Americans for Prosperity

Americans for Prosperity (AFP)

Background

Americans for Prosperity was founded by David Koch and Richard Fink in 2003 out of the remains of Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE). Like CSE, Americans for Prosperity has been accused by critics of “using the guise of nonprofit status to work, behind a screen of anonymity, on behalf of the Kochs' corporate and political interests.” [41]

Americans for Prosperity is a 501(c)(4) “social welfare” group, which means it is able to participate in electoral politics so long as it was not its “primary” activity. Donations to Americans for Prosperity can be made anonymously, but are not tax deductible.  The other arm of AFP, the Americans for Prosperity Foundation, is a 501(c)(3) educational organization. This means donations to the AFP Foundation can be written off as tax-deductible, however it cannot participate in the same electoral politics as AFP[41]

The initial team of AfP included Tim Phillips, who David Koch hired to run the political side of the operation. Phillips had previously worked with Ralph Reed, the former head of the Christian Coalition. The Washington Post describes AFP as a powerful part of the Koch network, “a centrally directed but federated organization with paid staffers in the states who can deploy resources and mobilize millions of activists on contact lists. […] the Koch network has more capabilities than ATR and the Club for Growth to combine lobbying with activist mobilization and electioneering.”[41], [48]

Conservative Transparency describes Americans for Prosperity as “the centerpiece of the Kochs’ political machine” and highlights its connection to the Tea Party movement.  As of 2015, AFP listed state chapters in thirty-four states. David Koch, who has been a key figure in funded think-tanks and organizations distorting climate change science, is still the chairman of the AFP Foundation.  [16][39] [2]

AFP is also the sister organization to FreedomWorks, an organization that formed in 2004 when Citizens for a Sound Economy merged with the think tank Empower America. Both the Citizens for a Sound Economy and Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation were created by the Koch brothers. [37][13]

AFP Mission Statement

2011

AFP originally described itself as a grassroots organization committed to engaging “citizens in the name of limited government and free markets on the local, state, and federal levels.” It educates citizens about economic policy and attempts to mobilize those citizens to become advocates in the public policy process. [1]

2015 

Americans for Prosperity's revised mission is to:

“[M]obilize citizens to advocate for policies that cut red tape and increase opportunity, put the brakes on government overspending, and get the economy working for hard workers– not special interests.” [14] 

2016

Americans for Prosperity exists to recruit, educate, and mobilize citizens in support of the policies and goals of a free society at the local, state, and federal level, helping every American live their dream – especially the least fortunate. […]

[…] “Together, we’re persuading public officials to embrace an agenda of economic freedom, educating our friends and neighbors on the issues shaping our economy, and getting everyone involved in building a culture of freedom at the local, state and federal levels. ” (Emphasis added). [36]

Americans for Prosperity Foundation (AFPF)

The Americans for Prosperity Foundation is the 501(c)(3) sister organization to Americans for Prosperity, which itself operates as a 501(c)(4) organization. 

The AFP Foundation describes its mission as “educating and training citizens to be courageous advocates for the ideas, principles, and policies of a free society — knowing that leads to the greatest prosperity and wellbeing for all — especially the least fortunate.” [27]

Stance on Climate Change

While AfP does not appear to have a direct statement regarding climate change, the group consistently opposes government regulation over power generation:

2016

“Abundant, affordable energy is a key driver of prosperity. We must unleash resources by removing regulatory barriers and eliminating corporate welfare that favors certain energy sources over others. When energy prices increase or government distorts the market, it disproportionately affects low and middle income families.” [40]

2015

“Abundant, affordable energy is a key driver of prosperity. We must unleash resources by removing regulatory barriers and keeping taxes low.  The environment improves with economic growth and prosperity, so an overriding goal of environmental policy should be to avoid burdening employers and entrepreneurs.” [15]

On the Keystone XL Pipeline Act which would force approval of the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline:

