Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy

Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy

Background

The Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy website is now defunct, and the organization has not filed with the IRS since 2007. [1]

The Annapolis Center was created in 1993 with a focus on “the quality of science and education in evaluating potential hazards.” It has regularly produced publications and hosted conferences suggesting the risks of climate change, particulate matter from coal power plants, and other environmental concerns pose a lower risk than popularly believed. [2
]

While the Center says that it “does not accept restricted gifts for scientific studies” it has accepted over $1 million in funding from the oil company ExxonMobil, as well as funding from Philip morris. It has also had heavy industry representation at its “strategic planning” committee meetings, including representation from the American Petroleum Institute, Philip Morris, BHP Minerals, Proctor & Gamble, American Petroleum Institute, Chemical Manufacturers Association, Pfizer Inc, Exxon Corporation, and others. [3]

The Annapolis Center was founded by Richard Seibert, former vice president of the National Association of Manufacturers (NAS), and formed by “scientists, policy-makers, and economists who were frustrated by the decision-making process in the environment, health and safety arena.” In the group's own words, the Annapolis center was a 501(C)3 “national, nonprofit, educational organization that supports and promotes responsible energy, environmental, health, and safety decision-making.”[4][5]

Mission Statement

“The Annapolis Center supports and promotes responsible environmental, health, and safety decision-making.

The Center evaluates risk and cost-benefit analysis both to assist the public in understanding hazards and the relative risks they may present and to identify areas for emphasis in research and policy. The Center’s Annapolis Accords provide vehicles to evaluate the quality of science underlying risk analysis and the quality of the policy foundation supporting risk management, as well as cost-benefit analysis. The Annapolis Center is a non-profit, 501(c)3 educational organization. ” [6]

Stance on Climate Change

October, 1997 [7]

  • “Our climate is by nature extraordinarily variable, and climate change in one direction or another is inevitable.
  • Estimates of pre-historical and historical global temperature indicate a pattern of significant climate variability; thus, shorter term measurements suggest little to no systematic change if natural variability is taken into account.

  • The actual extent to which anthropogenic (human-generated) activities contribute to current climate warming still contains significant scientific uncertainties.

  • The increase in fossil fuel emissions and other human activities worldwide are causing an increase in global atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Both theory and evidence suggest that the recent increase in global average temperature near the Earth's surface is consistent with increased greenhouse gasses, mediated by the background (natural) variability of climate.”

Renewable Energy

2004

“There's a fundamental disconnect between our needs for electric power and the inherent character of wind and photovoltaics (PVs), the two currently popular renewable electricity generators. Society demands electric power when we flip the switch, but wind and sunlight are by nature unpredictable and intermittent.” [8]

2003

  • Current renewable technologies are incapable of providing the all-renewable electric power in the future that many have envisioned.” [9]
  • There is an inherent mismatch between unpredictably intermittent renewable electric power technologies and the public’s need for dependable power-on-demand. “[9]

Health

“We cannot say with certainty what 'causes' asthma. Some advocacy groups with specific agendas try to assert that 'pollution' causes asthma. While this may be politically popular, it is important to remember that much of the evidence supporting this contention is weak and often contradictory.” [10]

Funding

Oil Industry Funding

According to ExxonSecrets, the Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy has received $1,048,500 from ExxonMobil since 1998. Conservative Transparency also listed a donation of $40,000 from the American Petroleum Institute (API) in 2009[11], [12]

TASSC Supporter

According to The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition's (TASSC) annual report, TASSC solicited support from “major players in sound science debates” including the Annapolis Center. [13]

Tobacco Industry Funding

According to publicly available Philip Morris documents, the Annapolis center received at least $100,000 from Philip Morris from 1998 to 2001:

2000 - 2001

According to Philip Morris's 2001 proposed budget, The Annapolis Center received $20,000 in 2000 and had a proposed budget of $25,000 for 2001. [14]

1999

Philip Morris gave a total of $25,000 to the Annapolis Center, according to its 1999 Public Policy Contributions report (PDF). [15]

1997 - 1998

Philip Morris contributed $25,000 to the Annapolis Center in the first quarter of 1997 and agreed to contribute an additional $25,000 for 2008. [16]

