American Petroleum Institute (API)
Based in Washington DC, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest trade association for the oil and gas industry, representing over 600 corporate members “from the largest major oil company to the smallest of independents, come from all segments of the industry.” The API says its mission is to “influence public policy in support of a strong, viable U.S. oil and natural gas industry.” API describes itself as “the only national trade association that represents all aspects of America’s oil and natural gas industry.” 
API was initially established on March 20, 1919 in New York City and moved to Washington DC in late 1969. According to its website, API “speak[s] for the oil and natural gas industry to the public, Congress and the Executive Branch, state governments and the media. We negotiate with regulatory agencies, represent the industry in legal proceedings, participate in coalitions and work in partnership with other associations to achieve our members’ public policy goals.” , 
ExxonSecrets reports that API has funded organizations that oppose regulations aimed at combating global warming including the Cato Institute and Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE). API is also a member of the National Wetlands Coalition, a group suggesting government regulation on wetlands are “burdensome and ineffective regulations on private property.” According to Sourcewatch, The National Wetlands coalition has been relatively inactive since the 1990s, but was made up of a group of about 60 municipal associations, utilities and major industrial concerns, such as Exxon, Texaco and Kerr-McGee. ,  
API Promoted “Uncertainty” about Climate Change
A 1998 Communications Plan, obtained by the New York Times and reported on at Greenpeace, suggests that API was actively working to promote “uncertainty” about climate change science and links to fossil fuels. According to the document, “victory will be achieved when […] Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the 'conventional wisdom'”
“Unless 'climate change' becomes a non-issue, meaning that the Kyoto proposal is defeated and there are no further initiatives to thwart the threat of climate change, there may be no moment when we can declare victory for our efforts. It will be necessary to establish measurements for the science effort to track progress toward achieving the goal and strategic success,” the document reads.
InsideClimate News reports that API also knew of climate change as early as 1982. A Columbia University report titled “Climate Models and CO2 Warming, A Selective Review and Summary” (PDF) commissioned by the institute in 1982, cautioned that global warming “can have serious consequences for man's comfort and survival.” , 
Koch Ties & Cooperation
While Koch Industries is not known to be a member of API, as reported in the funding section below, API has donated a total of $139,000 to Americans for Prosperity, the astroturf tea party group founded by billionaire David Koch. 
Koch interests often align with those of API, and Koch-aligned groups often engage in lobbying on behalf for the same oil-and-gas-friendly legislation as API. For example, API joined in when trade associations including the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) and American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM), the latter which represents Koch Industries, BP, and Exxon Mobil among others, joined together to work as “one unified voice” to combat 21 young plaintiffs suing for stronger action on climate change. , 
“Time Is Running Out” — API
Long before API's coordinated plans to promote uncertainty, in 1965, President Johnson’s Science Advisory Committee published of a report titled “Restoring the Quality of Our Environment.” Then-API-president Frank Ikard described that report at an oil industry conference, DeSmog reported: 
“This report unquestionably will fan emotions, raise fears, and bring demand for action,” Ikard told the audience, as he described research into climate change caused by fossil fuels.
“The substance of the report is that there is still time to save the world's peoples from the catastrophic consequence of pollution, but time is running out.”
“One of the most important predictions of the report is that carbon dioxide is being added to the Earth's atmosphere by the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas at such a rate that by the year 2000 the heat balance will be so modified as possibly to cause marked changes in climate beyond local or even national efforts.”
According to the Nature letter from Stanford historian Benamin Franta, API itself had funded research reaching similar conclusions. For example, in 1954, a California Institute of Technology geochemist sent the API a research proposal reporting that fossil fuels caused carbon dioxide (CO2) levels to rise roughly five percent since 1854. 
API accepted that research proposal and advanced it under the name “Project 53” but never made those results public. 
Starting in 2009, the API led a coalition called “Energy Citizens” and held rallies opposing the Waxman-Markey Climate Bill, targeting states “whose Democratic Senators aren't strong supporters of a stringent bill, such as […] Sherrod Brown of Ohio and Mark Begich of Alaska.” 
According to Newsweek, API asked regional companies to urge their employees to participate in planned protests. A leaked memo revealed that “The objective of these rallies is to put a human face on the impacts of unsound energy policy and to aim a loud message at [20 different] states.” 
“Energy Citizens” is also supported by the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), American Farm Bureau, American Highway Users Alliance, National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC), Small Business and Entrepreneurship Council, FreedomWorks, American Conservative Union, Americans for Tax Reform, and Council for Citizens Against Government Waste. 
According toO'Dwyer's Magazine, in a February 2010 article titled “The Politics of Climate Change,”
“The group has loudly protested the EPA’s decision to have greenhouse gas emissions regulated under the Clean Air Act. API members include Chevron, ConocoPhillips,Exxon Mobil, GE, Halliburton and Shell.” 
Template fliers for the “Energy Citizens” rallies warned that “Climate change legislation being considered in Washington will cause huge economic pain and produce little environmental gain.” They additionally claimed the Waxman-Markey Climate Bill would “cost 2 million American jobs, raise gasoline and diesel prices up to $4.”
The EPA estimated the bill would cost U.S. households “about a postage stamp a day,” while the Energy Information Administration projected annual “energy bill costs could rise between $26 per household to $362 by 2020.” 
The company Democracy, Data & Communications (DDC), wrote in a case study that it “has actively partnered with the American Petroleum Institute (API) for years, designing,
executing, and managing all facets of their key national advocacy program” and was “asked with creating an on-the-ground campaign focused on raising the prole of Energy Citizens in support of natural gas production from the 'Marcellus Shale' formation in Pennsylvania.” 
DDC said it helped to convene two roundtable meetings with local congressional representatives for the Energy Citizens campaign, as well as get 170 letters of support published and sent to Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale Commission. According to IRS tax filings reviewed by DeSmog, API paid DDC $29.3 million for its work between 2011 and 2015, DeSmog reported. 
DDC has also worked with the tobacco company Phillip Morris on a website fighting against tobacco regulation. DDC is also an Associate Member of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), which has also paid DDC at least $1.8 million since 2012 for PR work according to the IRS. 
API has released a series of print ads espousing the benefits of fossil fuels, claiming that E15 fuel would damage equipment, and linking to their project, EnergyTomorrow.org.
Anti-E15 & E85 Ads
- Anti-E15 ATV Cartoon (2016)
- Anti-E15 Jet Ski Cartoon (2016)
- Anti-E15 Lawnmower Cartoon (2015)
- Anti-E15 Motorcycle Cartoon (2015)
- General Anti-E85 Cartoon (2014)
- Anti-E15 Snowblower Cartoon (2013)
- Anti-E15 Leaf Blower Cartoon (2013)
- General Anti-E15 Cartoon (2013)
Energy for Progress
January 7, 2020
On January 7, 2020, API launched a new TV and digital media campaign highlighting “the natural gas and oil industry's leadership in reducing emissions to record low levels and supporting economic and environmental progress in local communities,” according to a press release. The campaign included the website EnergyforProgress.org.
View a sample video below: 
API announced the campaign at its annual “State of American Energy” event, and featured a panel comprised of TV host Mike Rowe and the presidents of the Laborers’ International Union of North America, the Petroleum Equipment and Services Association, and the Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council. 
“From Colorado and New Mexico to Ohio and Pennsylvania, natural gas and oil development is energizing economies and improving millions of lives,” API President and CEO Mike Sommers said in prepared remarks. The campaign's key focus appears to be combatting efforts that would ban or limit fracking. Sommers declared “he future of energy is at stake, whenever people doubt the value of natural gas and oil in our daily lives.” 
The Energy for Progress website features a section on “environmental protection” where it claims natural gas has been a key reason “U.S. carbon dioxide emissions have reached their lowest levels in a generation.” 
API & the American Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA) Merger
On November 18, 2015, the American Petroleum Institute and the American Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA) announced a merger to create a “single voice promoting the industry” while working under the name of the American Petroleum Institute. ANGA was founded in 2009 and is funded by natural gas producers, and has worked against federal limits on methane emissions. 
|Year||Total Lobbying Expenditure|
The American Petroleum Institute launched its Explore Offshore project in June 2018 “seeking to convince Hispanic and black communities to support the Trump administration’s proposed expansion of offshore drilling,” Reuters reported. 
