Capital Research Center


Capital Research Center (CRC)

Background

The Capital Research Center (CRC) was founded in 1984 by Willa Johnson to “study non-profit organizations, with a special focus on reviving the American traditions of charity, philanthropy, and voluntarism.” [1][2]

Prior to founding CRC, Willa Johnson had been Senior Vice President of the Heritage Foundation, then worked as deputy director of the Office of Presidential Personnel in the first Reagan Administration, and as a legislative aide in both the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives.  [1][2]

The Capital Research Center has expressed concern that “Many charities and foundations now urge lawmakers to expand the powers of the welfare state, regulate the economy and limit individual freedoms.” [3]

As part of the conservative campaign to 'Defund the left' the Capital Research Center produces a range of publications targeting foundations, unions and activist groups that it views as supporting liberal causes.  The Capital Research Center's monthly publications include the following: [4]

  • Organization Trends that reports on and analyzes the activities of advocacy organizations;
  • Labor Watch that scrutinizes union contributions and activism;
  • Foundation Watch that “examines the grantmaking of private foundations”
  • Compassion & Culture (discontinued in 2009), which highlighted the “work of small, locally based charities that help the needy.”
  • Green Watch, which it describes as a project dedicated to “monitoring the leadership, activities and funding of the liberal environmentalist movement” [5]

The Capital Research Center has also published Patterns in Corporate Philanthropy, which documents corporate donations to non-profit groups. 

Influence Watch & Berman Ties

The CRC launched its project, “InfluenceWatch” to provide what it described as “more fact-based, accurate descriptions of all of the various influencers of public policy issues.” The Center for Media and Democracy's PR Watch reported in December 2017 that InfluenceWatch was launched as an “Encyclopedia of the Left” inspired by the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD)’s Sourcewatch.org. [30]

CMD's investigation found that the InfluenceWatch project was the subject of a August 16, 2016 CRC grant proposal at the Bradley Foundation. The proposal recommends $125,000 “to support the Online Encyclopedia of the Left.” Bradley staff wrote: “CRC plans to take a page out of Sourcewatch’s play book by ensuring that its new, wiki-style encyclopedia of the Left is thorough, regularly updated, and written in a manner that’s accurate and measured in order to attract and retain a large audience.” [30]

According to CMD, InfluenceWatch was a “signature project” of CRC’s President Scott Walter. Before joining CRC, Walter worked for the PR firm Berman & Company, run by Richard Berman. Berman, who takes pride in his nickname “Dr. Evil,” has set up a chain of non-profit “educational” entities fighting against groups like Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD), People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), as well as unions, environmental groups, and others. [31]

CMD reported that more than one quarter of InfluenceWatch's funding was being provided by the Bradley Foundation. The Bradley Foundation 2016 annual report detailed $125,000 in funding to CRC, while the budget for InfluenceWatch was $400,000 in that year. [30]

CMD reported that Berman groups had also coordinated with CRC in the past. For example, CMD's Bradley Files investigation found Bradley had asked the Interstate Policy Alliance, a Berman group, to coordinate with CRC on an assessment of “second tier” states for consideration as “potential targets of opportunity” for construction of right-wing infrastructure. CMD reported on those investments in a six-report series titled “Weaponized Philanthropy.” [30]

Michael Hartmann, Director of Research and Evaluation at the CRC, was given permission to simultaneously as a senior fellow at CRC and at the Bradley Foundation, according to internal documents. [30]

Stance on Climate Change

February 11, 2020

CRC's investigative researcher Hayden Ludwig wrote at CRC's “GreenWatch”: [36]

“The lust for power is at the heart of environmentalism. Fearmongering is simply the quickest way to convince Americans to surrender their freedom—hence, the ever-looming 'climate crisis' that’s been hanging over our heads since the 1970s.

Undoubtedly, the Earth’s climate is always changing, and there’s much more we have yet to learn about it. People who are pro-science and understand the scientific method won’t rest on fake claims about a '97 percent consensus' or falsely state that the 'science is settled.' Truth—not unanimous agreement—is the object of science.”

