Craig Idso

Craig D. Idso


  • Ph.D., Geography, Arizona State University.
  • B.S., Geography, Arizona State University.
  • M.S., Agronomy, University of Nebraska - Lincoln. 

Source: [1]


Craig Idso is the Chairman and former President of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (AKA or CSCDGC). [1] The Center's stated mission is to “separate reality from rhetoric in the emotionally-charged debate that swirls around the subject of carbon dioxide and global change.” [46]

The CSCDGC ranked Number eight on a list of the “Dirty Dozen of Climate Change Denial” compiled by Mother Jones in 2009. [37]

The Center's publication is CO2 Science, a weekly magazine that features articles questioning the science behind man-made climate change. Craig's father Sherwood B. Idso is currently the President of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide on Global Change, while his brother, Keith Idso, is the Center's Vice President. [46][47]

According to leaked internal documents from the Heartland Institute in 2012, Craig Idso was receiving $11,600 a month from the Heartland Institute through his Center for the Study of CO2 & Global Change. [43][44]

Oil Industry Ties

Craig Idso served as Director of Environmental Science at Peabody Energy from 2001-2002 in St. Louis, MO. According to ExxonSecrets, Craig and Keith Idso produced a report for the Western Fuels Association titled “The Greening of Planet Earth Its Progression from Hypothesis to Theory” in January, 1998. [1][2]

Craig and Keith Idso have other ties to the Western Fuels Association. In October, 1999, they assisted in publishing a report for the Greening Earth Society (a group funded and controlled by Western Fuels) titled “Forecasting World Food Supplies: The Impact of the Rising Atmospheric CO2 Concentration,” as Idso announced in a separate CO2 Science article. [38]

The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD/PRWatch) reports that Idso's CSCDGC was also listed as a creditor in Peabody Energy's bankruptcy filings in 2016. [35] While the available bankruptcy documents do not list the scale or dates of funding, they outline Peabody Energy's financial ties to a large network of groups promoting climate change denial. [36]

In 2006, Craig Idso also incorporated Inc., a company serving the oilfield industry. According to the Arizona Corporation Commission, the company was dissolved in August, 2008. A similarly-named “Cenospheres LLC” was also incorporated in May of 2008 and run by Lance and Julene Idso until that corporation was dissolved in February of 2013. [39][40]

Despite the connections listed above, in a 2014 radio interview, Idso was asked if he had “any ties to any energy companies.” He responded: “No I don’t, actually.” [41]

Stance on Climate Change

The following are some of the key points made by the Center for Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: [3]

“A weak short-term correlation between CO2 and temperature proves nothing about causation.”

“Strong negative climatic feedbacks prohibit catastrophic warming.”

“Growth-enhancing effects of CO2 create an impetus for cooling.”

“There is no evidence for warming-induced increases in extreme weather.”

“Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are a boon to the biosphere.” 

“Atmospheric CO2 enrichment brings growth and prosperity to man and nature alike.”

Key Quotes 

August, 2016

“Forecasts of future pH come from unproven, theoretical postulations by models based on absorption of CO2 by the oceans. Regardless, there really is no such thing as a representative pH for the whole ocean. It varies vastly near the coast and in upwelling regions, much more than the projected increase in acidity.” [57]

June, 2016

“Despite a constant barrage of stories portraying rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) as a danger and threat to the planet, more and more scientific evidence is accruing showing that the opposite is true.” [50]

December, 2015

“Carbon dioxide is a well-known aerial fertilizer, and many thousands of studies have proven the growth-enhancing, water-saving and stress-alleviating benefits it provides for plants. The reality is that rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are providing a multitude of benefits to the biosphere.” [51]

July, 2015

“Indeed, even now, we may already be unknowing participants in the great plan, as our burning of fossil fuels releases long-sequestered carbon to the atmosphere, awakening earth’s plant life from the lethargy of the low CO2 concentrations under which it has basically slumbered throughout the entire history of man. Let us deeply consider these matters—even prayerfully—before we put forth our arm to steady the ark of God. He is clearly capable of doing His own work.” [28]