The Annapolis Center invoiced Philip Morris $25,000 for being a “Corporate Strategic Sponsor” on January 6, 1999. [17]

February 17, 1998

The Annapolis Center invoiced Philip Morris $5,000 for the “1998 Annual Dinner Honoring John Graham.” [18]

Other Funding

A December, 2013 study by Robert Brulle titled “Institutionalizing delay: foundation funding and the creation of U.S. climate change counter-movement organizations” lists some other funders for the Annapolis Center from 2003 until 2010 including: [19]

  • Eli Lilly and Company Foundation — $18,000
  • General Motors Foundation, Inc. — $130,000
  • The Chrysler Foundation — $10,000

Industry Sponsors

According to an internal Philip Morris document dated 1998, the Annapolis Center's sponsors included “the Chemical Manufacturers Association, Natl Manufacturers Association, American Petroleum Institute, Pfizer, P&G, Exxon, and Westvaco among others. RJR, Cargill and ConAgra are small contributors.” [20]

990 Forms

Key People

Board of Directors

Name 1999[21] 2000[22] 2001[23] 2005[24] 2006[25]
Alberto Diaz, Jr. Y Y Rear Admiral (Retired), U.S. Navy.
Bradley F. Smith Y Y Y Y Y Dean, Huxley College.
Charles H. Pierce Y Y College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati.
Claire M. Lathers Y Y Y U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Ford Rowan Y Y Y Y Y Former PBS and NBC Reporter. Rowan & Blewitt.
Frank D. Boren Y President Emeritus. The Nature Conservancy.
George Gray Y Y Y Harvard Center for Risk Analysis. Harvard School of Public Health.
George K. Anderson Y Vice Chair. Major General, U.S. Air Force (Retired). Immediate Past President, American College of Preventive Medicine
George T. Wolff Y Y Y Y Principal Scientist, General Motors Corp. Former Chair, EPA Clean Air Science Advisory Committee.
Harold M. Koenig (Ret.) Y Y Y Y Y Vice Admiral (Retired) and Former Surgeon General, U.S. Navy. Chair and President, The Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy.
Harrison H. Schmitt Y Y Y Y Y Chairman Emeritus. Former U.S. Senator, Former Apollo Astronaut.
Jack W. Snyder Y Y Y Y Y National Medical Library.
John Griffin Y Y Former Secretary, MD Dept. of Natural Resources.
John S. Parker Y Y Retired Commandant, Fort Detrick. SAIC.
Lois S. Gold Y Y Y University of California at Berkeley.
Mark J. Utell Y University of Rochester Medical Center, Pulmonary Disease Unit
Michael Welner Y Y New York University School of Medicine
Murray L. Weidenbaum Y Former Chairman, Council of Economic Advisors; Director, Center for the Study of American Business
Nancy Kerkvliet Y Y Y Oregon State University.
Norman L. Christensen, Jr. Y Dean, School of the Environment, Duke University.
Paul F. Ziemkiewicz Y Y Director, National Mine Land Reclamation Center & West Virginia Water Research Institute
Richard E. Hug Y Y Y Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Environmental Elements Corporation. Koppers Company.
Robert Hahn Y American Enterprise Institute.
Robert L. Hirsch Y Y Y Energy and Environment Chair, National Academies of Science.
Robert Zelnick Y Y Boston University
Ronald R. Blanck Y Y Lt. General (Retired) and Former Surgeon General, U.S. Army 
S. John Byington Y Y Y Former Chairman. Consumer Product Safety Commission.
Virginia Knauer Y Former President's Consumer Advisor.
William E. Cooper Y Y Y Department of Zoology, Michigan State University.
Paul K. Carlton, Jr. Y USAF (Retired).
Stanley T. Crooke Y Founder, Chairman, and CEO of Isis Pharmaceuticals.