April 21, 2015

Steven J. Allen wrote at the CRC blog:

“Years from now, when Global Warming theory is on the ashheap of history with supposed science like white supremacy, Piltdown Man, canals on Mars, Keynesianism, and N-rays, taxpayers will probably still be stuck paying for insane subsidies and mandates for ancient technologies repackaged as waves of the future—wind, solar, biofuels, dippy birds, whatever—and the I-Love-Science-When-It-Supports-My-Prejudices 'Progressives' will probably still be pushing policies like the Obama War on Coal, although, by then, they may have moved on to, say, a War on Fire conducted by the administration of President Chelsea Clinton or perhaps President Charlotte Clinton Mezvinsky-Kennedy, who will get elected on an 'anti-dynasty' platform.”[6]

June 17, 2014

Steven J. Allen wrote at the CRC blog:

“As regular visitors to this space know well, there is no basis for the claim, put forth by President Obama and other radical environmentalists, that “97 percent” of scientists believe in Global Warming theory. They repeat this imaginary statistic over and over because, when it comes to real science, they got nuthin’.” [7]

June 2006

Bonnor Cohen wrote the following in an edition of the CRC's publication Organization Trends: [8]

“Despite environmentalist claims of a 'consensus' on global warming, climate science is contentious.” [8]

Funding

The following is based on data the Conservative Transparency project collected from publicly-available 990 tax returns. Note that not all funding values have been verified by DeSmog. See the attached spreadsheet for additional information on Capital Research Center funding by year (.xlsx)[11]

Donor and Year Total
Sarah Scaife Foundation $6,150,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $2,653,320
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation $650,000
William H. Donner Foundation $635,833
John M. Olin Foundation $617,500
Philip M. McKenna Foundation $526,000
Searle Freedom Trust $445,000
Lillian S. Wells Foundation $390,000
Donors Capital Fund $332,500
Hickory Foundation $301,000
Stuart Family Foundation $257,000
Scaife Family Foundation $255,000
The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation $245,000
Exxon Mobil $225,000
The Carthage Foundation $225,000
Earhart Foundation $222,000
Jaquelin Hume Foundation $175,000
The Randolph Foundation $173,000
The Rodney Fund $150,000
Huizenga Foundation $115,000
The Roe Foundation $110,000
F.M. Kirby Foundation $110,000
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation $95,888
Dodge Jones Foundatoin $90,500
DonorsTrust $88,650
Bradley Impact Fund $73,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia $61,100
Charlotte and Walter Kohler Charitable Trust $60,000
The Weiler Foundation $50,000
The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation $42,000
Dorothy D. and Joseph A. Moller Foundation $35,000
Armstrong Foundation $34,500
Aequus Institute $32,000
JM Foundation $30,000
Diana Davis Spencer Foundation $29,000
Barbara and Barre Seid Foundation $25,000
Arthur N. Rupe Foundation $25,000
National Christian Charitable Foundation $20,950
Neal and Jane Freeman Foundation $20,000
Brady Education Foundation $20,000
John William Pope Foundation $20,000
Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation $20,000
Charles and Ann Johnson Foundation $15,000
True Foundation $11,200
Windway Foundation $10,500
Walton Family Foundation $10,000
The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation $9,500
Richard Seth Staley Educational Foundation $7,500
Joyce and Donald Rumsfeld Foundation $7,500
The Gordon and Mary Cain Foundation $6,500
Tepper Family Foundation $5,200
DeVos Urban Leadership Initiative $5,000
Vernon K. Krieble Foundation $4,500
Floyd Foundation $2,750
Kickapoo Springs Foundation $2,500
The Legett Foundation $2,500
Schwab Charitable Fund $2,000
The Challenge Foundation $1,000
William E. Simon Foundation $1,000
Wodecroft Foundation $1,000
Lynn & Foster Friess Family Foundation $1,000
John Templeton Foundation $250
John P and Kathryn G Evans Foundation $150
Grand Total $15,942,291

