been “no instance of groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing,” and that there were “no significant environmental risks as a result of proper hydraulic fracturing.” 
DeSmogBlog investigated the environmental impacts of fracking and came to a different conclusion: It is becoming increasingly clear that the unconventional gas boom is happening too fast, too recklessly and with insufficient concern for the potential cumulative impacts on our most critical resources – clean air, safe drinking water and a stable climate.
API sent a letter to members of Congress critical of the Obama administration:
“The US oil and natural gas industry has the expertise and technology to produce the energy we need to fuel economic growth, create jobs, generate significant revenues for local, state and federal governments, and bolster our national security. However, our companies cannot do so if held back by harmful, counter-productive taxes and are restricted from access to domestic oil and natural gas resources that the country urgently needs. … If imposed, these taxes and fees could have a debilitating effect on our economy, when our nation can least afford it. They would reduce investment in new energy supplies, meaning less energy produced for American consumers. We cannot tax our way out of our energy problems.” 
April 20, 2009
API protested the Environmental Protection Agency's finding that greenhouse gas emissions endangered public health and could be regulated under the Clean Air Act.
Jack Gerard of API concluded that “The Clean Air Act was created to address local and regional air pollution, not the emission of carbon dioxide and other global greenhouse gases,” as reported in the Oil & Gas Journal. 
In response to the November 2008 election of Barack Obama as President and Joe Biden as Vice-president, API released a statement in the name of their CEO, Jack Gerard, saying:
“The American people have spoken loud and clear that they want politicians to put aside partisan bickering… . The oil and natural gas industry stands ready to help put America's vast energy resources to good use, strengthening our nation's economy and energy security, and providing good jobs for Americans across the country.” 
Gerard earlier criticized Obama's platform, saying “Obama's plan to impose a windfall-profits tax on oil companies would harm one of the few industries that are thriving” in the economic crisis. , 
January 31, 2003
API partially funded a controversial paper (PDF) authored by climate change skeptics Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas that comes to the conclusion that the climate hasn't changed in the last 2000 years. 
March 21, 2002
The API produced a 16-minute video titled “Fuel-less: you can't be cool without fuel,” which was distributed through the National Science Teachers Association. The film starts with the line “you're not going to believe this, but everything everything I have that's really cool comes from oil!” 
The video was also available on the API-owned website Classroom-Energy.org. The website describes its aim as to provide teachers and students with materials on “the vital role of oil and natural gas in modern life.” According to a WHOIS lookup, the domain for Classroom Energy was registered by the American Petroleum Institute on March 21, 2002. 
An API memo leaked to the media in 1998 explained API's plan to target schools:
“Informing teachers/students about uncertainties in climate science will begin to erect barriers against further efforts to impose Kyoto-like measures in the future.” 
Classroom-Energy.org now redirects to energytomorrow.org.
- “Average citizens understand (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties
- becomes part of the ‘conventional wisdom’
- Media 'understands (recognizes) uncertainties in climate science
- Those promoting the Kyoto treaty on the basis of extant science appear to be out of touch with reality.”
American Petroleum Institute Contact & Location
The address and phone number for the American Petroleum Institute (API) was as follows as of May, 2016: 
1220 L Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005-4070
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a sponsor of Virginia Energy Citizens, a group describing itself as a grassroots coalition.
Virginia Energy Citizens' state coordinator Miles Morin attended the July 2015 meeting of the Northern Virginia Tea Party where he was originally billed as speaking on how “the radical environmental movement poses a serious threat to our freedoms, our property.” The online initiation was later revised to read how Morin would speak on how to tell “local, state and federal officials why you support pro-energy policies.” 
Craig Holman, the government affairs lobbyist for Public Citizen, a Washington-based watchdog group, described API's relationship with Virginia Energy Citizens. He says lobbyists and paid consultants are now not only shaping public opinion with advertising, but also attended meetings and passing themselves off as grassroots activists (a “new” strategy):
“That's clearly deceptive,” Holman said. “Not only are they trying to deceive the Tea Party activists, they'll also be deceiving Congress at the same time.” 
