Craig D. Idso
- Ph.D., Geography, Arizona State University. 
- B.S., Geography, Arizona State University. 
- M.S., Agronomy, University of Nebraska - Lincoln. 
Craig Idso is the Chairman and former President of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (AKA Co2Science.org or CSCDGC).  The Center's stated mission is to “separate reality from rhetoric in the emotionally-charged debate that swirls around the subject of carbon dioxide and global change.” 
The Center's publication is CO2 Science, a weekly magazine that features articles questioning the science behind man-made climate change. Craig's father Sherwood B. Idso is currently the President of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide on Global Change, while his brother, Keith Idso, is the Center's Vice President. , 
According to leaked internal documents from the Heartland Institute in 2012, Craig Idso was receiving $11,600 a month from the Heartland Institute through his Center for the Study of CO2 & Global Change. , 
Oil Industry Ties
Craig Idso served as Director of Environmental Science at Peabody Energy from 2001-2002 in St. Louis, MO. According to ExxonSecrets, Craig and Keith Idso produced a report for the Western Fuels Association titled “The Greening of Planet Earth Its Progression from Hypothesis to Theory” in January, 1998. , 
Craig and Keith Idso have other ties to the Western Fuels Association. In October, 1999, they assisted in publishing a report for the Greening Earth Society (a group funded and controlled by Western Fuels) titled “Forecasting World Food Supplies: The Impact of the Rising Atmospheric CO2 Concentration,” as Idso announced in a separate CO2 Science article. 
The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD/PRWatch) reports that Idso's CSCDGC was also listed as a creditor in Peabody Energy's bankruptcy filings in 2016.  While the available bankruptcy documents do not list the scale or dates of funding, they outline Peabody Energy's financial ties to a large network of groups promoting climate change denial. 
In 2006, Craig Idso also incorporated Cenospheres.net Inc., a company serving the oilfield industry. According to the Arizona Corporation Commission, the company was dissolved in August, 2008. A similarly-named “Cenospheres LLC” was also incorporated in May of 2008 and run by Lance and Julene Idso until that corporation was dissolved in February of 2013. , 
Stance on Climate Change
The following are some of the key points made by the Center for Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: 
“A weak short-term correlation between CO2 and temperature proves nothing about causation.”
“Strong negative climatic feedbacks prohibit catastrophic warming.”
“Growth-enhancing effects of CO2 create an impetus for cooling.”
“There is no evidence for warming-induced increases in extreme weather.”
“Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are a boon to the biosphere.”
“Atmospheric CO2 enrichment brings growth and prosperity to man and nature alike.”
November 30, 2017
Speaking at the “At the Crossroads IV: Energy & Climate Policy Summit,” co-hosted by The Heritage Foundation and Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF), Idso declared: 
“The reality is that any efforts to restrict CO2 emissions will not only raise food prices, but jeopardize the future food security of the planet.” 
October 9, 2017
“Today’s action by Pruitt is a wake-up call for those who continue to falsely claim carbon dioxide is a pollutant. It isn’t, so get over it! Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is essential for life on Earth. It will never cause the dangerous global warming that climate alarmists and their failed models predict. Future legal challenges to reverse Pruitt’s action are welcomed, as they will only fail in the end.” 
December 8, 2016
“For years, the U.S. government has held the position that atmospheric CO2 is a dangerous air pollutant that must be regulated to avoid the perils of global warming and climate change. I hope and trust that you also know that the scientific evidence supporting that position is tenuous at best and upheld primarily by inadequate and unvalidated computer model projections as opposed to real-world observations. This I know from having studied thousands of scientific papers on the topic.” 
“There really is probably no category of photosynthesizing plant that does not respond in a positive manner to atmospheric CO2 enrichment, and that is not likely to be benefited by the ongoing rise in the air CO2 content.” 
“It is my sincere hope the incoming Trump administration will recognize these truths, for truths they indeed are, and reverse course as is appropriate on federal policies that for far too long now have besmirched and defamed the many virtues of carbon dioxide. Atmospheric CO2 is not a pollutant. It is the very elixir of life.“ 
“Forecasts of future pH come from unproven, theoretical postulations by models based on absorption of CO2 by the oceans. Regardless, there really is no such thing as a representative pH for the whole ocean. It varies vastly near the coast and in upwelling regions, much more than the projected increase in acidity.” 
“Despite a constant barrage of stories portraying rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) as a danger and threat to the planet, more and more scientific evidence is accruing showing that the opposite is true.” 
“Carbon dioxide is a well-known aerial fertilizer, and many thousands of studies have proven the growth-enhancing, water-saving and stress-alleviating benefits it provides for plants. The reality is that rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are providing a multitude of benefits to the biosphere.” 
“Indeed, even now, we may already be unknowing participants in the great plan, as our burning of fossil fuels releases long-sequestered carbon to the atmosphere, awakening earth’s plant life from the lethargy of the low CO2 concentrations under which it has basically slumbered throughout the entire history of man. Let us deeply consider these matters—even prayerfully—before we put forth our arm to steady the ark of God. He is clearly capable of doing His own work.” 
“CO2 is not a pollutant. It is a benefit. It is the very elixer of life.” 
“As just one example, and a damning one at that, all of the computer models upon which this vision is based failed to predict the current plateau in global temperature that has continued for nearly two decades now. That the Earth has not warmed significantly during this period, despite an 8 percent increase in atmospheric CO2, is a major indictment of the models’ credibility in predicting future climate, as well as the assertion that debate on this topic is 'settled.'” 
“[I]t is a well-established fact that atmospheric CO2 is the major building block of nearly all life, as it is used by plants in the process of photosynthesis to construct their tissues and grow. As numerous scientific studies have conclusively demonstrated, the more CO2 there is in the air, the better plants grow. They produce greater amounts of biomass, become more efficient in using water, and are better able to cope with environmental stresses such as pollution, drought, salinity, and high temperatures.” 