Tobacco Industry Funding

SourceWatch found that while the Capital Research Centre was critical of non-profit groups opposing smoking, it was also received funding from the tobacco industry including $50,000 from Philip Morris in 1995.
A 1997 internal briefing sheet on possible questions about PM funding of CRC stated “we have supported this organization for about ten years. Our level of support has averaged about $30,000 a year.[12], [13]

ExxonMobil Funding

According to Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets, CRC received $265,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [9]

ExxonMobil announced that the Capital Research Center would be one of nine groups it would stop funding in 2008 that had been associated with global warming skepticism. Exxon had made a similar promise in 2007, but most of the organizations continued to receive funding. [10]

Koch Funding

According to the most recent data available from Greenpeace, the Capital Research Center has received at least $699,200 from Koch-related foundations between 1987 and 2015. [24]

*Original tax forms prior to 1997 are no longer available for verification. If you include these values, the grand total jumps to $724,200 in Koch funding from 1987 to 2015[24]

Year Charles Koch Foundation Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation Grand Total
*1987 $5,000 $5,000
*1988 $10,000 $10,000
*1993 $5,000 $5,000
*1996 $5,000 $5,000
1997 $5,000 $5,000
1998 $50,000 $50,000
2000 $75,000 $75,000
2001 $100,000 $100,000
2002 $100,000 $100,000
2003 $100,000 $100,000
2004 $100,000 $100,000
2005 $50,000 $50,000
2006 $25,000 $25,000
2007 $25,000 $25,000
2008 $10,000 $10,000
2010 $20,000 $20,000
2011 $10,000 $10,000
2014 $14,800 $14,800
2015 $14,400 $14,400
Grand Total $74,200 $650,000 $724,200

990 Forms

Key People

The following people were listed on the Capital Research Center's website as of October, 2015. (Sourcewatch maintains records of past Board Members and notable previous staff): [14][12]

Board of Trustees

Name 2001 2002 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Description
Edwin Meese, III Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Fellow, The Heritage Foundation
Marion G. Wells Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Deceased (1926-2016). Trustee, The Heritage Foundation and The Intercollegiate Studies Institute
Gilbert Collins Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Trustee emeritus. Trustee, Intercollegiate Studies Institute
Thomas S. Winter Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Editor-in-Chief, Human Events
William Meyersohn Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Real Estate Consultant
Michael Franc Y Y Y Y Y The Hoover Institution
Eric O’Keefe Y Y Y Chairman, Citizens for Self-Governance
Gordon Cummings Y Y Philanthropic Advisor
Robert E. Challey Y Y Chairman of the Board, The Park Place Group
Terrence Scanlon Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Chairman, CRC Board of Trustees. President, Capital Research Center
Constance C. Larcher Y Y Y President and CEO, Washington Legal Foundation
Beverly Danielson Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Member, Mt. Pelerin Society
Barb Kenney Y Y Y Y
Daniel J. Popeo Y Y Chairman and General Counsel, Washington Legal Foundation
Dean Webster Y Y