“We want to build support in minority communities because the message that increasing the supply of affordable energy and good paying jobs will resonate,” said Erik Milito, API’s director of Upstream and Industry Operations. 
Explore Offshore describes itself as a “national coalition that supports offshore energy exploration and production to help supply affordable energy for American consumers, small businesses, and manufacturers.”
“Explore Offshore’s mission is to unite supporters of offshore energy development and promote its benefits and its importance to our nation’s economy and energy security,” its website claims.
Coalition members include representatives from Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Virginia. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce and a range of local affiliates are listed on its coalition page. , 
According to Reuters, Explore Offshore has partnered with a number of black and Hispanic business groups including the Virginia, Florida and North Carolina Hispanic Chambers of Commerce and the Florida Black Chamber of Commerce and South Carolina African American Chamber of Commerce. 
Only one African-American man, South Carolina African American Chamber of Commerce chairman Stephen Gilchrist, was involved in the group. Gilchrist reportedly “counts [Steve] Bannon as a friend.” While the group identifies itself as a “bipartisan coalition,” its sole Democrat is Jim Webb, who has praised “gallantry” of Confederate soldiers and defended “the venerable Robert E. Lee” according to a Politico story on Webb's roots. , , 
July 24, 2018
Representatives from API and API's “Explore Offshore South Carolina” attended a luncheon hosted by the SC African American Chamber of Commerce to discuss “the Economic impacts and safety of Offshore Energy.” 
May 16, 2018
Explore Offshore, a “project of the American Petroleum Institute” ran an ad campaign on Facebook promoting offshore drilling in Florida. According to Facebook's political ad archive, the ads were removed because they lacked a “Paid for by” label while including political content. , 
The ad text read as follows:
“Contrary to what the opposition wants you to believe, offshore energy exploration has occurred safely alongside marine life, commercial fishing, military activities, and tourism for decades in the Gulf.
'Not only have these industries co-existed with energy production, but in many cases energy development has stimulated and bolstered investments, increased higher-paying jobs, and supported retail and tourism in coastal towns along the Gulf,' Cornelia Horner, a spokeswoman with the American Petroleum Institute.
The choice is simple when you have the facts. Say yes to exploring our offshore resources in Florida.”
Stance on Climate Change
In its most recent “Climate and Energy” primer, API claims that the use of natural gas is enough to reduce CO2 emissions, and that we should recognize “the many benefits that oil and natural gas provide our nation”: 
“CO2 emissions from power generation in 2016 were near 30-year lows, in large part due to greater use of natural gas. And increased use of natural gas in the power generation sector has helped to reduce total CO2 emissions to their lowest level in nearly 25 years.
“This proves that Americans do not have to make the false choice between utilizing our nation’s energy resources and protecting the environment.
“The oil and gas industry considers climate change a very important issue and is engaging constructively to address this complex global challenge.
United States climate policy must recognize the vital role of petroleum products in modern society, and the many benefits that oil and natural gas provide our nation and the world.”
An archived version of the American Petroleum Institute website admits that “emissions from [energy] production and use may be helping to warm our planet by enhancing the natural greenhouse effect of the atmosphere. That’s why oil and gas companies are also working to reduce their greenhouse emissions.” 
“While we rely on them for most of our energy and will likely do so for years to come, as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) notes:'Scientists are certain that human activities are changing the composition of the atmosphere, and that increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases will change the planet’s climate. However, they are not sure by how much it will change, at what rate it will change, or what the exact effects will be.'Despite these uncertainties it is clear that climate change is a serious problem that requires research for solutions and effective policies that allow us to meet our energy needs while protecting the environment. That's why oil and gas companies are working to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.”
API's 1998 ”Global Climate Science Communications Plan” (PDF), reported by the New York Times and authored by the American Petroleum Institute's Joe Walker, revealed the institute's stance on climate change.
According to the plan, “victory will be achieved when”: 
- Average citizens “understand” (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the “conventional wisdom”
- Media “understands” (recognizes) uncertainties in climate science
- Media coverage reflects balance on climate science and recognition of the validity of viewpoints that challenge the current “conventional wisdom”
- Industry senior leadership understands uncertainties in climate science, making them stronger ambassadors to those who shape climate policy
- Those promoting the Kyoto treaty on the basis of extant science appear to be out of touch with reality.”
Under the heading “Climate Reality,” the document continues:
“Unless 'climate change' becomes a non-issue, meaning that the Kyoto proposal is defeated and there are no further initiatives to thwart the threat of climate change, there may be do moment when we can declare victory for our efforts. It will be necessary to establish measurements for the science effort to track progress toward achieving the goal and strategic success.”
InsideClimate News reports that the American Petroleum Institute knew of climate change as early as 1982: A Columbia University report titled “Climate Models and CO2 Warming, A Selective Review and Summary” (PDF) commissioned by the American Petroleum Institute in 1982, cautioned that global warming “can have serious consequences for man's comfort and survival.” , 
There are 374 transactions on record for the American Petroleum Institute as a Donor in the Conservative Transparency Database. Note that not all of the following funding values have been confirmed by DeSmogBlog. 
View the attached spreadsheet for further details on the American Petroleum Institute's funding by year (.xlsx).
|Oil and Natural Gas Industry Labor Management Committee||$3,597,648|
|Citizens to Protect Pennsylvania||$2,851,500|
|National Association of Manufacturers||$2,026,150|
|2012 Tampa Bay Host Committee||$2,022,473|
|Coloradans for Responsible Reform||$1,544,481|
|Ground Water Protection Council||$1,440,800|
|Independent Petroleum Association of America||$1,387,356|
|American Chemistry Council||$1,232,000|
|Health Effects Institute||$910,000|
|Cleveland 2016 Host Committee Inc.||$900,000|
|State Review of Oil and Natural Gas Environmental Regulations||$775,000|
|Business Industry Political Action Committee||$775,000|
|Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute||$772,500|
|Americans for Tax Reform||$740,000|
|University of Connecticut||$700,531|
|Philadelphia 2016 Host Committee||$700,000|
|Republican Governors Association||$630,000|
|University of California Davis||$622,490|
|Democratic Governors Association||$555,000|
|American Council for Capital Formation||$535,000|
|Business Institute for Political Analysis||$525,000|
|University of Colorado||$455,133|
|Congressional Black Caucus Foundation||$445,000|
|Plumbers & Pipefitters||$440,500|
|Coalition for American Jobs||$412,969|
|Energy Policy Research Foundation||$375,000|
|Consumer Energy Alliance||$332,500|
|Ohio Oil & Gas Energy Education Program||$306,000|
|America's Wetland Foundation||$300,000|
|Raise the Bar Protect Our Constitution||$300,000|
|Environmental Council of the States||$256,750|
|60 Plus Association||$253,000|
|National Ocean Policy Coalition||$250,000|
|American Action Network||$250,000|
|Building and Construction Trades Department AFL-CIO||$245,000|
|Maine Energy Marketers Association||$240,000|
|US Chamber of Commerce||$236,500|
|Massachusetts Institute of Technology||$229,500|
|The Keystone Center||$220,500|
|Coloradans for a Stable Economy||$200,000|
|George Mason University Foundation||$200,000|
|Republican State Leadership Committee||$200,000|
|Energy Equipment and Infrastructure Alliance||$200,000|
|National Academy of Sciences||$200,000|
|National Fish and Wildlife Foundation||$165,500|
|Pipeline Research Council||$162,500|
|Institute for Energy Research||$160,000|
|Asian Pacific American Institute for Congressional Studies||$152,500|
|Small Business and Entrepreneurship Council||$150,000|
|Republican Attorneys General Association||$150,000|
|American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research||$150,000|
|Americans for Prosperity||$139,000|
|Petroleum Association of Wyoming||$130,000|
|Congressional Black Caucus Institute||$125,000|
|Montana Department of Environmental Quality||$117,274|
|University of Massachusetts Dept of Microbiology||$117,000|
|Greater North Dakota Chamber of Commerce||$107,193|
|Association for Environmental Health and Sciences||$106,000|
|American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers||$105,000|
|Ground Water Research & Education Foundation||$105,000|
|National Foreign Trade Council||$101,000|
|National Retail Federation||$100,000|
|Alliance to Save Energy||$100,000|
|Friends of the House 2016 LLC||$100,000|
|Michigan State University||$100,000|
|National Taxpayers Union||$100,000|
|American Legislative Exchange Council||$98,000|
|National Black Chamber of Commerce||$97,500|
|University of California Berkeley||$94,402|
|University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign||$93,900|
|North Carolina State University||$93,135|
|United States Association for Energy Economics||$92,500|
|100 Black Men of America||$90,000|
|US News and World Report - US News Stem Solutions||$85,000|
|National Conference of State Legislatures||$84,000|
|Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States||$81,000|
|Northwestern University School of Law||$80,000|
|Common Ground Alliance||$80,000|
|Capitol Hill Publishing Corp.||$79,500|
|International Conservation Caucus Foundation||$75,000|
|The Foreign Policy Group||$75,000|
|Offshore Energy Center||$75,000|
|Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute||$75,000|
|National Council for Air and Stream Improvement||$75,000|
|Utility Air Regulatory Group||$75,000|
|National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners||$71,800|
|Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility||$71,750|
|Nebraska Ethanol Board||$71,212|
|Congressional Black Caucus Policy & Leadership Institute||$70,000|
|American Association of Blacks in Energy||$70,000|
|Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research||$68,500|