“By ignoring these realities, policy prescriptions calling for a reduction in fossil fuel use are found—on this basis alone—to be ill-advised. Yet there are still other important reasons to reject them.” 
“Taxing or regulating CO2 emissions is an unnecessary and detrimental policy option that should be shunned. Why would any government or religious institution advocate to increase regulations and raise energy prices based on flawed computer projections of climate change that will never come to pass?” 
“Despite thousands of scientific articles affirming numerous benefits of rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2, IPCC makes almost no mention of any positive externalities resulting from such…Climate Change Reconsidered II corrects this failure, presenting an analysis of thousands of neglected research studies IPCC has downplayed or ignored in its reports so that scientists, politicians, educators, and the general public can be better informed and make decisions about the potential impacts of CO2-induced climate change.” 
The Industrial Revolution has been a tremendous boon to humanity, as it has lifted large numbers of our kind from poverty to prosperity. It has also helped the rest of the biosphere - and thereby us once again - via the powerful aerial fertilization effect of the carbon dioxide that has gone into the atmosphere as a consequence of the burning of fossil fuels. Indeed, it's been win, win, win for all of life; and if there's ever been a recipe for success, this is it.” 
December 4, 2018
During the announcement and presentation of a Heartland-sponsored report by the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) titled “Climate Change Reconsidered II: Fossil Fuels,” Idso said: 
“I can tell you with complete confidence that there is absolutely no observational evidence that provides any compelling support for the contention that there is something unusual, unnatural, or unprecedented about earth's current warmth. Neither are there any real world data that confirm that floods, droughts, wildfires, or hurricanes are becoming either more frequent or more severe as a result of global warming. Nor is there any indication that the total mass of earth's polar ice sheets is on the verge of declining any faster than the proverbial snail's pace at which it has done so in the recent past. Nor is there any reason to believe that sea levels are about to rise precipitously and inundate the world's coastal lowlands.” 
Heartland’s report was touted as a summary for policymakers, and featured a section on the benefits of fossil fuels to human prosperity, health, and the environment. Heartland claims that their data proves that “humans are not causing a climate crisis.” 
Video of the presentation, including Idso's remarks beginning at 09:00, can be viewed on Heartland's YouTube page:
February 4, 2018
In January 2018, more than 200 scientists endorsed an open letter calling on the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to remove climate change denier Rebekah Mercer from its board and to “end ties to anti-science propagandists and funders of climate science misinformation.” The New York Times reported that those among the AMNH letter calling for Mercer to step down were Michael E. Mann, director of the Earth System Science Center at Pennsylvania State University, and Katharine Hayhoe, director of the Climate Science Center at Texas Tech University. 
Idso was among a group of climate change deniers who responded with their own open letter, calling for the AMNH “not to cave in to this pressure.” The letter was signed by numerous individuals with ties to groups funded by the Mercer Family Foundation such as Will Happer of the CO2 Coalition; Richard Lindzen, a fellow at the Cato Institute; and Idso's Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change. There are a number of signatories affiliated with the Heartland Institute, which has received over $5.78 million from the Mercer Family Foundation since 2008. 
“The Earth has supported abundant life many times in the geological past when there were much higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is quite likely that future generations will benefit from the enrichment of Earth’s atmosphere with more carbon dioxide.
“Make no mistake, the agitators are not defending science from quackery — quite the contrary!”
November 30, 2017
Idso spoke at the “At the Crossroads IV: Energy & Climate Policy Summit” co-hosted by The Heritage Foundation and Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF). 
Highlighting Donald Trump's “America First Energy Plan,” Idso argued that fighting CO2 emissions reductions was the “number one challenge” to keeping food costs low:
“In today’s political climate, the number one challenge to keeping food and other agriculture-related costs low is arguably to withstand the efforts of those who would regulate the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere,” Idso said, adding “We are all aware of the fury and determination of those who seek to label and classify carbon dioxide or CO2 as a pollutant. Their end game, which they proudly promote, is to legislate hydrocarbon fuel usage into oblivion.”
Idso describes a carbon tax as “a horrible idea that will only adversely impact the agricultural sector.”
“As long as the atmospheric CO2 concentration is allowed to continue to rise, and no actions are initiated to limit the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere, countries should be able to produce enough food to feed their growing populations and they will reap tremendous economic benefits in doing so,” Idso claimed.
Idso said that “To global warming alarmists, the Earth has been in the throes of a veritable climate armageddon” listing concerns such as the three warmest decades on record, deforestation, forest fires, and dought—to all of these, Idso claims that “[the terrestrial biosphere] has suffered not at all. Increasing levels of atmosphere CO2 has actually helped overpower these and other growth-inhibiting influences in all but a few locales.”
November 9, 2017
Idso spoke at the Heartland Institute's “America First Energy Conference” at the Marriott Hotel in Houston, Texas. He spoke on Panel 6A “Energy and Agriculture,” and his presentation was titled “Energy, Agriculture and Rising Atmospheric CO2.” 
The event description read as follows: 
“At the America First Energy Conference, we plan to examine—one year and one day after Trump’s shocking Election Day victory—the following:
“Where does Trump’s America First Energy Plan stand?
“How much progress has been made in implementing it, and what remains to be done?
“What scientific and economic evidence is there that the plan is putting the nation on the right path for economic growth, environmental protection, or both?” 
In a fundraising letter obtained by DeSmog, Fred Palmer had promoted the event as having the goal to “review the scientific and economic evidence that exposes the fraud inherent in the Obama-era regulation regime” while discussing “the overwhelming benefits of fossil fuels to us all.” 