“We applaud Representatives Ryan, Sensenbrenner, Grothman, Duffy and Ribble on their votes to provide much needed relief for middle class families. With 8.7 million Americans still out of work, we simply cannot afford to deny access to 42,000 good-paying jobs. American families need secure jobs and the American economy needs secure energy. The Keystone Pipeline provides both. The President and Senate should act quickly to sign this bill into law and get Americans back to work.” [49]

Funding

Americans for Prosperity (AFP) & AFP Foundation

Americans for Prosperity is a non-profit organization that does not have to disclose its donors. It works closely with its 501(c)(3) sister organization, the Americans for Prosperity FoundationThe Conservative Transparency project reports the group boasts 90,000 individual donors, but a significant portion of its funding is tied to the Koch brothers. [16][17][18]

Conservative Transparency highlights two organizations associated with the Kochs, Freedom Partners and the Center to Protect Patient Rights, which had combined contributions of over $80 million to Americans for Prosperity since 2009. [16],  [17],  [18]

Below is a summary of data the Conservative Transparency project collected from publicly available 990 tax forms. Note that not all individual transactions have been verified by DeSmog. [17][18]

AfP as Recipient

Donor Americans for Prosperity Americans for Prosperity Foundation Grand Total
Freedom Partners $65,765,000 $65,765,000
DonorsTrust $22,008,411 $22,008,411
Center to Protect Patient Rights $16,016,079 $16,016,079
David H. Koch Charitable Foundation $6,206,853 $1,000,000 $7,206,853
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation $4,693,225 $4,693,225
DeVos Urban Leadership Initiative $3,000,000 $3,000,000
John William Pope Foundation $2,775,000 $2,775,000
Wellspring Committee $1,651,811 $1,651,811
Marshall Heritage Foundation $1,550,000 $1,550,000
Donors Capital Fund $1,413,000 $1,413,000
TC4 Trust $1,391,800 $1,391,800
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation $674,484 $234,913 $909,397
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $880,000 $880,000
Walton Family Foundation $575,000 $575,000
The Challenge Foundation $567,600 $567,600
Barney Family Foundation $400,000 $400,000
Searle Freedom Trust $371,000 $371,000
John Dawson Foundation $325,000 $325,000
The Randolph Foundation $310,000 $310,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia $285,500 $285,500
Friedman Foundation For Educational Choice $21,000 $168,500 $189,500
American Petroleum Institute $139,000 $139,000
Ruth & Lovett Peters Foundation $100,000 $100,000
American Energy Alliance $100,000 $100,000
Castle Rock Foundation $50,000 $50,000 $100,000
John Templeton Foundation $100,000 $100,000
Lovett and Ruth Peters Foundation $100,000 $100,000
Claws Foundation $82,800 $82,800
Ed Uihlein Family Foundation $80,000 $80,000
Armstrong Foundation $5,000 $70,000 $75,000
National Christian Charitable Foundation $65,500 $65,500
JM Foundation $60,000 $60,000
Reynolds American $54,000 $54,000
Heartland Institute $50,000 $50,000
MyWireless.org $45,000 $45,000
American Encore $40,000 $40,000
PhRMA $35,000 $35,000
The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation $32,500 $32,500
Dorothy D. and Joseph A. Moller Foundation $25,000 $25,000
Jaquelin Hume Foundation $25,000 $25,000
The Rodney Fund $12,000 $12,000
Philip M. McKenna Foundation $10,000 $10,000
American Democracy Alliance $6,000 $6,000
The Roe Foundation $5,000 $5,000
Abstraction Fund $5,000 $5,000
Tepper Family Foundation $1,500 $1,500 $3,000
Cato Institute $2,500 $2,500
Foundation for Economic Education $1,000 $1,000
The Whitcomb Charitable Foundation $1,000 $1,000
Deramus Foundation $1,000 $1,000
Leadership Institute $500 $500
Grand Total $92,901,827 $40,738,149 $133,639,976