|American Conservative Union||$66,000|
|A Wider Circle||$60,000|
|United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce||$60,000|
|American GI Forum of the United States||$60,000|
|Sustainable Remediation Forum||$60,000|
|James Madison Institute||$60,000|
|National Newspaper Publishers Association||$57,500|
|The National Center for American Indian Enterprise Development||$55,000|
|National Marine Sanctuary Foundation||$52,500|
|University of Tulsa||$52,353|
|University of Oklahoma||$52,194|
|Congressional Sportsmen's Foundation||$51,000|
|National Journal Group||$50,000|
|Western Governors' Association||$50,000|
|Texas State Society of Washington DC||$50,000|
|Hispanic Alliance for Progress/Prosperity Institute||$50,000|
|National Industrial Sand Association||$50,000|
|NM Association Conservative District||$50,000|
|The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences||$50,000|
|Council of Great Lakes Governors||$50,000|
|Citizens Against Government Waste||$50,000|
|Michigan Chamber PAC II||$50,000|
|Nicholls State University||$45,000|
|Western States Air Resources Council||$45,000|
|Coordinating Research Council||$45,000|
|National Petrochemical & Refiners Association||$45,000|
|The Bryce Harlow Foundation||$42,500|
|Council of State Governments||$41,000|
|Saj Media (Greater Wilmington Business Journal)||$40,000|
|National Conference of Black Mayors||$40,000|
|Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy||$40,000|
|Consensus Building Institute||$40,000|
|Formula Sports Group||$40,000|
|NALEO Educational Fund||$40,000|
|American National Standards Institute (ANSI)||$39,951|
|University of Rochester||$38,695|
|American Council on Science and Health||$37,500|
|Mahoning County Democratic Party||$37,500|
|Pennsylvania Independent Oil and Gas Association||$37,500|
|University of New Hampshire||$36,000|
|Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment||$35,000|
|National Urban League||$35,000|
|Wright State University||$35,000|
|University of Houston - Clear Lake||$34,000|
|Radio Television Digital News Association||$31,000|
|Federal Water Quality Coalition (Barnes & Thornburg)||$31,000|
|Conservative Political Action Conference||$31,000|
|Washington Press Club Foundation||$30,285|
|Taxpayers for Common Sense||$30,000|
|Coastal America Foundation||$30,000|
|The Tax Foundation||$30,000|
|Illinois Institute of Technology||$30,000|
|Virginia Chamber of Commerce||$30,000|
|Fund for Peace||$30,000|
|Ohio Democratic Party||$30,000|
|University of California||$30,000|
|Resources First Foundation||$30,000|
|North Carolina Agricultural Foundation||$28,000|
|Western Michigan University||$28,000|
|American Tort Reform Association||$25,100|
|Tread Lightly Inc.||$25,000|
|Competitive Enterprise Institute||$25,000|
|Jefferson Island Club||$25,000|
|Battelle Memorial Institute||$25,000|
|National Association of Hispanic Publications||$25,000|
|Consortium of Catholic Academies of the Archdiocese of Washington||$25,000|
|The Ripon Society||$25,000|
|Arizona State University||$25,000|
|Democratic Attorneys General Association||$25,000|
|Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies||$25,000|
|American Highway Users Alliance||$25,000|
|Bloomberg Finance LP||$25,000|
|National Association of Wholesaler Distributors (LIFO Coalition)||$25,000|
|University of Vermont||$25,000|
|Western Business Roundtable||$25,000|
|Southern Christian Leadership Conference||$25,000|
|Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers||$25,000|
|Southern Republican Leadership Conference South Carolina||$25,000|
|American Forest and Paper Association||$21,700|
|Nebraska Ethanol Industry Coalition||$20,212|
|National Foundation for Women Legislators||$20,000|
|HM&C Center Stage LLC||$20,000|
|Fund for American Studies||$20,000|
|New Mexico Community Capital||$20,000|
|University of Texas at Arlington||$20,000|
|Community Leaders of America||$20,000|
|Virginia Foundation for Research & Economic Education||$20,000|
|Greater Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce||$20,000|
|Carbon Sequestration Council||$20,000|
|Edison Electric Institute||$18,500|
|American Institute of Chemical Engineers||$17,500|
|North American Metals Council||$17,000|
|Everybody Wins! DC||$16,400|
|US Conference of Mayors||$15,000|
|The National Center for American Indian Enterprise||$15,000|
|New York Academy of Sciences||$15,000|
|Nevada State AFL-CIO||$15,000|
|Board of Hispanic Caucus Chairs||$15,000|
|Bryce Harlow Foundation||$15,000|
|NCSL Foundation for State Legislatures||$15,000|
|Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars||$15,000|
|Professional Dairy Managers of Pennsylvania||$15,000|
|Foreign Policy Association||$15,000|
|The Corbett Cawley Inaugural Committee||$15,000|
|Flag Credit Union||$15,000|
|National Board of Professional Teaching Standards||$15,000|
|Metro Denver Economic Development Corp||$12,500|
|Missouri Chamber of Commerce and Industry Education Foundation||$12,500|
|The Economic Club of Washington DC||$12,000|
|The George Washington University||$12,000|
|Public Lands Advocacy||$11,000|
|Center for Legislative Energy and Environmental Research||$10,785|
|Scientific Consulting Group||$10,500|
|Foundation for American Communications||$10,000|
|Virginia Sustainable Building Network||$10,000|
|Institute for Policy Innovation||$10,000|
|California Climate Action Registry||$10,000|
|Montana Economic Developers Association||$10,000|
|National Chamber Foundation||$10,000|
|National Association of Black Journalists||$10,000|
|Center for Excellence in Education||$10,000|
|Mahoning County Republican Party||$10,000|
|The Horinko Group||$10,000|
|Citizens for Sound Conservation||$10,000|
|Congressional Award Foundation||$10,000|
|Abate of Illinois||$10,000|
|National Association of Energy Officials||$10,000|
|Committee for Economic Development||$10,000|
|Ohio Republican Party||$10,000|
|Freedom Foundation of Minnesota||$10,000|
|Jobs for America's Graduates||$10,000|
|A Better Missouri Nixon for Governor||$10,000|
|Republican Governors Public Policy Committee||$10,000|
|Council of State Chambers (COSC)||$10,000|
|Kasich-Taylor New Day Inaugural Committee||$10,000|
|Stop Oil Seeps California||$10,000|
|University of Alaska Foundation||$10,000|
|Federal Recycling and Remediation Coalition (Barnes & Thornburg)||$10,000|
|Ohioans For Change||$10,000|
|Volta Live Inc.||$10,000|
|Texas Oil and Gas Association||$10,000|
|Alliance for Consumer Education||$10,000|
|Hydrogen Sulfide Coalition||$10,000|
|Gulf of Mexico Alliance||$10,000|
|National Endangered Species Act Reform Coalition||$10,000|
|Colorado State University||$10,000|
|Rockwood Labor Club||$7,500|
|Women's Energy Network of Houston||$7,500|
|New Jersey Lawsuit Reform Alliance||$7,500|
|Illinois Legislative Black Caucus Foundation||$7,500|
|Missouri Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association||$7,500|
|Climate Action Reserves||$7,500|
|Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs||$6,511|
|University of Texas at Austin||$6,500|
|Hart Energy Publishing LLP||$6,500|
|Ohio Oil & Gas Association||$6,000|
|San Antonio Hispanic Chamber||$6,000|
|Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors||$6,000|
|American Society for Testing and Materials||$6,000|
|New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce||$5,500|
|Pennsylvania Chamber of Business and Industry||$5,333|
|Utilities Telecom Council||$5,100|
|National Conference of State Societies||$5,000|
|Hispanic College Fund||$5,000|
|American Oil & Gas Historical Society||$5,000|
|National Association of Neighborhoods||$5,000|
API Leadership Team
|Erik G Milito||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Group Director Upstream & Industry Operations|
|Frank J Macchiarola||Y||Y||Y||Group Director Downstream and Industry Operations|
|Gerardo Uria||Y||Y||Y||Director, Membership and Development|
|Harry M Ng||Y||Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, Office of the General Counsel|
|Jack Gerard||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||President & CEO|
|John D Modine||Y||Vice President, Global Industry Services|
|John Robertson||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President & Chief Financial Officer Administration and Finance|
|Kyle B lsakower||Y||Vice President Regulatory & Economic Policy. (Also oversees API's climate policy development) |
|Kyle Isakower||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Regulatory & Economic Policy|
|Linda Rozett||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President Communications|
|Lisa Salley||Y||Y||Y||Vice President Global Industry Services|
|Louis Finkel||Y||Y||Y||Executive Vice President, Government Affairs. Advised oil and natural gas pipeline companies for two D.C.consulting firms. |
|Martin Durbin||Y||Y||Y||Executive Vice President & Chief Strategy Officer|
|Megan Bloomgren||Y||Y||Vice President Communications|
|Robert Greco||Y||Y||Y||Group Director, Downstream and Industry Operations|
|Robin Rorick||Y||Y||Y||Y||Group Director Midstream and Industry Operations|
|Stacy Linden||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, General Counsel & Corporate Secretary Office of the General Counsel|
|Todd Snitchler||Y||Group Director Market Development|
Officers, Trustees, Etc. (Via 990 forms)
|David Seaton||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Marvin Odum||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Rex Tillerson||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Timothy C. Felt||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|W Herbert Hunt||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|David W Williams||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Jack Gerard||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||President & CEO|
|John S Watson||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Paul L Howes||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John Robertson||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President & Chief Financial Officer Administration and Finance|
|Gary R Heminger||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Harry N Pefanis||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John B Hess||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John T Gremp||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Joseph Bryant||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Karen Wright||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Stephen I Chazen||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Al Monaco||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Greg C. Garland||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|David J Lesar||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Linda Rozett||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President Communications|
|Virginia Gigi B Lazenby||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Douglas R Matthews||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|A. L. Walker||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John C Minge||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Khalid S Alnaji||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Martin S Craighead||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Ryan M Lance||Y||Y||Y||Y||Chairman Of The Board|