Many of the other speakers have regularly spoken at the Heartland Institute's past ICCCs. Notable speakers listed so far include Joe Bast, Fred Palmer, Roger Bezdek, H. Sterling Burnett, Hal Doiron, Paul Driessen, John Dale Dunn, Myron Ebell, Heartland's new President Tim Huelskamp, Craig Idso, David Legates, Jay Lehr, Anthony Lupo, Ross McKitrick, Steve Milloy, Todd Myers, John Nothdurt, David Schnare, and numerous others. 
As reported at the Houston Chronicle, speakers notably included two Trump Administration officials: Richard W. Westerdale II of the State Department and Vincent DeVito of the Department of Interior. David Bernhardt, deputy secretary of the Interior Department, was also formerly listed as a Heartland conference speaker, but apparently withdrew. 
The Climate Investigations Center put up a parody of the America First Energy conference website, complete with profiles on the individual speakers and highlighting their corporate funding and ties to groups such as the Cooler Heads Coalition (CHC). 
October 12, 2017
Idso commented on President Donald Trump's appointment of Kathleen Hartnett-White as chair of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), pending approval. Idso was quoted in a October 13 Heartland Institute newsletter: 
“President Trump’s nomination of Kathleen Hartnett White as chair of the Council on Environmental Quality further demonstrates his innate ability to draw the most qualified and highly respected talent into his administration. The United States will benefit from the leadership of Hartnett White. She has a well-established track record of addressing challenging environmental issues, and she has the requisite knowledge, capabilities, and management skills to restore integrity to an office that requires policy decisions be based on sound science. Congratulations to Kathleen Hartnett White, and congratulations to America!” Idso declared. 
Hartnett-White has a history of representing fossil fuel interests. During her tenure as chair of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), appointed by then-governor Rick Perry, the TCEQ was found to “not consistently ensure violators are held accountable.” According to a 2003 Texas State Audit, polluters “often have economic benefits that exceed their penalties, which could reduce their incentive to comply.” 
As head of the CEQ, Hartnett-White would be in charge of coordinating interagency science, climate, and environmental policy and oversee things such as the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review process and agency compliance with that law. 
“Though CEQ oversees the NEPA process, it remains unclear how seriously Hartnett-White will take the NEPA review process, for decades seen as a bedrock of U.S. environmental regulation since NEPA became law in 1970,” DeSmog's Steve Horn reported. 
May 8, 2017
Craig Idso, representing the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, is a signatory to an open letter to President Donald J. Trump urging him “to withdraw fully from the Paris Climate Treaty and to stop all taxpayer funding of UN global warming programs.” 
DeSmog reported that the 40 groups represented in the letter, including the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), The Heartland Institute, and the Heritage Foundation, have received a combined total of millions of dollars from the Koch Brothers, ExxonMobil, and other industry groups. 
Analysis also showed that the groups accepted about $80 million through Donors Capital Fund and Donors Trust, two groups that have been confirmed is a key financial source for key U.S-based cliamate change denial groups. 
Craig Idso is listed as a contributor to the upcoming release of Climate Change: The Facts 2017, a book released by the Institute for Public Affairs (IPA) and edited by Jennifer Marohasy. While investigating the authors, DeSmog noted that one of the IPA's listed “leading experts” involved in the book is New Zealand’s Ken Ring, who in addition to being a described “long range weather forecaster” has written “two, possibly three, books about cats” including Pawmistry: How to Read Your Cat’s Paws in 1998. 
“Climate Change: The Facts 2017 brings together contributions on the latest climate science from some of the world’s leading experts in the field including John Abbot, Sallie Baliunas, Paul Driessen, Tony Heller, Craig Idso, Clive James, Pat Michaels, Jo Nova, Ian Plimer, Tom Quirk, Peter Ridd, Ken Ring, Nicola Scafetta, Willie Soon, Roy Spencer, and Anthony Watts.
March 23, 2017
Craig Idso was a speaker on two panels at the Heartland Institute's 12th International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC12). The first panel was (2A) was titled “Fossil Fuels and Human Prosperity.” The second (3B) was titled “Fossil Fuels and World Peace”. View both videos below. 
Panel 2A: ”Fossil Fuels and Human Prosperity”
Panel 3B: ”Fossil Fuels and World Peace”
February 24, 2017
Craig Idso was a speaker on a discussion panel sponsored by the CO2 Coalition at the 2017 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). Tony Heller moderated the panel, and it also featured Kathleen Hartnett-White View video of the event at the Energy & Environment Legal Institute's Facebook page. 
Idso's presentation focused on “the biological benefits of atmospheric CO2 enrichment,” something that he described as “a vital message that we need to get out at all levels of the government today.” 
Talking about the IPCC, Idso said ,”They have all these predictions of climate catastrophe, but what it really boils down to is this. When you look at the data, the observed data, you find there is nothing unusual, unnatural, or unprecedented about Earth’s current climate. ” He added, “There is no compelling evidence to conclude that rising CO2 concentrations are heaving a measurable influence on climate.” 
According to idso, “The positive impacts of atmospheric CO2 enrichment remain largely under-appreciated or ignored in the debate over what to do or not do about rising CO2 concentrations in the future.” 
“In my own studies, I have calculated that the benefits of CO2 on agriculture are so important that without them, world food supply will fall supply of world food demand by mid-century,” Idso said. 
Idso also claimed that the EPA had ignored his cliams. Responding to an audiene member, he Idso said “All of this material was submitted to the EPA and much more.” He continued, “They go to models, and say that yes, models rule the day and that the models say it’s going to get too hot, and this and that, but actually it’s not […]. 
After going through several slides that seemed to closely resemble those of his previous presentations on the benefits of CO2, Idso concluded: 
“For far too long now, the political climate has pursued policies at the federal, state, and local level that besmirched and defamed the many virtues of this important and essential trace gas. Atmospheric CO2 is not a pollutant; it is, in fact, the very elixir of life.” 
According to the CPAC Conference agenda (PDF), Idso also presented on a panel later that evening titled “The Benefits of Global Greening” where he was interviewed by Brietbart's James Delingpole. 