December, 2014

CO2 is not a pollutant. It is a benefit. It is the very elixer of life.” [19]

September, 2014

“As just one example, and a damning one at that, all of the computer models upon which this vision is based failed to predict the current plateau in global temperature that has continued for nearly two decades now. That the Earth has not warmed significantly during this period, despite an 8 percent increase in atmospheric CO2, is a major indictment of the models’ credibility in predicting future climate, as well as the assertion that debate on this topic is 'settled.'” [52]

“[I]t is a well-established fact that atmospheric CO2 is the major building block of nearly all life, as it is used by plants in the process of photosynthesis to construct their tissues and grow. As numerous scientific studies have conclusively demonstrated, the more CO2 there is in the air, the better plants grow. They produce greater amounts of biomass, become more efficient in using water, and are better able to cope with environmental stresses such as pollution, drought, salinity, and high temperatures.” [52]

“By ignoring these realities, policy prescriptions calling for a reduction in fossil fuel use are found—on this basis alone—to be ill-advised. Yet there are still other important reasons to reject them.” [52]

“Taxing or regulating CO2 emissions is an unnecessary and detrimental policy option that should be shunned. Why would any government or religious institution advocate to increase regulations and raise energy prices based on flawed computer projections of climate change that will never come to pass?” [52]

March, 2014

“Despite thousands of scientific articles affirming numerous benefits of rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2, IPCC makes almost no mention of any positive externalities resulting from such…Climate Change Reconsidered II corrects this failure, presenting an analysis of thousands of neglected research studies IPCC has downplayed or ignored in its reports so that scientists, politicians, educators, and the general public can be better informed and make decisions about the potential impacts of CO2-induced climate change.” [15]


The Industrial Revolution has been a tremendous boon to humanity, as it has lifted large numbers of our kind from poverty to prosperity.  It has also helped the rest of the biosphere - and thereby us once again - via the powerful aerial fertilization effect of the carbon dioxide that has gone into the atmosphere as a consequence of the burning of fossil fuels.  Indeed, it's been win, win, win for all of life; and if there's ever been a recipe for success, this is it.” [4]

Key Deeds

August, 2016

Craig Idso is listed as a “Founding Member” of group named Climate Exit (Clexit) led by climate change denier Christopher Monckton. According to Clexit's founding statement (PDF), “The world must abandon this suicidal Global Warming crusade. Man does not and cannot control the climate.” [61], [62]

Desmog reports on how the group grew in the wake of the UK's decision to leave the EU. A key member of Clexit's “60 well-informed science, business and economic leaders” is Hugh Morgan, a former board member of the Reserve Bank of Australia and former CEO of Western Mining Corporation with close ties to Australia's Liberal party. [63][64]

According to Clexit's founding statement

If the Paris climate accord is ratified, or enforced locally by compliant governments, it will strangle the leading economies of the world with pointless carbon taxes and costly climate and energy policies, all with no sound basis in evidence or science […]” [62]

July, 2016

Craig Idso responded to comments that Senator Ed Markey made on the Senate floor as part of the 2016 #WebOfDenial push. Markey had noted that the oceans are 30 percent more acidic today than they were before we started burning coal, a statement confirmed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). [59]

Idso's response was as follows, as reported in an article by Tom Harris and Tim Ball: [60]

“Projected future decline [in pH, a measure of a substance’s acidity] is based on a theoretical postulation by models based on absorption of CO2 by the oceans. Regardless, there really is no such thing as a representative pH for the whole ocean. It varies vastly near the coast and in upwelling regions, much more than the projected pH decline.” [60]

May 18, 2016

Craig Idso was a signatory to a full page color advertisement in The New York Times titled “Abuse of Power” (PDF) sponsored by The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI).  The ad serves as an open letter from 43 signatories including organizations and individuals in response to  New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, U.S. Virgin Islands Attorney General Claude Walker, and the coalition of Attorneys General investigating groups denying man-made climate change[30][31]