National Advisory Board

Name 2000 2002 2016 2019 2020 Description
Adam Meyerson Y Y Y Y Y President, The Philanthropy Roundtable
John A. Baden Y Y Y Y Y Chairman, Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment (FREE)
Larry P. Arnn Y Y Y Y Y President, Hillsdale College
Midge Decter Y Y Y Y Y Author
P.J. O’Rourke Y Y Y Y Y Author and Columnist
Robert L. Woodson, Sr. Y Y Y Y Y Founder & President, National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise
Walter Williams Y Y Y Y Y Professor of Economics, George Mason University
Kate O’Beirne Y Y Y Y Deceased (1949-2017). Former President, National Review Institute
Christopher Long Y Y Y Trustee, Intercollegiate Studies Institute
Kenneth R. Weinstein Y Y Y President & CEO, Hudson Institute
Linda Chavez Y Y Y Y Chairman, Center for Equal Opportunity
Menlo F. Smith Y Y Y CEO, Sunmark Capital Corporation
Marvin Olasky Y Y Editor-in-Chief, World
Sally Pipes Y Y President & CEO, Pacific Research Institute
Michael J. Horowitz Y Y Senior Fellow, The Hudson Institute
Michael Novak Y Y George Frederick Jewett Chair in Religion and Public Policy, American Enterprise Institute
Richard V. Allen Y Y President, Richard V. Allen Company
T. Kenneth Cribb Y Y President, Intercollegiate Studies Institute
Thomas S. Winter Y Y Editor-in-Chief, Human Events
Deal W. Hudson Y Editor, Crisis
Arianna Huffington Y Columnist and Author
Mitchell E. Daniels, Jr. Y Vice President, Corporate Strategy and Policy, Eli Lilly and Company
R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr. Y Editor-In-Chief, The American Spectator
William E. Simon Y Chairman, William E. Simon & Sons

Fellows

Name 2017 2019 2020 Description
Martin Morse Wooster Y Y Y Senior Fellow
Michael E. Hartmann Y Y Y Senior Fellow and Director, Center for Strategic Giving
Steven J. Allen Y Y Distinguished Senior Fellow

Staff

Name 1999 2000 2001 2002 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2019 2020 Description
Christopher Krukewitt Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Chief Financial & Operations Officer
Scott Walter Y Y Y Y Y Y Y President
Dan Thompson Y Y Y Y Y Vice President of Philanthropy & Development
Beth Bottcher Y Y Y Philanthropy Officer
Heather Cordasco Y Y Y Philanthropy Officer
Joseph (Jake) Klein Y Y Y Film & Video Producer
Kristen Eastlick Y Y Y Senior Vice President
Michael Watson Y Y Y Research Director
Ashley Rae Goldenberg Y Y Investigative Reporter
Caleb Sutherlin Y Y Social Media Coordinator
Catherine Heravi Y Y Staff Accountant
Erin Demma Y Y Personnel, Events, & Operations Coordinator
Hayden Ludwig Y Y Investigative Researcher
Ken Braun Y Y Senior Investigative Researcher
Michael E. Hartmann Y Y Senior Fellow and Director, Center for Strategic Giving
Robert Stilson Y Y Research Specialist
Shane Devine Y Y Research Assistant
Carolyn Brandt Y Administrative Assistant
Jon Rodeback Y Managing Editor and Director of Content
Bridget Rossi Y Development Assistant
Matthew Vadum Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President
Steven J. Allen Y Y Y Y Y Distinguished Senior Fellow
Chenelyn Barker Y Development Associate
Ian Johnson Y Development Assistant
Tyler Stone Y Y Office Manager
Terrence Scanlon Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Chairman, CRC Board of Trustees. President, Capital Research Center
Jana Marie Erwin Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Development Associate
Gordon Cummings Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Philanthropic Advisor
Jeffrey Shifflett Y Y Office Manager
Robert Huberty Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Executive Vice President and Director of Research
Matt Patterson Y Y Y Senior Editor, Labor Watch and Green Watch
Peter J. Lee Y Office Manager
Douglas Walker Y Office Manager
Phil Brand Y Y Y Y Director, EducationWatch
Brent Jordan Y Office Manager
Jill K. Lacey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Editor, Compassion and Culture
Larry Farnsworth Y Y Y Director, Communications
Luke Lee Y Y Y Office Manager
Eric Heidenreich Y Director, Green Watch and State Environmental Watch
Patrick Reilly Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Editor, Labor Watch
James Dellinger Y Y Y Executive Director, GreenWatch and StateWatch
Jeremy Lott Y Editor, Labor Watch
Daniel Patrick Head Y Development Associate
Tara Wheeler Y Y Y Y Y Staff Assistant
Eric Blowers Y Y Director of Development
David Hogberg Y Research Associate and Executive Director, GreenWatch and EducationWatch
Robert Volmer Y Director of Communications
Stephen DeMauri Y Development Associate
Gene Edward Veith, Jr. Y Y Y Y Senior Fellow
Jeffrey Gayner Y Y Y Y Visiting Fellow
Martin Morse Wooster Y Y Y Y Senior Fellow
Christopher Morris Y Y Research Associate
Ivan G. Osorio Y Y Research Associate and Editor, Labor Watch
David Riggs Y Executive Director of Green Watch
Jennifer Gustafason Y Vice President and Director of Development
John Carlisle Y Research Associate and Editor, Foundation Watch, Organization Trends
Pam Witherspoon Y Director of Administration
Christopher Yablonski Y Y Y Research Associate
Daniel T. Oliver Y Y Y Research Associate and Editor, Alternatives in Philanthropy
Marvin Olasky Y Y Y Editor-in-Chief, World
Andrew Walker Y Y Director of Communications and Congressional Liaison
Pam Perry Y Y Manager, Administration
Tom Ivancie Y Y Vice President and Director of Development
Matthew Roche Y Development Associate
Christopher Summers Y Research Associate
Philip F. Kelly Jr. Y Research Associate
William Baron Y Development Associate
Chad Cowan Y Director of Communications and Congressional Liaison
Eric Heubeck Y Research Associate
Julie Taylor Y Director of Development
Loren Smith Y Development Associate
Paul Taiwo Y Office Administrator