|Tracy W Krohn||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Doug J Suttles||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Gary G Rich||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Lee M Tillman||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Paul Stevens||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Ricardo Darre||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Richard Muncrief||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Robert Doug Lawler||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Roger Jenkins||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Stacy Linden||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, General Counsel & Corporate Secretary Office of the General Counsel|
|Thomas Burke||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Tim J Cutt||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Troy W Thacker||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|David W Grzebinski||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Lorenzo Simonelli||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Paal Kibsgaard||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Russell K Girling||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Torgrim Reitan||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Kyle Isakower||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Regulatory & Economic Policy|
|John D Modine||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, Global Industry Services|
|Erik G Milito||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Group Director Upstream & Industry Operations|
|Eric J Wohlschlegel||Y||Y||Y||Y||Senior Director|
|Rolf W Hanson||Y||Y||Y||Y||Senior Director|
|Charles Williams||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Exec Dir Ctr for Offshore Safety|
|Robert Greco||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Group Director, Downstream and Industry Operations|
|Howard J Feldman||Y||Y||Y||Y||Senior Director|
|Louis Finkel||Y||Y||Executive Vice President, Government Affairs|
|Martin Durbin||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Executive Vice President & Chief Strategy Officer|
|Bruce Culpepper||Y||Board Member|
|Dave A Hager||Y||Board Member|
|David J Rintoul||Y||Board Member|
|Erica S Bowman||Y||Chief Economist|
|Frank J Macchiarola||Y||Group Director Downstream and Industry Operations|
|Greg L Ebel||Y||Board Member|
|Jose G Uria||Y||Former key-Acting Vice President|
|Jose-Ignacio Sanz Saiz||Y||Board Member|
|Lisa Salley||Y||Vice President Global Industry Services|
|Robin Rorick||Y||Group Director Midstream and Industry Operations|
|Steve Pastor||Y||Board Member|
|J Larry Nichols||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|James P McGregor||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Jack B Moore||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Bill Maloney||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Harry M Ng||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, Office of the General Counsel|
|Hank A True III||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Ray L Hunt||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Robert Bobby L Parker Jr||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Rod Nelson||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Alan S Armstrong||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Daniel W Rabun||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John Bannerman||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Peter Evensen||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|W Matt Ralls||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|G Steven Farris||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John C Felmy||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Chief Economist|
|David Fanta||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Clarence P Cazalot Jr||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Chairman of the Board|
|James Hackett||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Lamar McKay||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Morten Arntzen||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Nabeel M Amudi||Y||Y||Board Member|
|James F Justiss Jr||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Drew P Cobbs||Y||Y||Y||Executive Director, MD Petroleum Council|
|Aubrey McClendon||Y||Board Member|
|Ralph A Hill||Y||Board Member|
|Corbin J Robertson Jr||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Chadwick C Deaton||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|James J Mulva||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Patrick D Daniel||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Alvis Truman Hunt||Y||Y||Y||Y||Senior Director|
|Tofig Al-Gabsani||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Conrad A Lass||Y||Senior Director|
|Brenda S Hargett||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Former Vice President|
|James E Ford||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Former Vice President|
|Jim C Craig||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Former Vice President|
|Av Jones||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Bjourn Moller||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Bruce C Gottwald||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Frederic C Hamilton||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John Miller||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Kathleen Shanahan||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John P Kerekes||Y||Y||Y||State Office Executive Director|
|Steve Malcolm||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|William E Albrecht||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|David M Wood||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John M Yearwod||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Peter D Kinnear||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Byron M Cavaney||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Former Pres/CEO|
|David O'Reily||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Michelle E Rinn||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Corporate Sec & GRP Dir|
|Anthony Mayer||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Dalton J Boutte||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|George Kirkland||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|James E Nielson||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Kevin M Hostler||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Louis A Raspino||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Philip F Anschutz||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Randall K Eresman||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Ray R Irani||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Sidney J Jansma||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Thomas A Bannigan||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Ali A Abuali||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Douglas M Morris||Y||Y||Group Director|
|Erin P Thompson||Y||Y||Director|
|German Cura||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John A Carrig||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Merrill A Pete Miller||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Michael L Platner||Y||Y||Director|
|Michael J Dolan||Y||Board Member|
|Claiborne P Deming||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Daniel F McNease||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Douglas L Rock||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|James J O'Brien||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|James L Gallogly||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John M Duty||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|John Morgan||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Jonathan P Whitworth||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Joseph H Netherland||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Karl F Kurz||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Lew O Ward||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Norm J Szydlowski||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Peter Robertson||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Robert A Malone||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Sheldon R Erikson||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Steven B Hinchman||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Thomas P Richards||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Joseph Alvardo||Y||Board Member|
|Katherine E Lewis||Y||Director|
|Kendra L Martin||Y||Director|
|RD Dan Nelson||Y||Board Member|
|Ziad Labban||Y||Board Member|
|John Hofmeister||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Lynn Elsenhans||Y||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Andrew Slaughter||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Byron Dunn||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Carl Boetticher||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Cortlandt S Dietler||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Dave Sampson||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Dawood Al-Dawood||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Gerald T McPhee||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Gordon M DeFilippo||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Gregg J Davis||Y||Y||Board Member|
|J Stephen Simon||Y||Y||Board Member|
|James F Snyder||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|James R Buhrmaster||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Jon A Marshall||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Louie Ehrlich||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Mark A Jackson||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Michael C Linn||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Michael McShane||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Mohammad Al-Shammari||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Patrick T Mulva||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Randy Armstrong||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Randy Limbacher||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Richard Bird||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Roy M Huffington||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Russell E Ginn||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Stephen A Elbert||Y||Y||Board Member|
|Stephen F Gates||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Steve Pryor||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Todd R Schultz||Y||Y||Ex Officio|
|Bobby Shackouls||Y||Y||Treasurer - Executive Committee|
|Lee R Raymond||Y||Y||Member - Executive Committee|
|Ross J Pillan||Y||Y||Member - Executive Committee|
|Betty Anthony||Y||Group Director of Industry Operations and Upstream|
|Dale R Laurance||Y||Member - Executive Committee|
|Ed Murphy||Y||Group Director of Industry Operations and Downstream|
Key Past Leadership
- Red Cavaney — Past President and Chief Executive Officer. 