Attempts to intimidate CEI and our allies and silence our policy research are unconstitutional,” said CEI president Kent Lassman. “The First Amendment protects us and everyone has a duty to respect it – even state attorneys general.  CEI will continue to fight for all Americans to support the causes in which they believe.” [30]

The Competitive Enterprise Institute received a subpoena from AG Walker on April 7, 2016. On April 20, CEI filed an objection to the subpoena calling it “offensive,” “un-American,” and “unlawful,” and are contending that AG Walker is “violating CEI’s First Amendment rights.”  [30]

The “freedom of speech” argument was echoed by ExxonMobil's legal team, as well as numerous other conservative groups including the Pacific Legal Foundation, and Heritage Foundation and the recently-formed Free Speech in Science Project, a group created by the same lawyers who defended the Competitive Enterprise Institute in the past. [32]

The CEI letter lists the following signatories:

March 29, 2016

Craig Idso was a featured speaker at a conference titled “The Climate Surprise: Why CO2 Is Good for the Earth” hosted by the CO2 Coalition and The New Criterion in New York City. [29]

According to the event description, “Members of the CO2 Coalition and  many other experts argue that carbon dioxide enrichment of the atmosphere provides manifold benefits for humanity. And observed surface warmings are much smaller than predicted by climate models.  Economic models that fail to include the benefits  of CO2 and the serious exaggerations of climate models  and are being used to advocate 'cures' that are much worse than the non-existent disease.” [29]

Videos of the conference are available at The New Criterion's YouTube page. Featured speakers listed at the event included the following: [29]

December 14, 2015

Craig D. Idso wrote an article in the Washington Examiner titled “The Irrational Legacy of COP21.” According to idso, “One of the most bizarre claims to come out of the conference is the assertion that global temperatures must be kept from rising a mere seventy five-hundredths of a degree Celsius (0.75°C) above present day values […]” [51]

According to Idso, “Such a claim is preposterous. It exists only in the deranged output of computer model projections that are derived from the most extreme and frenzied future scenarios.” [51]

He calls COP21 “laughable” because “In their view, carbon dioxide is a perilous 'pollutant'.” Rather, Idso describes CO2 as a “well-known aerial fertilizer” and that “rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are providing a multitude of benefits to the biosphere.” [51]

November 30, 2015

Craig Idso is a co-author of a Heartland Institute/NIPCC book titled Why Scientists Disagree about Global Warming: The NIPCC Report on Consensus. The book was timed for release on the first day of the United Nations' twenty first conference of the parties (COP21) in Paris. 

According to the the Heartland Institute press release, The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change's book, “emphatically rejects claims of a 'scientific consensus' on the causes and consequences of climate change.”  [26]

Contrary to the book's premise, multiple studies and surveys have shown that 97 percent or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree that climate warming trends over the past century are due to human activities (NASA for example). [27]

Other authors include S. Fred Singer of the Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) and Bob Carter of the Institute for Public Affairs (IPA). The NIPCC itself is sponsored by the CSCDGCSEPP, and The Heartland Institute.  [26]

CSDGCIPA, and SEPP are all secretive about their funding sources. Still, available data at ExxonSecrets and the Conservative Transparency Project show they have received funding from ExxonMobilDonors Capital FundScaife, and Koch-related Foundations.

June 11-12, 2015

Craig Idso was a speaker on Panel 9: “Climate Change Reconsidered II: Human Welfare, Energy, and Policies,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with S. Fred Singer, Bob Carter, and Christopher Monckton. [23]

View Craig Idso’s Panel 9 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: [24]

December, 2014

As reported at Alec's Climate Change Denial, Craig Idso spoke at an American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) event, where he notably said that “CO2 is not a pollutant. It is a benefit. It is the very elixer of life.” [19]

This is a sentiment Craig Idso also shared in a September, 2014 article republished by the CATO institute titled “Mr. President, Co2 Is Not Pullition, It's the Elixer of Life.” [20], as well as on his website CO2 Science in an article he titles “The Deceit of Sustainability.” [21]

InsideClimate News reports Idso as saying that carbon-reduction policies are  “are unnecessary, unwise, and unwarranted,” during his time on stage at the ALEC conference.  “Instead of being shunned like the plague, the ongoing rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide should be welcomed with opened arms,” Idso also said. [22]

According to the Center for Media and Democracy, “Through ALEC, behind closed doors, corporations hand state legislators the changes to the law they desire that directly benefit their bottom line.” 