AfP as Donor

Recipient Americans for Prosperity Americans for Prosperity Foundation Grand Total
Enterprise Freedom Action $200,000 $200,000
Center to Protect Patient Rights $100,000 $100,000
Coalition for American Values Action $85,500 $85,500
Tax Fairness for All Wichitans $43,000 $43,000
Nevada Policy Research Institute $29,500 $29,500
Home School Legal Defense Association $23,200 $23,200
New Hampshire Advantage Coalition $20,000 $20,000
Let the People Vote $20,000 $20,000
NPIB - The Voice of Free Enterprise $20,000 $20,000
We The People Convention $20,000 $20,000
American Energy Alliance $15,000 $15,000
Keep Albuquerque Working $12,000 $12,000
Clark County School District $11,000 $11,000
Hampton Roads Tea Party $7,700 $7,700
New Mexico Business Coalition $7,500 $7,500
American Principles in Action $7,259 $7,259
Conservative Alliance for Community Growth $6,400 $6,400
Citizens for Community Values $5,800 $5,800
Smart Girl Politics $5,650 $5,650
Grand Total $610,009 $29,500 $639,509

Koch Funding

The AFP is the third largest recipient of funding from the Koch Family Foundations, behind the Cato Institute and the George Mason University Foundation.

Before 2003, when the AFP was still named the Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation, it received $18,460,912 in funding. 84% of that funding came from the Koch Family Foundations ($12,906,712) and the Scaife Family Foundations ($2,510,000). [28]

Koch Family Foundations are connected to Koch Industries, the second-largest privately-held company according to Forbes and the largest privately owned energy company in the United States. [29]

According to Greenpeace, AFP received a grand total of combined $6,197,649 from combined Koch foundations between 2005 and 2014: [3]

Year Charles Koch Foundation Charles Koch Institute Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation David H. Koch Charitable Foundation Grand Total
2005 $1,000,000 $1,000,000
2006 $1,151,500 $1,151,500
2007 $1,025,000 $1,025,000
2008 $1,000,000 $1,000,000 $2,000,000
2009 $67,556 $366,725 $434,281
2010 $150,000 $150,000
2012 $43,373 $43,373
2014 $123,984 $72,801 $196,785
2015 $130,528 $66,182 $196,710
Grand Total $365,441 $138,983 $4,693,225 $1,000,000 $6,197,649

Exxon Funding

According to ExxonSecrets, between the years 1998-2001, Citizens for A Sound Economy and Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation received $380,250 from ExxonMobil. [4]

Americans for Prosperity as Donor

Conservative Transparency data shows that AFP has also donated funds to a number of groups including the following:  [16][17][18]

Enterprise Freedom Action $200,000
Center to Protect Patient Rights $100,000
Tax Fairness for All Wichitans $43,000
New Hampshire Advantage Coalition $20,000
NPIB - The Voice of Free Enterprise $20,000
We The People Convention $20,000
American Energy Alliance $15,000
Keep Albuquerque Working $12,000
Clark County School District $11,000
Hampton Roads Tea Party $7,700
New Mexico Business Coalition $7,500
American Principles in Action $7,259
Conservative Alliance for Community Growth $6,400
Citizens for Community Values $5,800
Smart Girl Politics $5,650
Grand Total $481,309

AFP Political Spending

OpenSecrets reports the Americans for Prosperity FEC-reported spending from Jan 2004-Dec 2014 at $40,871,480, and lists it at #8 for its long-term political activity ranking. [42]

Americans for Prosperity 990 Forms

Americans for Prosperity Foundation 990 Forms

Key People

Board of Directors (2015 vs 2016) [5], [34]

Name 2015 2016
Frayda Levin  Y Y
James C. Miller III  Y Y
James E. Stephenson  Y Y
Mark Holden  Y
Nancy Pfotenhauer  Y Y
Richard Fink Y

Leadership Team (2015 vs 2016) [19][34]