February 23, 2017
Craig Idso was a signatory of a petition (PDF) organized by Richard Lindzen of the Cato Institute urging President Donald Trump to pull the United States out of the United Nations international convention on climate change (UNFCCC). 
“In just a few weeks, more than 300 eminent scientists and other qualified individuals from around the world have signed the petition below,” Lindzen wrote in the letter. 
DeSmog investigated the list, and found that only a small handful of the signatories could be considered “even remotely ‘qualified’ or ‘eminent’ — but not in the field of climate science.” The list included individuals “interested in climate,” and one signatory who only identified as an “emailer who wished to sign the petition” while some signers provided no affiliation or address whatsoever. 
December 8, 2016
Craig Idso was a speaker at the “At the Crossroads III Energy and Climate Summit,” an event co-hosted by the Heritage Foundation and the Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF). The event was billed as “the premier energy-and-climate policy event in America,” and attracted a range of prominent climate change deniers as well as a range of names connected to Donald Trump and his transition team. 
Doug Domenech, director of the Texas Public Policy Foundation's “Fueling Freedom” project, wrote about the proceedings at The Hill. Domenech outlined the common climate change denial message shared among the speakers: “Is climate change real? Yes, it has happened in the past and will happen in the future. Is man making an impact on the climate? Perhaps but in very small ways. But the overarching consensus remains the climate change we are experiencing is by no means catastrophic.” 
Video and choice quotes below:
“For years, the U.S. government has held the position that atmospheric CO2 is a dangerous air pollutant that must be regulated to avoid the perils of global warming and climate change. I hope and trust that you also know that the scientific evidence supporting that position is tenuous at best and upheld primarily by inadequate and unvalidated computer model projections as opposed to real-world observations. This I know from having studied thousands of scientific papers on the topic.” [11:21]
“There are three main benefits of atmospheric CO2. Higher atmospheric CO2 increases plant productivity. It also enhances plant water use efficiency and helps plants withstand and better endure various environmental and resource limitations and stresses.” [12:40]
“As the atmospheric CO2 increases to six times above that of its current value, this extra food, if you will, induces a growth enhancement in most plants that reaches upwards of 160%. “ [13:39]
“There really is probably no category of photosynthesizing plant that does not respond in a positive manner to atmospheric CO2 enrichment, and that is not likely to be benefited by the ongoing rise in the air CO2 content.” [17:44]
“I’ve calculated that the benefits of CO2 on agriculture are so important that without them, world food supply will fall short of world food demand by mid-century.” [18:23]
“If countries learn to identify which genotypes provided the largest yield increases per unit of CO2 rise and then grew them, it is quite possible we could collectively produce enough food to stave off these crippling food shortages that are expected to occur just a few short decades from now. Now, unfortunately, because the present government mindset views CO2 as a pollutant, research has progressed but little on this front.” [19:42]
“There are several other benefits of atmospheric CO2 enrichment that we unfortunately don’t have the time to discuss. Benefits that the outgoing Obama administration has downplayed or ignored. It is my sincere hope the incoming Trump administration will recognize these truths, for truths they indeed are, and reverse course as is appropriate on federal policies that for far too long now have besmirched and defamed the many virtues of carbon dioxide. Atmospheric CO2 is not a pollutant. It is the very elixir of life.“ [22:50]
- Brooke Rollins
- Becky Norton Dunlop
- Mike Lee
- Lamar Smith
- Pete Olson
- Gary Palmer
- James Inhofe
- Kathleen Hartnett White
- Stephen Moore
- Bud Brigham
- David Kreutzer
- Patrick J. Michaels
- Mark P. Mills
- Horace Cooper
- Patrick Forkin
- Allen Gilmer
- Dan Byers
- Nicolas Loris
- Richard Lindzen
- Willie Soon
- Andrew M. Grossman
- William Happer
- Craig Idso
- Roy Spencer
- Patrick J. Michaels
- Brooke Rollins
- Becky Norton Dunlop
- David Legates
- James Taylor
Craig Idso is listed as a “Founding Member” of group named Climate Exit (Clexit) led by climate change denier Christopher Monckton. According to Clexit's founding statement (PDF), “The world must abandon this suicidal Global Warming crusade. Man does not and cannot control the climate.” , 
Desmog reports on how the group grew in the wake of the UK's decision to leave the EU. A key member of Clexit's “60 well-informed science, business and economic leaders” is Hugh Morgan, a former board member of the Reserve Bank of Australia and former CEO of Western Mining Corporation with close ties to Australia's Liberal party. , 
According to Clexit's founding statement:
“If the Paris climate accord is ratified, or enforced locally by compliant governments, it will strangle the leading economies of the world with pointless carbon taxes and costly climate and energy policies, all with no sound basis in evidence or science […]” 
Craig Idso responded to comments that Senator Ed Markey made on the Senate floor as part of the 2016 #WebOfDenial push. Markey had noted that the oceans are 30 percent more acidic today than they were before we started burning coal, a statement confirmed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 
“Projected future decline [in pH, a measure of a substance’s acidity] is based on a theoretical postulation by models based on absorption of CO2 by the oceans. Regardless, there really is no such thing as a representative pH for the whole ocean. It varies vastly near the coast and in upwelling regions, much more than the projected pH decline.” 
May 18, 2016
Craig Idso was a signatory to a full page color advertisement in The New York Times titled “Abuse of Power” (PDF) sponsored by The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI). The ad serves as an open letter from 43 signatories including organizations and individuals in response to New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, U.S. Virgin Islands Attorney General Claude Walker, and the coalition of Attorneys General investigating groups denying man-made climate change. , 
“Attempts to intimidate CEI and our allies and silence our policy research are unconstitutional,” said CEI president Kent Lassman. “The First Amendment protects us and everyone has a duty to respect it – even state attorneys general. CEI will continue to fight for all Americans to support the causes in which they believe.” 