Website run by API to inform teachers and students of the “vital role of oil and natural gas in modern life.”
Between 2006 and 2017, API has reported over 1,100 unique member organizations. View the attached spreadsheet for a complete list of the American Petroleum Institute's members year over Year (.xlsx). 
Some notable examples below: 
“API Overview and Mission,” The American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 10, 2015.
“API History,” The American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 10, 2015.
Mark Dowie. “Greens Outgunned,” Earth Island Journal, Vol 10. No. 2 (Spring 1995). Archived January 13, 2004.
“American Petroleum Institute,” OpenSecrets.org. Accessed September, 2017.
“Denial and Deception: A Chronicle of ExxonMobil’s Efforts to Corrupt the Debate on Global Warming” (PDF) Greenpeace, May, 2007. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“American Petroleum Institute,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved June 6, 2017.
“API Leadership Team,” The American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Vice President, Regulatory and Economic Policy,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Executive Vice President, Government Affairs,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Office of the President,” API. Archived, January 28, 1999.
“Executive Profile: Lee R. Raymond Ph.D.,” Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived August 11, 2015.
Andrew C. Revkin. “Bush Aide Softened Greenhouse Gas Links to Global Warming,” New York Times, June 8, 2005. Archived September 15, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/SkHVT
Isaac Arnsdorf. “Small Tea Party Meeting Has a Special Guest: Big Oil,” Bloomberg Politics, August 10, 2015.
“Press Conference Call on Crude Oil Exports with Jack Gerard and Encana CEO Doug Suttles,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 11, 2015.
David Turnbull. “Lift the ban, cook the climate,” Congress Blog (TheHill.com), July 23, 2015. Archived August 11, 2015.
Justin Mikulka. “Most Recent Oil Train Accidents and Spills Involved ‘Safer’ CPC-1232 Tank Cars,” DeSmogBlog, July 23, 2015.
Jad Mouawad. “Oil Industry Asks Court to Block Rail Transport Safety Rules,” May 12, 2015.
Sharon Kelly. “EPA Study: Fracking Puts Drinking Water Supplies at Risk of Contamination,” DeSmogBlog, June 4, 2015.
Justin Mikulka. “Maine Residents Fight American Petroleum Institute Lobbyists Over Ban on Tar Sands Shipments,” DeSmogBlog, July 21, 2014.
“Inside the Big Oil Playbook” (PDF), Environment Maine Research & Policy Center, June 2014. Archived August 11, 2015.
Ben Jervey. “South Portland Tar Sands Pipeline Defeat: Big Oil Outspends Local Grassroots 6-to-1,” DeSmogBlog, November 8, 2013.
Bill Bush. “Briefing stresses importance of Keystone XL to national security” (Press Release), the American Petroleum Institute, December 16, 2011. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Hydraulic Fracturing: Unlocking America’s Natural Gas Resources” (PDF) American Petroleum Institute, July 19, 2011. Archived November 16, 2010.
“Petroleum group spent $1.9M on lobbying in 3Q,” AP, December 15, 2011. Reposted at Boston.com. Archived August 11, 2015.
Ian Talley, “Lobby Groups to Use Town Hall Tactics to Oppose Climate Bill,” Wall Street Journal “Washington Wire” blog, August 11, 2009.
David Stone. ”The Browning of Grassroots,” Newsweek, August 19, 2009. Archived January 12, 2012.
Alex Kaplun, “'Energy Citizens' Take Aim at Climate Legislation,” The New York Times, August 12, 2009. Archived Aug 11, 2015.
“The Politics of Climate Change,” O'Dwyer's Magazine, Feb. 2010. Archived August 11, 2015.
Ian Talley, “Lobby Groups to Use Town Hall Tactics to Oppose Climate Bill,” Washington Wire (Wall Street Journal Blog), August 11, 2009. Archived August 11, 2015.