October 9, 2014

Craig Idso is quoted in the Heartland Institute's press release, “Heartland Institute Climate Experts Comment on 18 Straight Years of No Global Warming,” which states “the global mean surface temperature has not risen for 18 consecutive years. This extends the so-called 'pause' in global warming to a new record, one not predicted by the climate models of the United Nations' International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).” [18] Idso writes:

To the world’s climate alarmists, atmospheric carbon dioxide is a dangerous trace gas, and for years, they have been insisting its increase will raise global temperatures and wreak havoc upon Earth’s climate and biosphere. Yet, despite a 9 percent increase in CO2 over the past 18 years, there has been no rise in global temperature. Think about that. Over this time period the air’s CO2 content has risen some 40 parts per million, which represents fully one-third the total global CO2 increase since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, yet contrary to model projections, planetary temperatures have failed to rise.

It’s time for global warming die-hards to face the facts. Stop denying the models have got global temperature projections wrong. Stop denying CO2 has a lower climate sensitivity than you have been claiming. Stop denying the societal benefits of continued fossil fuel use. It’s not too late to make a course correction and support sound science.” [18]

July 7 - 9, 2014

Craig Idso was a speaker at the Heartland Institute’s Ninth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC9) in Las Vegas, Nevada. [17]

DeSmogBlog has done in-depth research on the other speakers and sponsors from Heartland's ICCC9, which can be found here.

Idso said “There is no dangerous human influence on Earth's climate from a rise in CO2.” [53]

March, 2014

Idso is a lead author of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change’s (NIPCC) report entitled, Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts, published by the Heartland Institute on March 31, 2014. Other lead authors include prominent deniers, Sherwood Idso and S. Fred Singer. [14]

The NIPCC report, contrary to the prestigious IPCC's report, found that climate change will be good for the world, and will have net benefits for both plants and human health. [16]

May 21 - 23, 2012

Craig Idso was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 7th International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC7).

DeSmogBlog researched the co-sponsors behind Heartland's ICCC7 and found that they had collectively received over $67 million from ExxonMobil, the Koch Brothers and the conservative Scaife family foundations.

September, 2011

Craig Idso is a lead author of the 2011 Interim Report (PDF) of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), published by the Heartland Institute. [5]

Other lead authors include prominent climate skeptics Robert M. Carter and S. Fred Singer. Other contributors included Joseph D‘Aleo, Indur Goklany, Sherwood Idso, Madhav Khandekar, Anthony Lupo, Willie Soon, and Mitch Taylor. [5]

August, 2011

According to SourceWatch, Idso was a featured speaker at the 2011 American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) Annual Meeting, speaking at a workshop initially titled “Warming Up to Climate Change: The Many Benefits of Increased Atmospheric CO2” but which was renamed “Benefit Analysis of CO2” [6]

He was joined by fellow climate skeptics Roger Helmer and Robert Ferguson. The workshop was hosted by ALEC's Energy, Environment and Agriculture Task Force.

June, 2011

Spoke at the Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. His speech was titled “Co2-Induced Global Warming: Is the IPCC Presenting an Honest Assessment of the Evidence?” [7]

May 27, 2011

Craig Idso was one of fourteen Amici, described as “well-qualified climate scientists,” who claimed that the “EPA's endangerment finding is not 'rational' and therefore arbitrary and capricious.”[56]

According to the petitioners, representing the Coalition for Responsible Regulation, Inc.:  [56]

“[T]he Earth's climate is not changing in an unusual or anomalous fashion. The EPA relied on instrumental data that were adjusted to exaggerate the increase in global temperatures.” [56]

Petitioners listed were:

May, 2010

Spoke at the Heartland Institute's Fourth International conference on Climate Change. His speech was titled “Quantifying the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Organisms.” [7]

June 2, 2009

Craig Idso was a leading author of the first Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) report, titled “Climate Change Reconsidered” (PDF), published by the Heartland Institute. His co-author was climate skeptic Fred Singer.