The Competitive Enterprise Institute received a subpoena from AG Walker on April 7, 2016. On April 20, CEI filed an objection to the subpoena calling it “offensive,” “un-American,” and “unlawful,” and are contending that AG Walker is “violating CEI’s First Amendment rights.” 
The “freedom of speech” argument was echoed by ExxonMobil's legal team, as well as numerous other conservative groups including the Pacific Legal Foundation, and Heritage Foundation and the recently-formed Free Speech in Science Project, a group created by the same lawyers who defended the Competitive Enterprise Institute in the past. 
The CEI letter lists the following signatories:
- Kent Lassman — President & CEO, Competitive Enterprise Institute
- C. Boyden Gray — Former White House Counsel
- Andrew C. McCarthy — Former Chief Assistant United States Attorney, Southern District of New York
- Michael B. Mukasey — U.S. Attorney General, 2007-2009; U.S. District Judge, 1988-2006
- Ross McKitrick — Professor of Economics, University of Guelph
- Ronald D. Rotunda — Distinguished Professor of Jurisprudence, Chapman University
- Richard S. Lindzen — Professor Emeritus of Atmospheric Sciences, MIT
- William Happer — Emeritus Professor of Physics, Princeton University
- Jim DeMint — President, The Heritage Foundation
- James H. Amos, Jr. — President & CEO, National Center for Policy Analysis
- John A. Baden — Chairman, Foundation for Research on Economics & the Environment
- Lisa B. Nelson — CEO, American Legislative Exchange Council
- Paul Driessen — Author & Energy Policy Analyst
- Thomas J. Pyle — President, Institute for Energy Research
- Steven J. Allen — Vice President & Chief Investigative Officer, Capital Research Center
- David Ridenour — President, National Center for Public Policy Research
- Steven J. Milloy — Publisher, JunkScience.com
- Brooke Rollins — President & CEO, Texas Public Policy Foundation
- Paul Gessing — President, Rio Grande Foundation
- Ron Arnold — Researcher & Author
- William Perry Pendley — President, Mountain States Legal Foundation
- Adam Brandon — President & CEO, FreedomWorks
- Hank Campbell — President, American Council on Science and Health
- Craig Rucker — Executive Director, Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow
- Tom McCabe — CEO, Freedom Foundation
- Richard B. Belzer — Economist
- Heather R. Higgins — President & CEO, Independent Women's Voice
- Joseph G. Lehman — President, Mackinac Center for Public Policy
- Sabrina Schaeffer — Executive Director, Independent Women's Forum
- Joseph Bast — President, The Heartland Institute
- John C. Eastman — Founding Director, The Claremont Institute’s Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence
- Robert Alt — President & CEO, The Buckeye Institute
- Michael Pack — President & CEO, The Claremont Institute
- Josh Blackman — Assistant Professor, South Texas College of Law
- Lynn Taylor — President, Tertium Quids
- David Rothbard — President, Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow
- Tracie Sharp — President & CEO, State Policy Network
- Kenneth Haapala — President, Science and Environmental Policy Project
- Tim Phillips — President, Americans for Prosperity
- Myron Ebell — Director of the Center for Energy & Environment, Competitive Enterprise Institute
- George Landrith — President, Frontiers of Freedom
- John Tillman — CEO, Illinois Policy Institute
- Craig D. Idso — Chairman, Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change
March 29, 2016
Craig Idso was a featured speaker at a conference titled “The Climate Surprise: Why CO2 Is Good for the Earth” hosted by the CO2 Coalition and The New Criterion in New York City. 
According to the event description, “Members of the CO2 Coalition and many other experts argue that carbon dioxide enrichment of the atmosphere provides manifold benefits for humanity. And observed surface warmings are much smaller than predicted by climate models. Economic models that fail to include the benefits of CO2 and the serious exaggerations of climate models and are being used to advocate 'cures' that are much worse than the non-existent disease.” 
December 14, 2015
Craig D. Idso wrote an article in the Washington Examiner titled “The Irrational Legacy of COP21.” According to idso, “One of the most bizarre claims to come out of the conference is the assertion that global temperatures must be kept from rising a mere seventy five-hundredths of a degree Celsius (0.75°C) above present day values […]” 
According to Idso, “Such a claim is preposterous. It exists only in the deranged output of computer model projections that are derived from the most extreme and frenzied future scenarios.” 
He calls COP21 “laughable” because “In their view, carbon dioxide is a perilous 'pollutant'.” Rather, Idso describes CO2 as a “well-known aerial fertilizer” and that “rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are providing a multitude of benefits to the biosphere.” 
November 30, 2015
Craig Idso is a co-author of a Heartland Institute/NIPCC book titled Why Scientists Disagree about Global Warming: The NIPCC Report on Consensus. The book was timed for release on the first day of the United Nations' twenty first conference of the parties (COP21) in Paris.
According to the the Heartland Institute press release, The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change's book, “emphatically rejects claims of a 'scientific consensus' on the causes and consequences of climate change.” 
Contrary to the book's premise, multiple studies and surveys have shown that 97 percent or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree that climate warming trends over the past century are due to human activities (NASA for example). 
Other authors include S. Fred Singer of the Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) and Bob Carter of the Institute for Public Affairs (IPA). The NIPCC itself is sponsored by the CSCDGC, SEPP, and The Heartland Institute. 
CSDGC, IPA, and SEPP are all secretive about their funding sources. Still, available data at ExxonSecrets and the Conservative Transparency Project show they have received funding from ExxonMobil, Donors Capital Fund, Scaife, and Koch-related Foundations.
June 11-12, 2015
Craig Idso was a speaker on Panel 9: “Climate Change Reconsidered II: Human Welfare, Energy, and Policies,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with S. Fred Singer, Bob Carter, and Christopher Monckton. 