Other People

Tom Holt, appears to have been a past CRC “visiting fellow.” Holt has advocated legal reforms that would make it more difficult to sue corporations on the premise that “the consumer movement has imposed significant costs on industry–costs ultimately passed on to consumers–and has violated individual freedoms in a futile effort to protect us from our own actions and judgment.” [15]

Actions

December 16, 2019

CRC's GreenWatch wrote an article alleging electric vehicle subsidies are a transfer of wealth from the poor to the rich. [37]

“Electric cars are a luxury item purchased almost exclusively by the rich,” CRC's Hayden Ludwig claimed in the article. He also claimed, “ electric vehicles won’t save Mother Earth.” He then points to metals used in electric vehicle battery manufacturing—an issue DeSmog's Koch vs Clean project has outlined, showing EV batteries use fewer rare earths than oil refining or gas-powered cars. [37]

“Americans would be better off letting the market decide the fate of electric cars—anything else means stealing from the poor to give to the rich,” Ludwig concluded. [37]

Koch vs Clean has debunked many of the common oil industry talking points about electric vehicles, and includes a summary of how the EV tax credit benefits drivers of all income levels[37]

October 25, 2019

CRC's project, Dangerous Documentaries, produced a film starring comedian Adam Carolla and Dennis Prager titled No Safe Spaces. The film, according to CRC, “will expose the safe space culture that is undermining American universities.” [34]

“This film will expose the sad state of free speech, the unwillingness of students to be challenged by new ideas, and “the grievance culture” of “safe spaces” that are undermining the intellectual foundations of American universities. The project looks at those who have been silenced for expressing opinions that violate the new sacred writ of postmodern views on race and gender, which means acceptance of all except for those who think differently,” The CRC wrote in 2017, describing the upcoming film. [34]

One reviewer at Los Angeles Times wrote: “What might have been a pertinent, evenhanded examination of the notion of free speech on today’s college campuses wastes little time in exposing an overwhelmingly right-leaning bias in the disappointingly sensationalistic agitprop that is 'No Safe Spaces.'” [35]

May 8, 2017

CRC, represented by Steven J. Allen, is listed on an open letter to President Donald J. Trump urging him “to withdraw fully from the Paris Climate Treaty and to stop all taxpayer funding of UN global warming programs.” [27]

DeSmog reported that the 40 groups represented in the letter, including the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), The Heartland Institute, and the Heritage Foundation, have received a combined total of millions of dollars from the Koch Brothers, ExxonMobil, and other industry groups. [28]