Contributors included numerous other prominent climate change skeptics: [8]

March 30, 2009

Idso's signature is displayed alongside a full-page ad funded by the CATO institute that appeared in numerous newspapers including the Washington Post, the New York Times and the Chicago Tribune in 2009.

The advertisement criticizes President Obama's declaration that “few challenges facing America and the world are more urgent than combating climate change,” saying that “with all due respect Mr. President, that is not true.” It goes on to describe how “there has been no net global warming for over a decade,” and that the dangers of global warming are “grossly overstated.” [12]

March, 2009

Spoke at the Heartland Institute's 2009 International Conference on Climate Change.  His speech was titled “Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming and Coral Reefs: Prospects and the Future.” [7]

November, 2003

Co-authored a report entitled “Enhanced or Impaired? Human Health in a CO2-Enriched Warmer World” (PDF) with his father Sherwood Idso and brother Keith Idso.

The report argues that global warming and an increase in atmospheric CO2 would be a boon to humanity.



As of 2013 (see PDF), Craig Idso had an email address associated with [33]

The now-defunct website appeared to have been a project of Frank Clemente and Mark P. Mills. The website focuses on the benefits of fossil fuels, especially coal. For example, an archived version of Clemente's website describes coal as “the path out of poverty” for Southeast Asia and developing countries. [34]


*The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global change responded to the question of whether they were funded by the Western Fuels Association as follows:

“In spite of what you think, you could be wrong.  But as we do not divulge this information, you may also continue to think that you are right.  In either case, we are not inclined to confirm or deny your conclusion…”


Idso has published three documentaries with the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: Carbon Dioxide and the Climate Crisis: Reality or Illusion?, Carbon Dioxide and the Climate Crisis: Avoiding Plant and Animal Extinctions, and Carbon Dioxide and the Climate Crisis: Doing the Right Thing.

Sample publications include:

Idso has also published many of his articles on skeptical science blogs including Climate Realists as well as Patrick J. Michaels' World Climate Report (sample articles here and here). [54], [55]

Other Studies

Study Study Date Author(s) Sample Media Mentions & Citations Study Conclusion
Physiological and ecological factors influencing recent trends in United States forest health responses to climate change,” Forest Ecology and Management 2016-03-01 Craig Loehle, Craig Idso, T. Bently Wigley
  • “We found that trees are tolerant of rising temperatures and have responded to rising carbon dioxide.
  • No long-term trends in US drought have been found in the literature.
  • CO2 tends to inhibit forest pests and pathogens.
  • Projections of forest response to climate change are highly variable.”
Craig D. Idso. “Stewardship and Sustainable Development in a World of Rising Atmospheric CO2: A Biblical Perspective on Humanity’s Relationship to the Biosphere” Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change 2015-07-10 Craig D. Idso
“Indeed, even now, we may already be unknowing participants in the great plan, as our burning of
fossil fuels releases long-sequestered carbon to the atmosphere, awakening earth’s plant life from
the lethargy of the low CO2 concentrations under which it has basically slumbered throughout
the entire history of man. Let us deeply consider these matters—even prayerfully—before we
put forth our arm to steady the ark of God. He is clearly capable of doing His own work.”
Urban CO2 Dome (Phoenix, Arizona, USA),” Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change 1998 Craig D. Idso “With respect to its influence on vegetation, the urban CO2 dome likely enhances the robustness of urban vegetation, given the well-documented fact that atmospheric CO2 enrichment tends to enhance plant growth rates and increase the efficiencies with which plants utilize water to produce organic matter.”