View Craig Idso’s Panel 9 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: 
As reported at Alec's Climate Change Denial, Craig Idso spoke at an American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) event, where he notably said that “CO2 is not a pollutant. It is a benefit. It is the very elixer of life.” 
This is a sentiment Craig Idso also shared in a September, 2014 article republished by the CATO institute titled “Mr. President, Co2 Is Not Pullition, It's the Elixer of Life.” , as well as on his website CO2 Science in an article he titles “The Deceit of Sustainability.” 
InsideClimate News reports Idso as saying that carbon-reduction policies are “are unnecessary, unwise, and unwarranted,” during his time on stage at the ALEC conference. “Instead of being shunned like the plague, the ongoing rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide should be welcomed with opened arms,” Idso also said. 
According to the Center for Media and Democracy, “Through ALEC, behind closed doors, corporations hand state legislators the changes to the law they desire that directly benefit their bottom line.”
October 9, 2014
Craig Idso is quoted in the Heartland Institute's press release, “Heartland Institute Climate Experts Comment on 18 Straight Years of No Global Warming,” which states “the global mean surface temperature has not risen for 18 consecutive years. This extends the so-called 'pause' in global warming to a new record, one not predicted by the climate models of the United Nations' International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).”  Idso writes:
“To the world’s climate alarmists, atmospheric carbon dioxide is a dangerous trace gas, and for years, they have been insisting its increase will raise global temperatures and wreak havoc upon Earth’s climate and biosphere. Yet, despite a 9 percent increase in CO2 over the past 18 years, there has been no rise in global temperature. Think about that. Over this time period the air’s CO2 content has risen some 40 parts per million, which represents fully one-third the total global CO2 increase since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, yet contrary to model projections, planetary temperatures have failed to rise.
It’s time for global warming die-hards to face the facts. Stop denying the models have got global temperature projections wrong. Stop denying CO2 has a lower climate sensitivity than you have been claiming. Stop denying the societal benefits of continued fossil fuel use. It’s not too late to make a course correction and support sound science.” 
July 7 - 9, 2014
DeSmogBlog has done in-depth research on the other speakers and sponsors from Heartland's ICCC9, which can be found here.
Idso is a lead author of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change’s (NIPCC) report entitled, Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts, published by the Heartland Institute on March 31, 2014. Other lead authors include prominent deniers, Sherwood Idso and S. Fred Singer. 
May 21 - 23, 2012
DeSmogBlog researched the co-sponsors behind Heartland's ICCC7 and found that they had collectively received over $67 million from ExxonMobil, the Koch Brothers and the conservative Scaife family foundations.
Craig Idso is a lead author of the 2011 Interim Report (PDF) of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), published by the Heartland Institute. 
Other lead authors include prominent climate skeptics Robert M. Carter and S. Fred Singer. Other contributors included Joseph D‘Aleo, Indur Goklany, Sherwood Idso, Madhav Khandekar, Anthony Lupo, Willie Soon, and Mitch Taylor. 
According to SourceWatch, Idso was a featured speaker at the 2011 American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) Annual Meeting, speaking at a workshop initially titled “Warming Up to Climate Change: The Many Benefits of Increased Atmospheric CO2” but which was renamed “Benefit Analysis of CO2” 
He was joined by fellow climate skeptics Roger Helmer and Robert Ferguson. The workshop was hosted by ALEC's Energy, Environment and Agriculture Task Force.
Spoke at the Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. His speech was titled “Co2-Induced Global Warming: Is the IPCC Presenting an Honest Assessment of the Evidence?” 
May 27, 2011
“[T]he Earth's climate is not changing in an unusual or anomalous fashion. The EPA relied on instrumental data that were adjusted to exaggerate the increase in global temperatures.” 
Petitioners listed were:
- Timothy F. Ball
- Joseph S. D'Aleo
- Don J. Easterbrook
- Anthony Finizza
- William Happer
- Benjamin M. Herman
- Craig D. Idso
- Richard A. Keen
- Anthony R. Lupo
- Nicola Scafetta
- Roy W. Spencer
- George H. Taylor
- James P. Wallace III
- George T. Wolff
June 2, 2009
Craig Idso was a leading author of the first Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) report, titled “Climate Change Reconsidered” (PDF), published by the Heartland Institute. His co-author was climate skeptic Fred Singer.
Contributors included numerous other prominent climate change skeptics: 
- J. Scott Armstrong
- Dennis Avery
- Robert Carter
- Piers Corbyn
- Richard Courtney
- Joseph d'Aleo
- Don Easterbrook
- Fred Goldberg
- Vincent Gray
- William Gray
- Kesten Green
- Kenneth Haapala
- Zbigniew Jaworowski
- Madhav Khandekar
- William Kininmonth
- Hans Labohm
- Anthony Lupo
- Howard Maccabee
- Christopher Monckton
- Lubos Motl
- Nicola Scafetta
- Harrison Schmitt
- Tom Segalstad
- George Taylor
- Gerd Weber
March 30, 2009
Idso's signature is displayed alongside a full-page ad funded by the CATO institute that appeared in numerous newspapers including the Washington Post, the New York Times and the Chicago Tribune in 2009.
The advertisement criticizes President Obama's declaration that “few challenges facing America and the world are more urgent than combating climate change,” saying that “with all due respect Mr. President, that is not true.” It goes on to describe how “there has been no net global warming for over a decade,” and that the dangers of global warming are “grossly overstated.” 
Co-authored a report entitled “Enhanced or Impaired? Human Health in a CO2-Enriched Warmer World” (PDF) with his father Sherwood Idso and brother Keith Idso.
The report argues that global warming and an increase in atmospheric CO2 would be a boon to humanity.
- Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change - Chairman of the Board, Founder and Former President. 
- Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) — Member, Board of Advisors. 