Analysis also showed that the groups accepted about $80 million through Donors Capital Fund and Donors Trust, two groups that have been confirmed is a key financial source for key U.S-based climate change denial groups. [29]

February 22 - 25, 2017

The Capital Research Center was a Contributing Sponsor of the 2017 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), among a range of other conservative and pro-industry groups. [25]

According to CRC, their panels included “21st Century Labor Reform: A Better Way for Workers,” on February 23, “Revolt of the Deplorables: Inside Election 2016” on the 24, and “Is Political Correctness Killing U.S. Institutions?” on the 25. [26]

April 1, 2015

The Capital Research Centre staff wrote an article defending Willie Soon, claiming that “Leftist politicians and the media try to blacklist scientists who are skeptical about Global Warming,” and that the outing of Soon's significant fossil fuel funding by groups like Greenpeace has been a “Witch-Hunt.” [16]
Willie Soon was criticized when Greenpeace obtained documents regarding his funding thorugh the Freedom of Information Act, revealing that there were at least 11 times that Soon failed to disclose fossil fuel funding in papers he had published between 2008 and 2015. [17]

August, 2002

Terrence Scanlon of CRC was a signatory to a letter to President Bush, applauding his decision not to attend the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg.

“Environmentally and socially irresponsible corporations and their operatives are lobbying the Administration to snub the Summit and halt any progress toward addressing environmental accountability and global climate change,” said Friends of the Earth President, Dr. Brent Blackwelder. [18]

September, 2001

In the press release launching the Greenwatch site in the fall of 2001, Rep. Butch Otter (R-ID), called the groups included in the Greenwatch database “extremists,” and declared the purpose of the database was to “monitor and keep the extremists in check.” [19]

1990s

The Capital Research Center published studies criticizing charities such as the American Heart Association, the American Lung Association and the American Cancer Society for their anti-tobacco lobbying efforts. [20]

CRC was later criticized, and it was revealed that Phillip Morris had provided $50,000 in funding to the Capital Research Center. [21]

CRC has also published reports on the “Anti-Smoking Movement,” to which select PM staff were given advance copies. [22]

Capital Research Center Contact & Location

The Capital Research Center lists the following contact information on its website: [23]

Capital Research Center
1513 16th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 483-6900
(202) 483-6990 (fax)

Social Media

Related Organizations

Resources

  1. Corporate Philanthropy,” Acton Institute. Archived February 2, 2007.

  2. “About CRC,” Capital Research Center. Archived December 13, 2010. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/nDrg0

  3. About,” Capital Research Center. Archived October 18, 2015. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/RrpI8

  4. Matthew Vadum. “Defunding the Left,” Capital Research Centre, October 31, 2009. Archived October 18, 2015. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/nkIcE

  5. Neil Hrab. ”'Direct Action': The Tactics of Radical Activism: Part I” (PDF), Organization Trends (Capital Research Center), February, 2004. Archived February 5, 2007. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  6. Steven J. Allen. “Global Warming: 25 years of this nonsense,” Capital Research Center, April 21, 2015. Archived October 18, 2015. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/Ej1r6

  7. Steven J. Allen. “Climate McCarthyism,” Capital Research Centre, June 17, 2014. Archived October 18, 2015. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/52FSQ

  8. Bonner Cohen. “The Green Counter-Establishment: How It Holds Power” (PDF), Organization Trends (Capital Research Center publication). Archived November 27, 2008.

  9. Factsheet: Capital Research Center and Greenwatch, CRC. Accessed March 10, 2020.

  10. Exxon Announces Cutoff for Warming Skeptics – Again,” Integrity in Science, June 2, 2008. Archived October 18, 2015. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/OKDy2

  11. Capital Research Center,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed October 18, 2015.

  12. Capital Research Center and the tobacco industry,” SourceWatch. Accessed October 18, 2015.

  13. CancerScam M message Track,” May, 1997. Retrieved from Truth Tobacco Industry Documents. Bates #2078829061-2078829063.