- William F. O'Keefe — Past executive vice president. 
- Lee R. Raymond — Past Trustee and Vice Chairman. 
- Philip A. Cooney — Past “climate team leader” and lobbyist at API (before 2001). 
January 26, 2021
Following an announcement from newly-elected US President Joe Biden outlining executive orders for fossil fuel industry, including achieving a carbon-free power sector by 2035, API responded with claims that “Restricting natural gas and oil development on federal lands and waters risks hundreds of thousands of jobs and billions in government revenue for education and conservation programs.” API released OnLocation analysis claiming, “U.S. energy leadership could be at stake if a federal leasing and development ban is enacted,” that “Nearly 1 million jobs could be lost by 2022,” among other claims. , , 
July 13, 2020
“As part of our logo redesign, we conducted research that found policymakers and global standards customers already had a strong association between API and energy and knew without noting the word that we were standard bearers for policies that support access to affordable, reliable and cleaner energy while providing safety and sustainability standards and certifications around the world,” API said in a statement to E&E News. 
E&E news noted that the change echoed a recent rebranding by the Texas-based Vistra Energy Corp. which also announced a switch to Vista Corp, saying energy is “most commonly used to refer to the petroleum/oil and gas sector, of which we are not a part.” 
Earlier in 2020, API also began using the phrase “natural gas and oil” rather than “oil and gas.” 
According to API, the new logo reflects “our industry’s laser-focus on the future, innovation and the evolving role of natural gas and oil in taking us on the journey.”
“In the 12 years since API last updated its brand, the U.S. shale revolution – enabled by hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling – has elevated the importance of our domestic natural gas and oil resources,” API wrote on its blog. 
June 24–25, 2020
API was highlighted in a lawsuit from the Minnesota Attorney General's office that also called out Exxon Mobil Corporation, ExxonMobil Oil Corporation, Koch Industries, Inc., and the Koch-owned Flint Hills Resources LP and Flint Hills Resources Pine Bend for allegedly misleading consumers about climate change. 
“When corporations and trade associations break the law and hurt Minnesotans, it’s my job and my duty to hold them accountable. The fraud, deceptive advertising, and other violations of Minnesota state law and common law that the lawsuit shows they perpetrated have harmed Minnesotans’ health and our state’s environment, infrastructure, and economy,” said Attorney General Keith Ellison, as reported in the AG office press release. 
“Previously unknown internal documents were recently discovered that confirm that Defendants well understood the devastating effects that their products would cause to the climate, including Minnesota, dating back to the 1970s and 1980s. But Defendants did not ever disclose to the public—or to Minnesotans—their actual knowledge that would confirm the very science they sought to undermine. Instead, Defendants, both directly and through proxies, engaged in a public-relations campaign that was not only false, but also highly effective. This campaign was intended to, and did, target and influence the public, and consumers, including in Minnesota,” the lawsuit reads. 
Discussing API's role:
“API has been a member of at least five organizations that have promoted disinformation about fossil-fuel products to consumers, including the Global Climate Coalition, Partnership for a Better Energy Future, Coalition for American Jobs, Alliance for Energy and Economic Growth, and Alliance for Climate Strategies. These front groups were formed to provide climate disinformation and advocacy from a seemingly objective source, when, in fact, they were financed and controlled by ExxonMobil and other sellers of fossil-fuel products. Defendants benefited from the spread of this disinformation.”
On Koch, the lawsuit suggests that the company is liable for the various actions of its numerous subsidiaries involved in the manufacturing, refining, and distribution of petroleum products. It also notes:
“Koch also supports numerous foundations including the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation, the David H. Koch Charitable Foundation, the Koch Institute, and the Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation. Koch expects the foundations that it supports to fund groups that further its financial interests. Koch constructively controls how the foundations that it supports direct their philanthropic activities.”
It also notes that, like numerous other oil companies, “Koch also understood climate-change science, the connection to sales of its fossil fuel products, and the potential for catastrophic consequences before the science was widely understood by the general public.”
It highlights what appeared to be a coordinated effort by companies including Koch to “combat climate change 'alarmists' through a campaign focused on science, information dissemination, and politics.” It highlights a 2006 memo from the Intermountain Rural Electric Association that outlined how Koch Industries was working with other large corporations including the Competitive Enterprise Institute, Southern Company, American Electric Power (AEP), and National Association of Manufacturers (NAM).
Shortly after, the D.C. Attorney General's Office joined in a similar lawsuit against BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, and Shell. The lawsuit alleges the four largest investor-owned oil and gas companies violated the District’s Consumer Protection Procedures Act by promoting and selling fossil fuel products contributing to global warming, while knowing about the harmful consequences since at least the 1950s. 
The lawsuit highlights the industry's use of fake grassroots groups, such as the Advancement of Sound Science Coalition, which started out as a front group for tobacco giant Philip Morris in 1993. This group had transitioned to become the Advancement of Sound Science Center in 1997 and was run out of the home of climate science denier Steve Milloy, who most recently worked in public relations for coal company Murray Energy, before being disbanded. 
According to a press release from the D.C. Attorney General’s Office, “The [oil] companies not only employed the Advancement of Sound Science Coalition — a fake grassroots citizen group created by Big Tobacco as part of the industry’s misinformation campaign — they also funded and promoted some of the same scientists hired by tobacco companies. These scientists disputed the conclusions of climate researchers, despite not having any training in climate science themselves.” 
“For decades, these oil and gas companies spent millions to mislead consumers and discredit climate science in pursuit of profits,” said AG Racine. “The defendants violated the District’s consumer protection law by concealing the fact that using fossil fuels threatens the health of District residents and the environment. OAG filed this suit to end these disinformation campaigns and to hold these companies accountable for their deceptive practices.
March 20, 2020
The Independent reported the American Petroleum Institute had been accused of “wildly inflating” job numbers in the fracking industry. The report by Food & Water Watch concluded API had inflated the numbers in “a clear attempt to defend the economically struggling industry that is linked to air, water and climate pollution.” , 
The API had released a report claiming that more than 7.5 million jobs would be at risk from a fracking ban with 26,000 in Pennsylvania where the fracking industry is a key election issue. The new analysis from Food & Water Watch found that data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) on fracking differed significantly from API's numbers, and counts 636,000 total jobs, and 26,000 in Pennsylvania. 
FWW Research Director Alison Grass said: “It’s more important than ever to accurately assess how many workers are employed in the oil and gas fracking industries. For years, the industry has concocted wildly inflated employment numbers in an effort to blunt criticism of the toll that fracking has taken on our air, water, and climate. 