- Heartland Institute — “Expert” and Senior Fellow, Environment. 
- George C. Marshall Institute — Expert (Need Confirmation) 
- Peabody Energy — Former Director of Environmental Science. 
- Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) — Co-editor and Lead Author. , , 
- Science and Public Policy Institute (SPPI) — “Science Advisor.” 
- CO2 Coalition — Member, Board of Directors. 
- Cato Institute — Adjunct Scholar. 
- Climate Exit (Clexit) — ”Founding Member.” 
The now-defunct website appeared to have been a project of Frank Clemente and Mark P. Mills. The website focuses on the benefits of fossil fuels, especially coal. For example, an archived version of Clemente's website describes coal as “the path out of poverty” for Southeast Asia and developing countries. 
- The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has received $100,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998 and is suspected of being funded by the Western Fuels Association*.
- CFACT has received $582,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.
- The Heartland Institute has received $676,500 from ExxonMobil since 1998 although they no longer disclose their funding sources.
- The George C. Marshall Institute has received $865,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.
- The Arizona State University Office of Cimatology has received $49,500 from ExxonMobil since 1998.
- Cenospheres.net Inc. — Oilfield service company incorporated by Craig Idso 
*The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global change responded to the question of whether they were funded by the Western Fuels Association as follows:
“In spite of what you think, you could be wrong. But as we do not divulge this information, you may also continue to think that you are right. In either case, we are not inclined to confirm or deny your conclusion…”
Idso has published three documentaries with the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: Carbon Dioxide and the Climate Crisis: Reality or Illusion?, Carbon Dioxide and the Climate Crisis: Avoiding Plant and Animal Extinctions, and Carbon Dioxide and the Climate Crisis: Doing the Right Thing.
Sample publications include:
- “Enhanced or Impaired? Human Health in a CO2-Enriched Warmer World” (PDF). Nov, 2003. Co-authored with Sherwood and Keith Idso. Argues that global warming and an increase in atmospheric CO2 would be a boon to humanity.
- The Many Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment. Co-author with Sherwood Idso.
- “Climate Change Reconsidered”(PDF). The Heartland Institute. 2009. Craig Idso and Fred Singer were the lead authors of this report by the NIPCC.
- “Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years: A Reappraisal.” Energy and Environment. April 11, 2003. Co-authored with Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, and David R. Legates.
- “The Greening of Planet Earth Its Progression from Hypothesis to Theory.”January 1998. A report prepared for Western Fuels Association.
|Study||Study Date||Author(s)||Sample Media Mentions & Citations||Study Conclusion|
|“Physiological and ecological factors influencing recent trends in United States forest health responses to climate change,” Forest Ecology and Management||2016-03-01||Craig Loehle, Craig Idso, T. Bently Wigley||
|Craig D. Idso. “Stewardship and Sustainable Development in a World of Rising Atmospheric CO2: A Biblical Perspective on Humanity’s Relationship to the Biosphere” Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change||2015-07-10||Craig D. Idso||
“Indeed, even now, we may already be unknowing participants in the great plan, as our burning of
fossil fuels releases long-sequestered carbon to the atmosphere, awakening earth’s plant life from
the lethargy of the low CO2 concentrations under which it has basically slumbered throughout
the entire history of man. Let us deeply consider these matters—even prayerfully—before we
put forth our arm to steady the ark of God. He is clearly capable of doing His own work.”
|“Urban CO2 Dome (Phoenix, Arizona, USA),” Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change||1998||Craig D. Idso||
||“With respect to its influence on vegetation, the urban CO2 dome likely enhances the robustness of urban vegetation, given the well-documented fact that atmospheric CO2 enrichment tends to enhance plant growth rates and increase the efficiencies with which plants utilize water to produce organic matter.”
C.D. Idso and K.E. Idso. “Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: Where We Stand on the Issue,” C02Science (1998). Accessed January, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/lVVZV
C. D. Idso and K. E. Idso. “Energy, Carbon Dioxide and Earth's Future: Pursuing the Prudent Path,” Co2Science (1999). Accessed January, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/gSiKS
“Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report” (PDF), nipccreport.org. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.
“Climate Change Reconsidered” (PDF), nipccreport.org.
“Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts” (PDF), The Heartland Institute. Archived July 26, 2015.
“A New Study Says Benefits of Global Warming Greatly Exceed Costs,” American Thinker, March 25, 2014. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/2gMFB
“Heartland Institute NIPCC Climate Denier Craig Idso: 'Climate Change is Good For You,'” DeSmogBlog. April 8, 2014.
“Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmogBlog, July 7, 2014. Archived July 14, 2014.
Craig Idso. ”Heartland Institute Climate Experts Comment on 18 Straight Years of No Global Warming,” Heartland Institute, October 9, 2014. Archived October 16, 2014. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/nuCrS
Craig D. Idso. “Mr. President, CO2 Is Not Pollution, It’s the Elixir of Life,” Cato Institute. September 23, 2014. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/mrXrb
Neela Banerjee. “What's Behind ALEC's Denial That It Denies Climate Change?”, InsideClimate News, April 14, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/WlPQt
“Panel 9: Climate Change Reconsidered II: Human Welfare, Energy, and Policies with S. Fred Singer, Ph.D., Craig Idso, Ph.D., Christopher Monckton, and Bob Carter, Ph.D.,” Heartland Institute, June 12, 2015. Archived July 14, 2015.