Name Position 2015 2016
Adam Stryker Vice President, Strategic Initiatives Y
Brent Gardner  Vice President, Government Affairs Y Y
Chris Fink  Chief Operating Officer Y Y
Dennis D. Vegas Chief Marketing Officer Y
Luke Hilgemann  Chief Executive Officer Y Y
Robert Heaton  Chief Financial Officer Y Y
Teresa Oelke  Vice President, State Operations Y Y
Tim Phillips President Y Y
Victor E. Bernson, Jr.  Vice President, General Counsel Y Y

Board of Directors (AFP Foundation) [2]

  • David Koch — Chairman. Executive vice president and member of the board of directors for Koch Industries, Inc.
  • Richard Fink — Director. Executive vice president and member of the board of directors of Koch Industries, Inc.
  • Debra Humphreys — Director.
  • Walter Williams — Director. Professor of Economics at George Mason University.
  • Nancy Pfotenhauer — Director
  • Cy Nobles — Director

A past director for the AFP Foundation was Art Pope, The President and Vice-Chairman of the board of directors for Variety Wholesalers Inc.

Actions

2017

Americans for Prosperity's “Grassroots Leadership Academy” hosted Alex Epstein on a speaking tour at a number of AfP chapters across America on the “Moral Case for Fossil Fuels - Insight to Action.” Venues and listed dates include the following:

The Alaska event description reads: [62]

“In this presentation, we consider the reasons for the left’s alarmist statements on energy production, and we examine Epstein’s key arguments and explain how a turn away from fossil fuel use would ultimately be disastrous to humanity — especially the poorest of the poor.”

May 8, 2017

Americans for Prosperity, represented by Chrissy Harbin (Vice President of External Affairs), is listed on an open letter to President Donald J. Trump urging him “to withdraw fully from the Paris Climate Treaty and to stop all taxpayer funding of UN global warming programs.” [59]

DeSmog reported that the 40 groups represented in the letter, including the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), The Heartland Institute, and the Heritage Foundation, have received a combined total of millions of dollars from the Koch Brothers, ExxonMobil, and other industry groups. [60]

Analysis also showed that the groups accepted about $80 million through Donors Capital Fund and Donors Trust, two groups that have been confirmed is a key financial source for key U.S-based climate change denial groups. [61]

June 13, 2016

According to documents obtained by The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD/PRWatch), Americans for Prosperity's Oklahoma chapter was named as a creditor in Peabody Energy's bankruptcy filings. [53]

While the available bankruptcy documents do not list the scale or dates of funding, they outline Peabody Energy's financial ties to a large network of groups promoting climate change denial. [54]

Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie SoonRichard LindzenRoy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for ProsperityAmerican Legislative Exchange CouncilCFACTInstitute for Energy ResearchState Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. [55]

The Guardian also analysed and reported on the Peabody bankruptcy findings: [56]

These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”

The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]

Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]

The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.

We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”

Notable organizations listed in the initial documents include:

Notable individuals named in the initial documents include the following:

June, 2016

Americans for Prosperity (AfP) was among organizations named in a Massachusetts subpoena looking for communications between ExxonMobil and organizations denying climate change, reports The Washington Times. [57]

Organizations named in the Massachusetts subpoena include the following: [57]

This latest inquiry by Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey is one in a series of investigations into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US. [58] 

February/March 2016

Americans for Prosperity released an internet ad thanking Governor Pence for rejecting the federal government's rule to restrict greenhouse gas emissions from power plants.

IndyStar reports this was not the first time Americans for Prosperity supported Pence's position. In their analysis, they also write the ad “ignores the fact that if Indiana does not submit a plan to comply with the federal rule, the Environmental Protection Agency will impose one on the state. So any of the negative effects the group says will result from the Clean Power Plan would come regardless. And the utility industry has told the Indiana Department of Environmental Management it’s better to have the state figure out how to comply.” [50]

The ad ran soon after Pence said that he would not comply with the federal rule, even if it survived legal challenges. [51]

View the video below:

Transcript:
“When you're at the crossroads, you have a choice to make. Thank you Governor Pence for making the right choice for Indiana. Thank you for choosing to protect our jobs, keep our power plants open, and ensure our energy is always abundant, affordable, and there when we need it.