The Integrity in Science project details the industry ties of members of the Board of Directors as of 2005: (note internet archive records are not available for that year) [26]

Stanley T. Crooke, M.D., Ph.D., founder, chairman and chief executive officer of Isis Pharmaceuticals, was elected to the board of directors. (U.S. Newswire, 4/1/05) The Annapolis Center is funded primarily by the National Association of Manufacturers. The Center's founder and COO, Richard Seibert, was a former National Association of Manufacturers vice president. Other board of directors members with industry ties include:

  • George K. Anderson, M.D., M.P.H. — Partner, New World Healthcare Solutions, a medical consulting and executive search firm.
  • Richard E. Hug — Director and Chairman Emeritus, Koppers Company, Inc.
  • John Parker, M.D. — Vice President for Corporate Development, Science Applications International Corporation
  • Charles Harmon Pierce, M.Sc., M.D., Ph.D. — Vice President of Medical Affairs, North America for Harrison Clinical Research
  • Ford Rowan — Co-founder of Rowan & Blewitt Inc. Principal author, “Crisis Prevention, Management and Communication,” published by the National Association of Manufacturers, 1991
  • Jack W. Snyder, M.D., J.D., Ph.D. — Lecturer, advisor, and consultant to corporate, academic, legal, and governmental organizations
  • George T. Wolff, Ph.D. — Principal Scientist, General Motors' Public Policy Center.

Science & Economic Advisory Council ,

Name 2003[27] 2004[28]
Clive Page Y Y King's College of London
David Rosenstreich Y Y Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Donald E. Hagen Y Y University of Missouri-Rolla
Gail Charnley Y Y Healthrisk, Inc.
Gerald North Y Y Texas A&M University
L. Bruce Weekley Y Merck Research Laboratories
Michael E. Schlesinger Y Y University of Illinois
Nancy Kerkvliet Y Y Oregon State University. The Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy Board of Directors.
Paul Reiter Y Y Centers for Disease Control (Dengue Branch)
Randall Lutter Y Y American Enterprise Institute
Ray Campion Y Y President Emeritus, Mickey Leland Medical Center
Richard S. Lindzen Y Y Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Robert Bush Y Y University of Wisconsin - Madison
Robert L. Hirsch Y Y Co-Chair. Chair, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, National Research Council.
Sallie Baliunas Y Y Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Steven I. Baskin Y Y U.S. Army
Thomas Starr Y Y TBS Associates
Walter “Tony” Rosenbaum Y Y University of Florida

Medical Advisory Committee (2006) [29]

Charles H. Pierce College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati
George K. Anderson Maj. Gen. USAF (Ret.) Vice Chair, The Annapolis Center Immediate Past President, Am. College of Preventive Medicine
Jack W. Snyder St. Vincent's Medical Center
John S. Parker Science Applications International Corporation
Mark J. Utell University of Rochester Medical Center Member, EPA Science Advisory Board
Harold M. Koenig Chairman & President, The Annapolis Center. Vice Admiral (Retired) and Former Surgeon General, U.S. Navy.
Gene D. Cohen Center on Aging, Health and Humanities, George Washington University.
Ronald R. Blanck University of North Texas Health, Science Center Former Surgeon General USAMC.
Stuart L. Abramson Texas Children's Hospital
E. Regis McFadden Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
Robert E. Shope University of Texas Medical Branch. Lt. Gen. Alexander Sloan, MC, USAF (Ret.). Former Surgeon General, USAF.

Other People

Actions

April 28, 2004

The Annapolis Center honored Senator James Inhofe for “his work in promoting science-based public policy” at the group's annual dinner. Sen. Inhofe has a long history of opposition to greenhouse gas emissions regulations. In the previous year, ExxonMobil gave money to the Annapolis Center specifically for the support of its Annual Dinner.

The dinner also featured FOX News Channel's political analyst, Tony Snow. According to the press release, the Center has a history of recognizing “individuals for work in their field supporting rational, science-based thinking and policy-making.” [31]

2003

The Annapolis Center produced a study titled “Electrical Power from Renewable Energy - Practical Realities for Policy-Makers” (PDF), which concluded that “
Current renewable technologies are incapable of providing the all-renewable electric power in the future that many have envisioned.” [9]

1990s - 2000s

In the late 1990s and Early 2000s, a series of workshops called the Annapolis Accords was organized around a number of important themes including risk analysis.  [4][32