(Press Release). “From The Heartland Institute: 'Why Scientists Disagree about Global Warming,' The NIPCC Report on Consensus,” PRWeb, November 30, 2015. Archived December 1, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/kmDpN
Craig D. Idso. “Stewardship and Sustainable Development in a World of Rising Atmospheric CO2: A Biblical Perspective on Humanity’s Relationship to the Biosphere” (PDF), Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, July 10, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“The Climate Surprise: Why CO2 is Good for the Earth,” CO2 Coalition, April 25, 2016. Archived May 7, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/BWkqz
“Abuse of Power: All Americans have the right to support causes they believe in” (PDF), Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Steve Horn. “Exxon's Lawyer in Climate Science Probe Has History Helping Big Tobacco and NFL Defend Against Health Claims,” DeSmogBlog, May 10, 2016. Archive.is URL:
“To: Energy Consumers,” (PDF - email communication), May 1, 2013. PDF archived at DeSmogBlog.
Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,”PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. Archive.IS URL: https://archive.is/DR5pv
“In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/QGKCb
Josh Harkinson. “No. 8: Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (A.K.A. The Idso Family),” Mother Jones, December 4, 2009. Archived October 2, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/GN6i1
“Cenospheres LLC,” Arizona Corporate Commission, Archived October 3, 2015. File Number L14490462.
“Dr Craig Idso - Volcania Radio,” YouTube Video by The Richie Allen Show, September 24, 2014.
Brendan DeMelle. “Heartland Institute Exposed: Internal Documents Unmask Heart of Climate Denial Machine,” Desmog, February 14, 2012.
“Confidential Memo: 2012 Heartland Climate Strategy” (PDF), Heartland Institute, January, 2012. PDF on file at DeSmogBlog.
Craig Idso. “Elevated CO2: A Key Driver of Global Greening Observations,” Cato at Liberty, June 30, 2016. Archived July 15, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/ITqkp
Craig Idso. “Pope Francis, Fossil Fuels Won’t Cause Armageddon,” The Federalist, September 19, 2014. Republished by the Cato Institute. Archived July 16, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/VH5w5
Jessica Orwig. “7 global warming 'sceptics' who are massively missing the point,” Business Insider, October 24, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/VH5w5
COALITION FOR RESPONSIBLE REGULATION, INC., ET AL. (Petitioners) v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND LISA P. JACKSON, ADMINISTRATOR, Respondents (PDF). Retrieved from World Climate Report. Archived.pdf on file at Desmog.
“Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report” (PDF), nipccreport.org.
Tom Harris and Dr. Tim Ball. “Senate Dems Get Irrational During 'Web of Denial' Climate Change Event,” PJ Media, July 20, 2016. Archived August 16, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/AcWBH
“The Clexit Committee comprises” (PDF), Clexit.net. Archived.pdf on file at Desmog.
“After Brexit, Clexit” (PDF), Clexit.net. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.
Graham Readfearn. “After Brexit, Climate Science Denialists Form New Group to Call for a Clexit,” Desmog, August 3, 2016.
“At the Crossroads III: Energy and Climate Policy Summit,” Heritage Foundation, December 8, 2016. Archived December 22, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/AKaKq
“Part 5 - At the Crossroads III: Energy and Climate Policy Summit,” YouTube video uploaded by user The Heritage Foundation, December 9, 2016.
“PETITION” (PDF), February 23, 2017. Richard Lindzen. PDF Archived at DeSmog.
Graham Readfearn. “Climate Science Denier Richard Lindzen's List of 300 “Scientists” Sent to Trump Is the Usual Parade of Non-Experts,” DeSmog, February 27, 2017.
“LIVE from Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) When Politics Meets Climate Forecasting with Tony Heller, Kathleen Hartnett White, and Craig Idso,” Facebook post by Energy & Environment Legal Institute, February 24, 2017. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.
“CPAC-2017-Agenda-Final” (PDF) CPAC.conservative.org, March 8, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
Graham Readfearn. “Australian Climate Denial Think Tank Picks Cat Author and Moonman Ken Ring as Climate Expert,” DeSmog, April 9, 2017.
“Register your interest now and be the first to hear about the publication of Climate Change: The Facts 2017,” Institute of Public Affairs. Archived April 10, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/kvAFK
“Dear Mr. President” (PDF), retrieved from Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
Graham Readfearn. “Conservative Groups Pushing Trump To Exit Paris Climate Deal Have Taken Millions From Koch Brothers, Exxon,” DeSmog, May 10, 2017.
Susanne Goldberg. “Conservative groups spend up to $1bn a year to fight action on climate change,” The Guardian, December 20, 2013. Archived May 12, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/TB2yy
“PRESS RELEASE: HEARTLAND INSTITUTE EXPERTS REACT TO EPA SCRAPPING THE CLEAN POWER PLAN,” The Heartland Institute, October 9, 2017. Archived October 10, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/B9m3e
Steve Horn. “Trump Names Climate Denier Kathleen Hartnett-White to Head White House Environmental Council,” DeSmog, October 13, 2017.
“An Audit Report on The Commission on Environmental Quality’s Enforcement and Permitting Functions for Selected Programs” (PDF), State Auditor's Office, December 2003.
James Osborne. “Trump officials to appear at Houston event hosted by climate skeptics,” Houston Chronicle, November 2, 2017. Archived November 20, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/XPtYc
“America First Energy Conference Stacked with Climate Change Deniers,” Climate Investigations Center, November 6, 2017. Archived November 20, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/mISrd
“At the Crossroads IV: Energy & Climate Policy Summit,” The Heritage Foundation, November 30, 2017. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/jmAfj
Robin Pogrebin and Somini Sengupta. “A Science Denier at the Natural History Museum? Scientists Rebel,” The New York Times, January 25, 2018. Archived February 13, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/tAIv4
Graham Readfearn. “Climate Science Deniers Defend New York’s American Museum of Natural History From Calls to Drop Trustee Rebekah Mercer,” DeSmog, February 6, 2018.
mnh18-feb4-petitionletter (PDF - Untitled). Retrieved from Watts Up With That.
“Press Release: Heartland Institute To Present Latest Climate Science In Poland During Cop-24,” The Heartland Institute, November 15, 2018. Archived December 6, 2018. Archive.is URL: http://archive.is/g3JUH