Noah Brenner, “API slaps administration on policy,” Upstreamonline.com, April 6, 2009.
Nick Snow, “EPA issues proposed endangerment finding on GHGs,” Oil & Gas Journal, April 20, 2009. Archived August 11, 2015.
“API: Oil, gas industry will work with new administration,“ Oil & Gas Journal, November 5, 2008. Archived August 11, 2015.
Daniel Whitten. “Obama May Put Renewable-Energy Plan Ahead of Climate Package,” Bloomberg, November 5, 2008. Archived September 11, 2014. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/YFmCO
Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas. “Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years” (PDF), Climate Research, Vol. 23 (January 21, 2003), P. 89-110. Archived August 11, 2015.
(CfA Press Release) “20th Century Climate Not So Hot,” Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, March 31, 2003. Archived August 11, 2015.
“About Us,” Classroom Energy!. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Dealing in Doubt: The Climate Denial Industry and Climate Science” (PDF), Greenpeace. Archived August 10, 2015.
“National Wetlands Coalition,” SourceWatch profile. Accessed March 9, 2016.
“Climate Change and Energy” (PDF), American Petroleum Institute (November 2015 Report). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“API Leadership Team,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived July 7, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Zoë Carpenter. ”21 Kids Are Suing President Obama Over Climate Inaction,” The Nation, March 9, 2016. Archived March 9, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6ftDfs2wv
“Big oil lines up to battle kids in climate court case,” Climate Home, January 15, 2016. Archived March 9, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6ftFVi0e0
Neela Banerjee. “Oil Industry Group's Own Report Shows Early Knowledge of Climate Impacts,” InsideClimate News, February 5, 2016. Archived March 9, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6ftFznlLb
“Climate Models and CO2 Warming, A Selective Review and Summary” (PDF), American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved from InsideClimateNews.org. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Robert Grattan. “Oil and natural gas boosters to merge into energy lobbying behemoth,” November 18, 2015. Archived June 2, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“America's Natural Gas Alliance,” OpenSecrets. Accessed June 2, 2016.
Asha Glover. “API: Even EPA Said Fracking Is Safe,” Morning Consult, June 8, 2016. Archived June 22, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“U.S. EPA. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources (External Review Draft),” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-15/047, 2015. Archived June 22, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iTCsqLy0
“Peer Review Plan (PDF), EPA.gov. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“American Petroleum Institute welcomes FY17 National Defense Authorization Act,” DailyEnergyInsider, May 23, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iTDV6id6
Valerie Richardson. “Exxon fights Mass. AG’s ‘political’ probe into climate change dissent,” The Washington Times, June 15, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iVfnzUhc
Ben Jervey. “State Investigations Into What Exxon Knew Double, and Exxon Gets Defensive,” Desmog, April 1, 2016.
“Climate and Energy,” API, May 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
“AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API)—STATE-FOCUSED EXAMPLE” (PDF), DDCpublicaffairs.com. Archived at DeSmog.
Steve Horn. “Here's the PR Firm Behind 'Your Energy America' Front Group Pushing Atlantic Coast Pipeline,” DeSmog, June 14, 2017.
“Storms shouldn't halt Trump deregulation efforts — API chief,” E&E News, September 13, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
“American Petroleum Institute,” SourceWatch Profile.
“American Petroleum Institute,” Wikipedia.
“Exxon Still Funding Climate Change Deniers,” Greenpeace, May 18, 2007. Archived March 5, 2011.
Kevin Grandia. “Oil Lobby's 'Energy Citizens' Astroturf Campaign Exposed,” Huffington Post, August 13, 2009.
Greenpeace research documents on the American Petroleum Institute.
Clifford Krauss and Jad Mouawad. “Oil Industry Backs Protests of Emissions Bill,” The New York Times, August 18, 2009. Archived August 11, 2015.
Sheila McNulty. “The big oil backlash?“ Energy Source, August 20, 2009. Archived August 20, 2009.