“Our analysis offers convincing evidence that employment benefits of fracking have been overhyped to manipulate the public and policymakers. Frackers have been far more effective at creating illusions than jobs.” 
December 9, 2019
September 9, 2019
API launched a series of ads on its YouTube channel touting emissions reductions by natural gas and oil companies. According to an API spokesman, the ads were produced to “provide balance to the energy debate as Congress returns and the presidential primary continues.” 
One of the videos, titled “We’re On It,” declared that America’s natural gas and oil companies were “leading the world in cutting greenhouse gas emissions to their lowest levels in a generation.” 
The ads were also being run on television, radio, in airports, and on billboards in Washington D.C. and New York. API claimed to be spending more than $1 million dollars on the campaign. 
September 13, 2017
“What we don't support is unnecessary, redundant, costly regulations that provide no benefit to society, yet cost industry a lot,” Gerard said. “Our emissions of carbon are down to a 30-year low. That was brought to us primarily by cleaner-burning, fuel-efficient natural gas,” he said. “So when you put all that in context, I think we need to look at that holistically, but I think the deregulatory agenda needs to continue.”[ 66]
February 22 - 25, 2017
February 5, 2017
API launched a new advertising campaign called Power Past Impossible to tout the uses of oil and natural gas. They released one of their ads during Super Bowl 51 (see video below). According to The Hill, API estimated that the ad would have reached an estimated 110 million people. 
API plans to run the ad for several years in different media. They also launched a website, Powerpastimpossible.org, as part of their campaign.
“The Power Past Impossible campaign features a few of the countless products and technological advances made possible from natural gas and oil, from life-saving medical devices to cosmetics to drug stores, from plastics in our toys to cell phones to 3D printers,” Gerard said. 
The Hill reported that Gerard said that while deregulation wasn't the primary focus of the campaign, it tied in nicely.
“Those regulatory burdens, when they’re unnecessary or duplicative, add costs that make us less competitive,” he said.
“We support appropriate regulation. We believe regulation has a role. What we need to do is fix it so it’s smart, commonsense regulation.” 
June 8, 2016
API Director of Upstream and Industry Operations Erik Milito claimed that government reports have already proven hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to be safe. Milito points to an EPA report that, while it did conclude that fracking could potentially impact drinking water, had also said it did not find “evidence that these mechanisms have led to widespread, systemic impacts on drinking water resources in the United States.” 
“Hydraulic fracturing is being done safely under the strong environmental stewardship of state regulators and industry best practices,” Milito said. “Yet, since releasing the report, the EPA continues to face a barrage of politically based attacks attempting to tamper with scientific conclusions.” 
Notably, the EPA report that Milito links to includes a prominent notice which describes it as a “draft report,” of which peer review would begin in the first quarter of 2015. , 
“This assessment provides a review and synthesis of available information concerning the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas on drinking water resources in the United States. This is a draft report that has been made available for public comment and shared with the EPA Science Advisory Board for expert peer review.” 
The American Petroleum Institute (API) was among organizations named in a Massachusetts subpoena looking for communications between ExxonMobil and organizations denying climate change, reports The Washington Times. 
Organizations named in the Massachusetts subpoena include the following: 
- The Centre for Industrial Progress
- The Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty
- The American Enterprise Institute
- Americans for Prosperity
- The American Legislative Exchange Council
- The American Petroleum Institute
- The Beacon Hill Institute at Suffolk University
- The George C. Marshall Institute
- The Heartland Institute
- Mercatus Center at George Mason University
This latest inquiry by Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey is one in a series of investigations into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US. 
May 23, 2016
The American Petroleum Institute released a statement celebrating the passage of the FY17 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) in the U.S. House of Representatives which would revise Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export provisions. 
“U.S. LNG exports will create American jobs, significantly strengthen the global energy marketplace, and bolster our strategic alliances,” API Executive Vice President Louis Finkel said. “Today’s action by the U.S. House of Representatives to approve LNG exports provisions as part of the defense authorization bill further cements the critical role U.S. energy plays at home and abroad.
“It’s time for our nation to fully embrace the vast economic and geopolitical opportunities unleashed by the energy renaissance. U.S. LNG exports ensure that consumers across the globe have access to stable, diverse energy supplies, protect America’s role as a global energy leader, further enhance national security in the homeland and help our allies break dependence on nations that use their energy resources as a political weapon.” 
A group of 21 kids and teenagers (including those as young as eight years old) are suing the US government and the fossil fuel industry over climate inaction, appearing in an Oregon courtroom on March 9. , 
“It may sound like a long shot, but fossil fuel industry groups are taking the lawsuit seriously,”The Nation writes. 
In November, lobbyists representing ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron, Koch Industries, and energy companies petitioned the judge for permission to join the case alongside the government, the American Petroleum Institute, the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers, and the National Association of Manufacturers. The groups called the case “extraordinary,” and asked the court to dismiss the case. , 
Among those suing the US government:
“Nathaniel, a teenager from Fairbanks whose asthma has worsened with the wildfires that now sweep across Alaska each summer; Alex, whose family farm in Oregon has been parched by record heat waves and drought; Journey, a member of the Yankton Sioux Tribe living in Hawaii, whose family fled from flooding in 2012; and Levi, an 8 year old who lives on a low-lying barrier island in Florida that is already grappling with sea level rise.” 
The American Petroleum Institute has pushed to remove the crude oil export ban in the U.S. Jack Gerard, API President and CEO, said in a press conference “blocking trade in crude oil harms consumers when they fill up, it harms the economy, it inflates the trade deficit, it limits job creation, and it undermines America’s ability to protect our allies.”
“[T]he hazardous increases in oil production that could come with the removal or weakening of the crude export ban presents much greater dangers that simply cannot be ignored. Everyday, dangerous fracking wells, sprawling rail lines carrying so-called 'bomb trains' and a network of leaking pipelines threaten our communities with spills and explosions with far-too-frequent regularity. If the highest estimates of increased oil production are realized, eliminating the crude oil export ban could lead to as much as a doubling of crude-by-rail traffic from today’s already perilous levels.”
The American Petroleum Institute released an updated “Primer” (PDF) on Hydraulic Fracturing, bearing the same title as their previous reports (“Hydraulic Fracturing: Unlocking America's Natural Gas Resources”). According to the report, Fracturing is “largely responsible for changing America’s energy narrative from one of limited options to one of nearly limitless plenty.”
API makes the claim that “There are zero confirmed cases of groundwater contamination” due to hydraulic fracturing. They also divert blame of earthquakes caused by fracturing, citing studies that found it was “impossible to say with a high degree of certainty whether or not these earthquakes were triggered by natural means or by the nearby hydraulic-fracturing operation.” According to API, Fracturing is a “Safe, proven technology.”
Since the API's Report, the Environmental Protection Agency has released a long-awaited draft of its assessment of fracking's impact on drinking water. The EPA fracking assessment found that fracking indeed contaminates drinking water: “From our assessment, we conclude there are above and below ground mechanisms by which hydraulic fracturing activities have the potential to impact drinking water resources,” the EPA wrote. 
API launched a campaign in South Portland with the goal of influencing a referendum to ban tar sands in the area. The referendum was the result of local activists gathering almost 4,000 signatures in their city of about 25,000 to get the issue on the ballot.
“Some of you may be concerned about tar sands, which may have prompted you to sign a Waterfront Protection Ordinance petition. But the ordinance is not about tar sands.”
December 16, 2011
Jack Gerard spoke at a press briefing teleconference on oil sands where he criticized President Obama's decision to delay the Keystone XL project.
He claimed that Obama's decision was “driven by politics” and that environmental studies had already found that there would be “no significant impacts' on the environment” by the pipeline. 
July 19, 2010
The API released a “primer” (PDF) on hydraulic fracturing (fracking) that concludes (based on two studies) that there has been “no instance of groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing,” and that there were “no significant environmental risks as a result of proper hydraulic fracturing.” 