You had the courage to say 'no' to president Obama's flawed and expensive energy regulations. Visit FightForIndiana.com and thank Governor Pence for steering Indiana in the right direction.” 

October, 2015

Americans for Prosperity said it would spend $750 million in the election—having already spent over $400 million as of February, 2016—and that any efforts to address climate change would put candidates in “political peril” and at a “severe disadvantage.” [44], [45]

July, 2015

As reported at the Huffington Post, there is speculation the Koch Brothers have influenced New Jersey Governor Chris Christie's decision to withdraw Jersey from the regional carbon reduction program, known as RGGI. [24]

In a New York Times profile of Christie's refusal to participate in RGGI, an AFP representative said, “We were exceedingly pleased that the governor got New Jersey out of the R.G.G.I. boondoggle. … It's something that A.F.P. in New Jersey worked hard on.” According to the Times, the AFP representative “said the move would be sure to help Mr. Christie's efforts in the Republican primaries, should he run.” [25]

June 4, 2015

The Americans for Prosperity Foundation's Grassroots Leadership Academy hosted Alex Epstein to discuss “The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels.” [63], [64]

There’s actually no such thing, on a large scale, as solar power and wind power. There’s just solar-coal, solar-gas, and solar-oil because they are dependent sources of energy,” Epstein said. [63]

July, 2011

Americans for Prosperity filed a lawsuit in New York's Supreme Court seeking to reverse a key piece of state action on climate change. 

New York joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) in 2005 when former governor George Pataki (R) approved the state’s participation in the program. The Competitive Enterprise Institute also supported the lawsuit, reported the Times Union. [21]

The suit alleged that New York is illegally (coercively) taxing residents by taking part in the market-based 10 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states’ Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). The AFP complaint also asserts that carbon emissions trading is unconstitutional because it infringes on federal authority to set rules on air pollution and electrical power transmission across states. [22], [23]

June, 2011

AFP took their “Running on Empty” campaign tour to Virginia, Michigan, and Ohio with the purpose to “teach” Americans about how AFP believes President Obama is making them pay higher prices at the pump.

AFP claims that Obama is intentionally keeping gas prices high because he refuses to allow oil companies to drill for oil in protected areas of the United States.

March, 2011

Americans for Prosperity sent memos to U.S. senators to support an attack on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lawful regulation of greenhouse gasses under the Clean Air Act. [6]

2011

Americans for Prosperity is behind the “No Climate Tax Pledge” where congress members promised not to spend any federal money to fight climate change without equal tax cuts. According to a 2013 investigative Report on Koch Industries, most pledge signers had also received campaign contributions from Koch Industries. [26]

March 22, 2010

AFP’s 2010 Regulation Reality Tour, featuring Smart cars and “carbon cops” at stops across the country, was launched to obstruct U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation of major greenhouse gas emitters and undermine the seriousness of climate change. [12]

Citizens observing the tour were given fake citations for mowing their lawns or filling gas tanks, falsely alleging that the EPA would regulate individual consumers. [7]

December 28, 2010

Republican Congressman Fred Upton, described as a “moderate who took global warming seriously until, in 2010, he wanted to be chair of the House Energy and Commerce Committee,” co-authored a highly publicized Op-Ed in the Wall Street Journal alongside the head of Americans for Prosperity, Tim Phillips. [46]

The WSJ Op-Ed, titled “How Congress Can Stop the EPA's Power Grab,” describes the EPA's move to regulate carbon dioxide emissions as “an unconstitutional power grab that will kill millions of jobs—unless Congress steps in.” [47]

December 2, 2010

At the 2010 international climate negotiations in Cancun, Mexico, AFP had a live broadcast of its Hot Air Tour featuring Senate climate denier James Inhofe (R-OK) and conservative blogger Andrew Breitbart. Video below:

September, 2010

AFP California supported Proposition 23, the ballot attack on state climate legislation that was heavily financed by Koch Industries and other oil companies.