According to internal documents, the purpose of the Annapolis Accords for Cost-Benefits Analysis is “to provide guidelines on how cost-benefit analysis can be used more effectively to evaluate proposed policies.” The Annapolis Accords were based on two earlier documents: “The Annapolis Risk Accords” and “The Benefit-Cost Analysis Principles.” [33
]

1999 — Philip Morris Proposal/Strategy Documents

The Center proposed a climate change workshop in 1999, among other programs which they were seeking support from Philip Morris and other organizations. According to their strategy document, available at Philip Morris's public documents archive, “The goal of the workshops is to provide independent, non-biased analysis to policy makers, the media, and the public on our current state of knowledge.” [34]

The Center notes that “The product is a consensus document that is released at a news conference at the National Press Club and distributed to Members of Congress, the governors, and the media.” According to the proposal, “the Center sends its reports to over 2,000 members of the media.” It notes that the 1997 report ran in 912 newspapers, with a readership of 43,602,944. 
 [34]

Climate change skeptic Harrison Schmitt would chair the 1999 workshop “and serve as spokesperson for the final report.” The following is reproduced from the The Annapolis Center's proposal document:

The budget for the workshops is $180,000. This includes: [34]
  • Participants (24) costs (honorarium, travel, lodging and meals)
  • Report costs ( drafting, publication and mailing)
  • Press (press conference release at the National Press Club, preparation and mailing of press releases)
B. Climate Change: Potential Effects on Weather. Proponents of enhanced climate change suggest that the world will be subject to more frequent violent storms as a result in rapid global warming. Are the weather patterns we have witnessed over the past decade the harbinger of enhanced climate change, or are they part of the earth's normal weather cycles?
  • Estimated time to complete the project: 90 days
  • Target audience: Members of Congress, congressional staff, meteorologists, and
  • the media
  • Estimated cost: $75,000

 The Annapolis Center also lists other proposed “Environmental” conferences/workshops including one on Acid Rain with a proposed budget of $75,000, and another on the Clean Air Act with a budget of $75,000 (a follow-up to the DC conference they held in 1998) that would also host American Enterprise Institute's Director Robert Hahn. [34]

They also propose an additional project titled the “Annapolis Climate Record Program (ACRP)” which would provide grantees with $20,000 per year for three years to participate in a “bi-annual, peer-reviewed grant program for graduate and post-graduate research on historical and prehistoric climate change records.” The total proposed budget would be $172,000 for 1999, $217,000 for 2000, and $312,000 for 2001. [34]

December, 1998

The Annapolis Center proposed an “educational program” titled “Living with Risk” with a budget of $250,000— as detailed in Philip Morris public documents— that would  ”educate middle and junior high schools students on how to understand and apply risk analysis to current health and environmental issues. As such, Living With Risk, will support the fundamental conclusion of the 1990 Report of the Science Advisory Board, Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection: [35]

There are heavy costs involved if society fails to set environmental priorities based on risk. If finite resources are expended on lower-priority problems at the expense of higher-priority risk, then society will face needlessly high risks. If priorities are established based on the greatest opportunities to reduce risk, total risk will be reduced in a more efficient way, lessening threats to both public health and local and global ecosystems.” [35]

December 5, 1998

Harold M. Koenig, Chair & President of the Annapolis Center, sent a letter to Thomas J. Borelli of Philip Morris asking for $15,000 to begin phase 1 of a program on “Children's health” that would examine Asthma and other issues. [36
]

According to the letter, phase 1 would involve “a poll to be done of pediatricians and emergency room doctors to determine their perceptions and actual - experiences of what is placing children at most risk. A second poll would be commissioned to ask the same questions of parents. This poll will provide a good baseline or overview on the current state of children's health and whether it is getting better or worse and would be conducted on an annual basis. lt is understood that this poll will address acute rather than chronic injuries and diseases. The poll will also attempt to determine which hazards are increasing.” [36]

Your financial support in the form of an unrestricted contribution is critical to our ability to proceed. Would the Philip Morris Companies Inc. be able to contribute $15,000 so that we can begin Phase One?'” Koenig writes. [36]

1998

In a 1998 letter to Philip Morris, in which he thanked the company for its $25,000 contribution, Richard Rue, the center's senior vice president, discussed some of the center's major projects.