DeSmogBlog investigated the environmental impacts of fracking and came to a different conclusion: It is becoming increasingly clear that the unconventional gas boom is happening too fast, too recklessly and with insufficient concern for the potential cumulative impacts on our most critical resources – clean air, safe drinking water and a stable climate.
API sent a letter to members of Congress critical of the Obama administration:
“The US oil and natural gas industry has the expertise and technology to produce the energy we need to fuel economic growth, create jobs, generate significant revenues for local, state and federal governments, and bolster our national security. However, our companies cannot do so if held back by harmful, counter-productive taxes and are restricted from access to domestic oil and natural gas resources that the country urgently needs. … If imposed, these taxes and fees could have a debilitating effect on our economy, when our nation can least afford it. They would reduce investment in new energy supplies, meaning less energy produced for American consumers. We cannot tax our way out of our energy problems.” 
April 20, 2009
API protested the Environmental Protection Agency's finding that greenhouse gas emissions endangered public health and could be regulated under the Clean Air Act.
Jack Gerard of API concluded that “The Clean Air Act was created to address local and regional air pollution, not the emission of carbon dioxide and other global greenhouse gases,” as reported in the Oil & Gas Journal. 
In response to the November 2008 election of Barack Obama as President and Joe Biden as Vice-president, API released a statement in the name of their CEO, Jack Gerard, saying:
“The American people have spoken loud and clear that they want politicians to put aside partisan bickering… . The oil and natural gas industry stands ready to help put America's vast energy resources to good use, strengthening our nation's economy and energy security, and providing good jobs for Americans across the country.” 
Gerard earlier criticized Obama's platform, saying “Obama's plan to impose a windfall-profits tax on oil companies would harm one of the few industries that are thriving” in the economic crisis. , 
January 31, 2003
API partially funded a controversial paper (PDF) authored by climate change skeptics Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas that comes to the conclusion that the climate hasn't changed in the last 2000 years. 
March 21, 2002
The API produced a 16-minute video titled “Fuel-less: you can't be cool without fuel,” which was distributed through the National Science Teachers Association. The film starts with the line “you're not going to believe this, but everything everything I have that's really cool comes from oil!” 
The video was also available on the API-owned website Classroom-Energy.org. The website describes its aim as to provide teachers and students with materials on “the vital role of oil and natural gas in modern life.” According to a WHOIS lookup, the domain for Classroom Energy was registered by the American Petroleum Institute on March 21, 2002. 
An API memo leaked to the media in 1998 explained API's plan to target schools:
“Informing teachers/students about uncertainties in climate science will begin to erect barriers against further efforts to impose Kyoto-like measures in the future.” 
Classroom-Energy.org now redirects to energytomorrow.org.
- “Average citizens understand (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties
- becomes part of the ‘conventional wisdom’
- Media 'understands (recognizes) uncertainties in climate science
- Those promoting the Kyoto treaty on the basis of extant science appear to be out of touch with reality.”
American Petroleum Institute Contact & Location
The address and phone number for the American Petroleum Institute (API) was as follows as of May, 2016: 
1220 L Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005-4070
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a sponsor of Virginia Energy Citizens, a group describing itself as a grassroots coalition.
Virginia Energy Citizens' state coordinator Miles Morin attended the July 2015 meeting of the Northern Virginia Tea Party where he was originally billed as speaking on how “the radical environmental movement poses a serious threat to our freedoms, our property.” The online initiation was later revised to read how Morin would speak on how to tell “local, state and federal officials why you support pro-energy policies.” 
Craig Holman, the government affairs lobbyist for Public Citizen, a Washington-based watchdog group, described API's relationship with Virginia Energy Citizens. He says lobbyists and paid consultants are now not only shaping public opinion with advertising, but also attended meetings and passing themselves off as grassroots activists (a “new” strategy):
“That's clearly deceptive,” Holman said. “Not only are they trying to deceive the Tea Party activists, they'll also be deceiving Congress at the same time.” 
Website run by API to inform teachers and students of the “vital role of oil and natural gas in modern life.”
Between 2006 and 2017, API has reported over 1,100 unique member organizations. View the attached spreadsheet for a complete list of the American Petroleum Institute's members year over year (.xlsx). 
Some notable examples below: 
“API Overview and Mission,” The American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 10, 2015.
“API History,” The American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 10, 2015.
Mark Dowie. “Greens Outgunned,” Earth Island Journal, Vol 10. No. 2 (Spring 1995). Archived January 13, 2004.
“American Petroleum Institute,” OpenSecrets.org. Accessed September, 2017.
“Denial and Deception: A Chronicle of ExxonMobil’s Efforts to Corrupt the Debate on Global Warming” (PDF) Greenpeace, May, 2007. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“American Petroleum Institute,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved June 6, 2017.
“API Leadership Team,” The American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Vice President, Regulatory and Economic Policy,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Executive Vice President, Government Affairs,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Office of the President,” API. Archived, January 28, 1999.
“Executive Profile: Lee R. Raymond Ph.D.,” Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived August 11, 2015.
Andrew C. Revkin. “Bush Aide Softened Greenhouse Gas Links to Global Warming,” New York Times, June 8, 2005. Archived September 15, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/SkHVT
Isaac Arnsdorf. “Small Tea Party Meeting Has a Special Guest: Big Oil,” Bloomberg Politics, August 10, 2015.
“Press Conference Call on Crude Oil Exports with Jack Gerard and Encana CEO Doug Suttles,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived August 11, 2015.
David Turnbull. “Lift the ban, cook the climate,” Congress Blog (TheHill.com), July 23, 2015. Archived August 11, 2015.
Justin Mikulka. “Most Recent Oil Train Accidents and Spills Involved ‘Safer’ CPC-1232 Tank Cars,” DeSmogBlog, July 23, 2015.
Jad Mouawad. “Oil Industry Asks Court to Block Rail Transport Safety Rules,” May 12, 2015.
Sharon Kelly. “EPA Study: Fracking Puts Drinking Water Supplies at Risk of Contamination,” DeSmogBlog, June 4, 2015.
Justin Mikulka. “Maine Residents Fight American Petroleum Institute Lobbyists Over Ban on Tar Sands Shipments,” DeSmogBlog, July 21, 2014.
“Inside the Big Oil Playbook” (PDF), Environment Maine Research & Policy Center, June 2014. Archived August 11, 2015.
Ben Jervey. “South Portland Tar Sands Pipeline Defeat: Big Oil Outspends Local Grassroots 6-to-1,” DeSmogBlog, November 8, 2013.
Bill Bush. “Briefing stresses importance of Keystone XL to national security” (Press Release), the American Petroleum Institute, December 16, 2011. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Hydraulic Fracturing: Unlocking America’s Natural Gas Resources” (PDF) American Petroleum Institute, July 19, 2011. Archived November 16, 2010.
“Petroleum group spent $1.9M on lobbying in 3Q,” AP, December 15, 2011. Reposted at Boston.com. Archived August 11, 2015.
Ian Talley, “Lobby Groups to Use Town Hall Tactics to Oppose Climate Bill,” Wall Street Journal “Washington Wire” blog, August 11, 2009.
David Stone. ”The Browning of Grassroots,” Newsweek, August 19, 2009. Archived January 12, 2012.
Alex Kaplun, “'Energy Citizens' Take Aim at Climate Legislation,” The New York Times, August 12, 2009. Archived Aug 11, 2015.
“The Politics of Climate Change,” O'Dwyer's Magazine, Feb. 2010. Archived August 11, 2015.
Ian Talley, “Lobby Groups to Use Town Hall Tactics to Oppose Climate Bill,” Washington Wire (Wall Street Journal Blog), August 11, 2009. Archived August 11, 2015.
Noah Brenner, “API slaps administration on policy,” Upstreamonline.com, April 6, 2009.
Nick Snow, “EPA issues proposed endangerment finding on GHGs,” Oil & Gas Journal, April 20, 2009. Archived August 11, 2015.
“API: Oil, gas industry will work with new administration,“ Oil & Gas Journal, November 5, 2008. Archived August 11, 2015.
Daniel Whitten. “Obama May Put Renewable-Energy Plan Ahead of Climate Package,” Bloomberg, November 5, 2008. Archived September 11, 2014. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/YFmCO
Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas. “Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years” (PDF), Climate Research, Vol. 23 (January 21, 2003), P. 89-110. Archived August 11, 2015.