AFP's California director has said that the Prop 23 is the group's “top priority.” [8]

April, 2009

AFP led attacks on the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, a climate pollution reduction program by pressuring state lawmakers to repeal from the program despite its economic successes. [9]

February 2009

Americans for Prosperity started a nation-wide campaign to stop the senate and congress from passing President Obama’s $827 Million Stimulus Plan. The key to AFP’s campaign was a petition which stated:

“Congress should not enact an expensive spending bill under the pretense of stimulus or recovery. We cannot spend our way to prosperity, and such an expansion of the federal government will put a crushing burden on taxpayers in the long-term.”

The “No Stimulus” campaign did not prevent the bill from passing, although the campaign were lauded by Senator James Inhofe for bringing awareness to the public. [10]

April 2008

AFP embarked on a nation wide campaign against global warming titled the “Hot Air Tour.” AFP traveled in a hot air balloon to forty cities in the United States and held events in those cities. 

The tour carried the slogan, “Global Warming Alarmism: Lost Jobs, Higher Taxes, Less Freedom.”

During the Hot Air Tour, AFP president Tim Phillips said that AFP's purpose was to prevent cap-and-trade and other climate change legislation from being passed in government. He declared if any cap and trade legislation were passed it would create a massive tax burden on American citizens, kill the economy, and harmfully infringe on personal freedoms. 

In a public address, Tim Phillips stated there would be a $1.2 Trillion tax increase if a cap-and-trade bill was passed and that 1.2-1.8 million jobs would be lost with cap-and-trade legislation. He cited the “American Capital Formation Foundation” as his source. While the American Capital Formation Foundation does not in fact exist, the American Council for Capital Formation (ACCF) does, and it has consistently lobbied in Washington against green initiatives, especially the Kyoto protocol, claiming these actions would have severe effects on the national economy.

On its website, the ACCF calls itself “one of the most influential organizations operating behind the scenes in the Washington policymaking arena.” According to ExxonSecrets, between 1998-2006, the American Council for Capital Formation received $1,674,523 from ExxonMobil. The group has also received funding from Koch foundations. [11], [20]

Americans for Prosperity Contact & Location

As of May 2016 the listed contact address and phone number for Americans for Prosperity was as follows:  [52]

1310 N. COURTHOUSE RD. SUITE 700 
ARLINGTON, VA 22201 
703-224-3200

Related Organizations

Independent Women's Forum

Americans for Prosperity once maintained an official affiliation with the Independent Women’s Forum (IWF).  

A 2003 IWF press release said that “while the two organizations will share leadership and senior staff and be co-located in IWF’s new suite of offices in Washington, D.C., each will be a separate organization with its own board of directors.” [32], [33]

The former president of the Independent Women’s Forum, Nancy Pfotenhauer, also acted as the president of Americans for Prosperity, but that arrangement ended in July 2005. She is currently (as of 2016) a director on the AfP board. [34]

According to Pfotenhauer's profile at Americans for Prosperity, “She is the former President and C.E.O. of the Independent Women’s Forum (IWF), serving in that position from 2000-05. She was Vice Chairman of IWF’s Board of Directors from 2005-07. Ms. Pfotenhauer joined IWF after leaving Koch Industries, the largest privately held company in the country with more than $80 billion in assets, where she was Director of the Washington, D.C. office.” [35]

Featured Partners

AFP listed the following “featured partners” as late as 2012: [31]

  • The Heartland Institute's International Conference on Climate Change
  • Internet Freedom Coalition
  • Townhall.com

Internet Freedom Coalition

Internet Freedom Coalition members also include Americans for Tax Reform, the Competitive Enterprise Institute, Frontiers of Freedom, the Independent Women's Forum, the Reason Foundation, among others. [30]

Resources

  1. About Americans for Prosperity,” AFP. Archived March , 2011.

  2. Board of Directors,” Americans for Prosperity Foundation. Archived March 11, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6fw3BkqnW

  3. Americans for Prosperity Foundation (AFP): Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived March 13, 2017. Most recent data on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/c7gWL

  4. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: Citizens for A Sound Economy and CSE Educational Foundation.