These included a series of workshops and scientific panels to “establish accords for the evaluation of epidemiological and toxicological studies prior to their use to establish regulatory actions by the federal and state governments and our new RegX-pert system (an expert computer system that will allow evaluation of federal and state regulatory actions.  [4]

As detailed by an internal strategy paper, the Regx-Pert system was adopted from a system originally implemented by the Department of Defense for examining weapons systems, and reportedly received input from congressional committees and former OMB staff. The RegX-Pert system was reviewed by George Gray from the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis and Robert Hahn from the American Enterprise Institute.  [4]

October 1997

The Annapolis Center held a “Global Climate Change” workshop on July 17 and July 18, 1997 ”to examine and help clarify related scientific, economic and policy issues.” [37]

Their workshop reached the following conclusions, while highlighting “the role of uncertainty in science”:

  • Our climate is by nature extraordinarily variable, and climate change in one direction or another is inevitable.

  • Estimates of pre-historical and historical global temperature indicate a pattern of significant climate variability; thus, shorter-term measurements suggest little to no systematic change if natural variability is taken into account.

  • The actual extent to which anthropogenic (human-generated) activities contribute to current climate warming still contains significant scientific uncertainties.

  • The increase in fossil fuel emissions and other human activities worldwide are causing an increase in global atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Both theory and evidence suggest that the recent increase in global average temperature near the Earth's surface is consistent with increased greenhouse gasses, mediated by the background (natural) variability of climate. 

January, 1997

The Annapolis Center held a workshop on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) air quality standards regarding particulate matter (PM)

According to the Center, “a full and complete picture regarding the potential health impacts of PM can not be established. Although the science may legally allow EPA to take action, it is clear that the proposed PM air quality standard is a choice driven by policy, not science.” [38]

Contact & Address

As of 2003, the following address was listed on an Annapolis Center publication: [32] 

 The Annapolis Science-Based Public Policy
111 Forbes Street, Suite 200
Annapolis, MD 21401
410-268-3302
www.annapoliscenter.org 

Publications

As of December, 2003, the Annapolis Center listed the following Publications on their website (links provided where possible): [39]

How to Judge Science
Energy
  • Energy 101: Sorting Out Fundamentals 
  • Electric Power from Renewable Energy – Practical Realities for Policy-Makers
Environment
Health
Safety
  • Disease Surveillance, Bioterrorism, and Homeland Security
  • Food, Air, Water, and Terrorism: Assessing the Risk

Related Organizations

The following individuals attended the Annapolis Center's October, 1998 “Strategic Planning Committee” meeting: [3]
 

Attending
By Telephone
  • Michael Hodin, Committee Co-Chair — Pfizer Inc.
  • VADM Harold Koenig (Ret.), Chair * Pres — Annapolis Center
  • Randy Randol — Exxon Corporation
  • Susan Reade — C.N.A. Insurance
  • Harrison Schmitt, Past Chair — Annapolis Center
  • Jerry Schoening — Applied Materials
Annapolis Center Staff
  • Richard Rue
  • Richard Seibert
  • Richard Weaver

Resources

  1. Nonprofit Organization Information: ANNAPOLIS CENTER FOR SCIENCE-BASED PUBLIC POLICY INC,” Economic Research Institute. Accessed April 4, 2016.

  2. The Annapolis Center: Promoting responsible environmental, health, and safety decision making…” The Annapolis Center. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates no 2065243818-3825.

  3. Annapolis Center Strategic Planning Committee: October 29, 1998 Meeting” (PDF), The Annapolis Center, October 29, 1998. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Bates No: 2065243878-3879. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  4. Sarah Ann Vogel. Is it Safe?: BPA and the Struggle to Define the Safety of ChemicalsUniversity of California Press, Dec 20, 2012.

  5. The Annapolis Center Homepage. Archived June 7, 2004. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  6. Our Mission,” The Annapolis Center. Archived January 25, 1999. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  7. “Global Climate Change: Policy Making in the Context of Scientific and Economic Uncertainty” (PDF), The Annapolis Center, October 1997. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogblog.
  8. Annapolis Center website 3/04. Retrieved from ExxonSecrets.