  14. Repeat of S3.

  15. SLAPP Happy: Corporations That Sue to Shut You Up,” PRWatch, Second Quarter 1997, Volume 4, No. 2. Archived March 8, 2012. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/MmAti

  16. Witch-Hunt 2015: Leftist politicians and the media try to blacklist scientists who are skeptical about Global Warming,” Capital Research Centre, April 1, 2015. Archived October 18, 2015. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/3lTIK

  17. Lisa Song. “A Guide To Willie Soon's Climate Research Funded by Fossil Fuel Companies,” InsideClimate News, February 23, 2015. Archived Dec 24, 2019. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/8zcMd

  18. (Press Release). “Corporate-funded Lobbyists Aimed to Sabotage Johannesburg Summit,” allAfrica.com, August 19, 2002. Archived April 29, 2003. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/NQslY

  19. Betsy Z. Russel. “Green extremist site launched,” Spokesman Review, September 14, 2001. Archived June 14, 2012. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/snLZo

  20. T Friend, “Charities anti-tobacco lobbying is criticized,” USA Today, Bates no 2023914980, June 28, 1990.

  21. White J, Bero LA (February 2004). “Public health under attack: the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) and the tobacco industry”. Am J Public Health, 94 (2): 240–50. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.2.240. PMID 14759933. PMC 1448234.

  22. PM, PHILIP MORRIS,MARDEN,RE. 1994 September 06. Bates Number: 2044720167.

  23. Contact,” Capital Research Center. Archived March 10, 2020. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/BmhGK

  24. Capital Research Center (CRC): Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived March 14, 2017. Archive.URLhttps://archive.is/EmhGx

  25. CPAC 2017 Sponsors,” cpac.conservative.org. Archived March 6, 2017. Archive URLhttps://archive.is/SKFRU

  26. Capital Research Center is live at CPAC 2017!Capital Research Center, February 22, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. Archive URL: https://archive.is/Z4e0T

  27. “Dear Mr. President” (PDF), retrieved from Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  28. Graham Readfearn. “Conservative Groups Pushing Trump To Exit Paris Climate Deal Have Taken Millions From Koch Brothers, Exxon,” DeSmog, May 10, 2017.

  29. Susanne Goldberg. “Conservative groups spend up to $1bn a year to fight action on climate change,” The Guardian, December 20, 2013. Archived May 12, 2017. Archive URLhttps://archive.is/TB2yy

  30. ‘Influence Watch’ Website Launched: Berman, ALEC, Heartland Copy CMD’s Sourcewatch.org Site,” PR Watch, December 22, 2017. Archived March 11, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/wip/km5oA

  31. Meet Rick Berman, A.K.A. 'Dr. Evil',” CBS, February 25, 2011. Archived December 23, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/hZ002

  32. About Us,Influence Watch. Archived March 11, 2020. Archive.ph URLhttps://archive.vn/wip/cag6F

  33. About GreenWatch,” Capital Research Center. Archived October 10, 2010. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/h7v6t

  34. UPCOMING FEATURE FILM: No Safe Spaces,” Capital Research Center, June 30, 2017. Archived March 11, 2020. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.vn/6bgDL

  35. Michael Rechtshaffen. “Review: Free speech doc ‘No Safe Spaces’ clearly sides with one set of voices,” Los Angeles Times, November 24, 2019. Archived March 11, 2020. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.vn/wip/qzwwy

  36. Hayden Ludwig. “You Can’t Compromise with 'Green' Socialists,” Capital Research Center, February 11, 2020. Archived March 11, 2020. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.vn/wip/mm60G

  37. Hayden Ludwig. “Big Green Lobbies to Steal from the Poor and Give to the Rich,” Capital Research Center, December 16, 2019. Archived March 11, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/wip/FAd49

Other Resources