  5. Our Board of Directors,” Americans for Prosperity. Archived July 10, 2015.

  6. Ben Geman. “Coal group presses senators on looming vote to kill EPA climate rules,” E2 Wire, March 25, 2011. Archived July 10, 2015.

  7. Carbon Cops,” Regulation Reality Tour. Archived January 2, 2011.

  8. The Koch brothers' dirty money in California,” Polluterwatch, September 23, 2010.

  9. David Anderson. “Koch-funded group mounts cut-and-paste attack on regional climate initiatives,” Grist, March 16, 2011.

  10. Senator James Inhofe speaks at AFP NoStimulus Rally,” YouTube Video. Uploaded by AforP, February 6, 2009.

  11. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: American Council for Capital Formation Center for Policy Research, ACCF.

  12. 'Regulation Reality Tour' Peddles Polluter Lies, Endangering American Prosperity,” Thinkprogress, March 20, 2010. Archived July 10, 2015.

  13. Dan Morgan. “Think Tanks: Corporations' Quiet Weapon,” Washington Post, January 29, 2000. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fuw34Qll

  14. About Americans for Prosperity,” Americans For Prosperity. Archived July 10, 2015. 

  15. Energy & Environment,” Americans for Prosperity, January 21, 2012. Archived July 10, 2015.

  16. Americans for Prosperity & Americans for Prosperity Foundation,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed March 10, 2016.

  17. Americans for Prosperity,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed June 5, 2017.

  18. Americans for Prosperity Foundation,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed June 5, 2017.

  19. Leadership Team,” Americans for Prosperity. Archived July 10, 2015. 

  20. About Us,” American Council for Capital Formation. Archived July 10, 2015. 

  21. Brian Nearing. “Group linked to billionaire Koch brothers seeks end to New York role in greenhouse gas curb,” Times Union, June 29, 2011. Archived July 10, 2015.

  22. RGGI Complaint,” Accessed online at Scribd. Archived July 10, 2015.

  23. Suit hits Cuomo, DEC, NYSERDA over cap-and-trade,” Capitol Confidential, June 28, 2011. Archived July 10, 2015.

  24. Heather Taylor-Miele. “Chris Christie Not 'Telling It Like It Is' on Climate Change,” Huffington Post, July 9, 2015. Archived July 10, 2015.

  25. Coral Davenport. “With Eye on 2016, Christie Resists Climate Change Plan,” New York Times, September 18, 2014.

  26. CHARLES LEWIS , ERIC HOLMBERG , ALEXIA FERNANDEZ CAMPBELL , LYDIA BEYOUD. “Koch millions spread influence through nonprofits, colleges,” Investigative Reporting Workshop. July 1st, 2013. Archived July 10, 2015.

  27. Americans for Prosperity Homepage (americansforprosperityfoundation.org). Archived March 11, 2016. http://www.webcitation.org/6fuswNLhW

  28. Aggregated Grants from the Charles G. Koch, David H. Koch, and Claude R. Lambe Foundations,” Media Transparency. Archived June 2, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  29. #2 Koch Industries,” Forbes. Archived March 11, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogblog. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fuwxolvv

  30. Coalition Members,” Internet Freedom Coalition. Archived March 11, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fuy3XoFp

  31. Americas for Prosperity Homepage. Archived April 14, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  32. (Press Release). “Independent Women's Forum Announces Exciting New Partnership; Affiliates with Americans for Prosperity,” PR Newswire, October 29, 2003. Archived October 11, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6fuysvOqs

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