  9. Electric Power from Renewable Energy – Practical Realities for Policy-Makers” (PDFThe Annapolis Center for Public Policy. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  10. “Asthma: Separating Facts from Fiction” (PDF), The Annapolis Center for Public Policy. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates no: 3007213855-3007213891.

  11. EXXONSECRETS FACTSHEET: ANNAPOLIS CENTER FOR SCIENCE-BASED PUBLIC POLICY, ACSBPP

  12. ANNAPOLIS CENTER FOR SCIENCE-BASED PUBLIC POLICY,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed April 4, 2016. 

  13. TASSC Annual Report” (PDF), The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition, October 27, 1995. Retrieved from Philip Morris public document archives. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. 

  14. Public Policy Grants: Proposed 2001 Budget,” Philip Morris. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates No. 2080434443-4449.

  15. “1999 Public Policy Contributions,” Philip Morris. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents library. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates No. 2073456569-576.

  16. “Dear Mr. Borelli” (PDF) The Annapolis Center, January 29, 1998. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates No. 2073684230.

  17. “Invoice No. 145” (PDF), Annapolis Center, January 6, 1999. Retrieved from Philip Morris public document archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  18. 1998 Annual Dinner Honoring John Graham” (PDF), The Annapolis Center, February 17, 1998. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates No. 2073684240.

  19. Robert J. Brulle. “Institutionalizing delay: foundation funding and the creation of U.S. climate change counter-movement organizations” (PDF)Climate Change DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-1018-7. Published online December 2013.

  20. Meeting with Annapolis Center/Regulatory Monitoring and Conference Program,” Philip Morris, November 24, 1998. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates No. 2064208469.

  21. The Annapolis Center's Board of Directors,” www.annapoliscenter.org. Archived October 12, 1999. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  22. The Annapolis Center's Board of Directors,” www.annapoliscenter.org. Archived December 1, 2000. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  23. The Annapolis Center's Board of Directors,” www.annapoliscenter.org. Archived February 2, 2001. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  24. Robert L. Hirsch. “Natural Gas: It Is Not a Pretty Picture!” (PDF), The Annapolis Center For Science-Based Public Policy, April 6, 2005. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogblog.

  25. Directors,” The Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy. Archived May 5, 2006. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  26. THE ANNAPOLIS CENTER FOR SCIENCE-BASED PUBLIC POLICY,“ Integrity in ScienceArchived April 5, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6gY90vBhW

  27. Science and Economic Advisory Council,” The Annapolis Center. Archived June 24, 2003. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  28. Science and Economic Advisory Council,” The Annapolis Center. Archived March 11, 2004. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  29. Medical Advisory Committee,” The Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy. Archived May 5, 2006. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogblog.

  30. NAMES IN THE NEWS: The Washington Post,” December 11, 2003. Retrieved from HighBeam Research. Archived April 4, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  31. Sen. James M. Inhofe to be Honored by the Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy,” U.S. Newswire, April 2, 2004. Archived July 14, 2006. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  32. THE ANNAPOLIS ACCORDS FOR RISK ANALYSIS: A CITIZEN’S GUIDE FOR RISK-ASSESSMENT AND RISK-MANAGEMENT RISK-ASSESSMENT ACCORDS” (PDF), Annapolis Center. Archived May 21, 2003. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  33. The Annapolis Accords for Benefit-Cost Analysis” (PDF), The Annapolis Center. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates No: 2065243826-3833.

  34. “Strategic Planning Committee Draft Discussion Piece” (PDF), The Annapolis Center October 29, 1998. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates No. 2065243880-898.

  35. Living With Risk” (PDF), the Annapolis Center, December, 1998. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  36. “Dear Mr. Borelli” (PDF), the Annapolis Center, December 5, 1998. Retrieved from Philip Morris public document archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Bates No. 2069584004-5.

  37. Global Climate Change: Policy Making in the Context of Scientific and Economic Uncertainty,” The Annapolis Center, October 1997. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  38. “Dear Colleagues and Friends” (PDFThe Annapolis Center, May 16, 1997. Retrieved from Philip Morris public documents archive. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  39. Publications Currently Available,” The Annapolis Center. Archived December 2, 2003. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

Other Resources