(CfA Press Release) “20th Century Climate Not So Hot,” Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, March 31, 2003. Archived August 11, 2015.
“About Us,” Classroom Energy!. Archived August 11, 2015.
“Dealing in Doubt: The Climate Denial Industry and Climate Science” (PDF), Greenpeace. Archived August 10, 2015.
“National Wetlands Coalition,” SourceWatch profile. Accessed March 9, 2016.
“Climate Change and Energy” (PDF), American Petroleum Institute (November 2015 Report). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“API Leadership Team,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived July 7, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Zoë Carpenter. ”21 Kids Are Suing President Obama Over Climate Inaction,” The Nation, March 9, 2016. Archived March 9, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6ftDfs2wv
“Big oil lines up to battle kids in climate court case,” Climate Home, January 15, 2016. Archived March 9, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6ftFVi0e0
Neela Banerjee. “Oil Industry Group's Own Report Shows Early Knowledge of Climate Impacts,” InsideClimate News, February 5, 2016. Archived March 9, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6ftFznlLb
“Climate Models and CO2 Warming, A Selective Review and Summary” (PDF), American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved from InsideClimateNews.org. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Robert Grattan. “Oil and natural gas boosters to merge into energy lobbying behemoth,” November 18, 2015. Archived June 2, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“America's Natural Gas Alliance,” OpenSecrets. Accessed June 2, 2016.
Asha Glover. “API: Even EPA Said Fracking Is Safe,” Morning Consult, June 8, 2016. Archived June 22, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“U.S. EPA. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources (External Review Draft),” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-15/047, 2015. Archived June 22, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iTCsqLy0
“Peer Review Plan (PDF), EPA.gov. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“American Petroleum Institute welcomes FY17 National Defense Authorization Act,” DailyEnergyInsider, May 23, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iTDV6id6
Valerie Richardson. “Exxon fights Mass. AG’s ‘political’ probe into climate change dissent,” The Washington Times, June 15, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iVfnzUhc
Ben Jervey. “State Investigations Into What Exxon Knew Double, and Exxon Gets Defensive,” Desmog, April 1, 2016.
“Climate and Energy,” API, May 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
“AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API)—STATE-FOCUSED EXAMPLE” (PDF), DDCpublicaffairs.com. Archived at DeSmog.
Steve Horn. “Here's the PR Firm Behind 'Your Energy America' Front Group Pushing Atlantic Coast Pipeline,” DeSmog, June 14, 2017.
“Storms shouldn't halt Trump deregulation efforts — API chief,” E&E News, September 13, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
Steven Mufson. “Jack Gerard to step down as head of powerful American Petroleum Institute,” The Washington Post, January 17, 2018. Archived January 25, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/iaPDw
“ABOUT,” Explore Offshore. Accessed May 25, 2018.
“Archive of Ads With Political Content: American Petroleum Institute,” Facebook. Accessed May 25, 2018.
“Coalition,” Explore Offshore. Accessed May 25, 2018.
“Economic Impacts and Safety of Offshore Energy Lunch,” Eventbrite. Archived August 1, 2018. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/azTZq
Valerie Volcovici. “Big Oil eyes U.S. minority groups to build offshore drilling support,” Reuters, June 22, 2018. Archived Aug 1, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.fo/84gDE
“Steve Bannon tells black business leaders in South Carolina to demand better,” The Post and Courier, November 10, 2017. Archived August 1, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.fo/cT4A7
Sharon Kelly. “'Time is Running Out,' American Petroleum Institute Chief Said in 1965 Speech on Climate Change,” DeSmog, November 20, 2018.
“Early oil industry knowledge of CO2 and global warming,” Nature Climate Change (2018).
Jesse Prentice-Dunn. “Major lobbying groups join Koch-backed effort to allow more natural gas waste on public lands,” Medium, February 9, 2017. Archived August 7, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/LlFKd
Josh Siegel, Abby Smith. “Daily on Energy: Trump’s vulnerability to oil attack on Saudi Arabia,” Washington Examiner, September 16, 2019. Archived September 17, 2019. Archive.is URL: http://archive.is/3KUpa
“We’re On It,” YouTube video uploaded by user The American Petroleum Institute on September 9, 2019. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.
“We're pleased to announce our newest member, The American Petroleum Institute, we look forward to working with you! #MemberMonday,” Facebook post by Consumer Energy Alliance, December 9, 2019. Archived January 10, 2020. Archive.is URL: http://archive.is/SsJhi
“API LAUNCHES NEW NATIONAL CAMPAIGN ‘ENERGY FOR PROGRESS’, HIGHLIGHTS U.S. ENERGY LEADERSHIP IN ANNUAL STATE OF AMERICAN ENERGY EVENT” (Press Release), The American Petroleum Institute, January 7, 2020. Archived February 14, 2020.
Louise Boyle. “Pro-fracking group is 'wildly inflating' job numbers, environmental campaigners claim,” Independent, March 20, 2020. Archived April 9, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/NnefO
“Phantom Jobs: Fracking Job Creation Numbers Don’t Add Up” (PDF), Food & Water Watch, March 20, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
“America's Progress at Risk: An Economic Analysis of a Ban on Fracking and Federal Leasing for Natural Gas and Oil Development” (PDF), Ameican Petroleum Institute, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
Dana Drugmand. “Minnesota Attorney General Sues Exxon, Koch and API for Climate Deception,” DeSmog, June 24, 2020.
(Press Release). “AG Ellison sues ExxonMobil, Koch Industries & American Petroleum Institute for deceiving, defrauding Minnesotans about climate change,” The Office of Minnesota Attorney, June 24, 2020. Archived June 25, 2020. Archive URL:https://archive.vn/VdRIK
“State of Minnesota, by its Attorney General, Keith Ellison Vs. American Petroleum Institute et al” (PDF), State of Minnesota County of Ramsey, District Court Second Judicial District. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.”
Dana Drugmand. “DC Is the Latest to Sue Exxon and Big Oil for Climate Disinformation Campaigns,” DeSmog, June 25, 2020.
(Press Release). “AG Racine Sues Exxon Mobil, BP, Chevron, and Shell for Misleading Consumers About the Role Fossil Fuels Play in Climate Change,” Office of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia, June 25, 2020. Archived June 25, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/5Quzv
Edward Klump. “API dials back 'energy' branding,” E&E News, July 14, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
Megan Bloomgren. “New Logo Reflects API’s Future Focus, Collaborative Path To Finding Solutions,“ American Petroleum Institute, July 13, 2020. Archived July 31, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/rcXTp
“Destination Earth (1956),” National Film Preservation Foundation. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.
“Restricting natural gas and oil development on federal lands and waters risks hundreds of thousands of jobs and billions in government revenue for education and conservation programs,” tweet by @APIenergy, January 26, 2021. Archived.png on file at Desmog.
“FACT SHEET: President Biden Takes Executive Actions to Tackle the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad, Create Jobs, and Restore Scientific Integrity Across Federal Government,” The White House, January 27, 2021. Archived February 11, 2021. Archive.vn URL: https://archive.vn/AX5Kh
“A Federal Leasing And Development Ban Threatens America’s Energy Security And Economic Growth, Undermines Environmental Progress,” American Petroleum Institute. Archived February 14, 2021. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/RuwlH
“American Petroleum Institute,” SourceWatch profile.
“American Petroleum Institute,” Wikipedia.
“Exxon Still Funding Climate Change Deniers,” Greenpeace, May 18, 2007. Archived March 5, 2011.
Kevin Grandia. “Oil Lobby's 'Energy Citizens' Astroturf Campaign Exposed,” Huffington Post, August 13, 2009.
Greenpeace research documents on the American Petroleum Institute.
Clifford Krauss and Jad Mouawad. “Oil Industry Backs Protests of Emissions Bill,” The New York Times, August 18, 2009. Archived August 11, 2015.
Sheila McNulty. “The big oil backlash?“ Energy Source, August 20, 2009. Archived August 20, 2009.