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  3. C.D. Idso and K.E. Idso. “Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: Where We Stand on the Issue,” C02Science (1998). Accessed January, 2012. URL

  4. C. D. Idso and K. E. Idso. “Energy, Carbon Dioxide and Earth's Future: Pursuing the Prudent Path,” Co2Science (1999). Accessed January, 2012. URL

  5. “Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report” (PDF), Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

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  7. Craig D. Idso, PH.D.”, International Conference on Climate Change. Archived November 12, 2011. URL

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  11. Personnel: SPPI Personnel 2012,” Accessed January, 2012. URL

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  14. “Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts” (PDF)The Heartland Institute. Archived July 26, 2015.

  15. A New Study Says Benefits of Global Warming Greatly Exceed Costs,” American Thinker, March 25, 2014. URL

  16. Heartland Institute NIPCC Climate Denier Craig Idso: 'Climate Change is Good For You,'” DeSmogBlog. April 8, 2014.

  17. Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmogBlog, July 7, 2014. Archived July 14, 2014.

  18. Craig Idso. ”Heartland Institute Climate Experts Comment on 18 Straight Years of No Global Warming,” Heartland Institute, October 9, 2014. Archived October 16, 2014. URL

  19. Their Speakers,” Archived August 16, 2016. URL

  20. Craig D. Idso. “Mr. President, CO2 Is Not Pollution, It’s the Elixir of Life,” Cato Institute. September 23, 2014. URL:

  21. Craig Idso. “The Deceit of Sustainability,” Co2 Science,  Volume 3, Number 5 (March 1, 2000). Accessed June 1, 2015. URL

  22. Neela Banerjee. “What's Behind ALEC's Denial That It Denies Climate Change?”, InsideClimate News, April 14, 2015. URL

  23. Speakers,” Heartland Institute. Archived June 30, 2015. URL

  24. Panel 9: Climate Change Reconsidered II: Human Welfare, Energy, and Policies with S. Fred Singer, Ph.D., Craig Idso, Ph.D., Christopher Monckton, and Bob Carter, Ph.D.,” Heartland Institute, June 12, 2015. Archived July 14, 2015.

  25. About,” Co2Coalition. Archived September 4, 2015. URL

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  27. Scientific consensus: Earth's climate is warming,” NASA. Archived December 1, 2015. URL

  28. Craig D. Idso. “Stewardship and Sustainable Development in a World of Rising Atmospheric CO2: A Biblical Perspective on Humanity’s Relationship to the Biosphere” (PDF), Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, July 10, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  29. The Climate Surprise: Why CO2 is Good for the Earth,” CO2 Coalition, April 25, 2016. Archived May 7, 2016. URL

  30. CEI Runs “Abuse of Power” Ad In New York Times,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 18, 2016. Archived May 31, 2016. URL:

  31. “Abuse of Power: All Americans have the right to support causes they believe in” (PDF), Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. 

  32. Steve Horn. “Exxon's Lawyer in Climate Science Probe Has History Helping Big Tobacco and NFL Defend Against Health Claims,” DeSmogBlog, May 10, 2016. URL

  33. “To: Energy Consumers,” (PDF - email communication), May 1, 2013. PDF archived at DeSmogBlog.

  34. Home,” Archived May 17, 2014. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. URL

  35. Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,”PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. Archive.IS URL:

  36. In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud. URL

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  38. Give Peace a Chance by Giving Plants a Chance,” CO2Science, Volume 2, Number 19 (October 1, 1999). Archived October 2, 2015. URL

  39. CENOSPHERES.NET,INC.,” Arizona Corporate Commission, Archived Oct 2, 2011. File Number -1278591-0. URL

  40. Cenospheres LLC,” Arizona Corporate Commission, Archived October 3, 2015. File Number L14490462.

  41. Dr Craig Idso - Volcania Radio,” YouTube Video by The Richie Allen Show, September 24, 2014.

  42. CFACT Board of Advisors,” Archived July 13, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. URL

  43. Brendan DeMelle. “Heartland Institute Exposed: Internal Documents Unmask Heart of Climate Denial Machine,” Desmog, February 14, 2012.

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  45. Mission Statement,” CO2Science. Archived October 3, 2015. URL

  46. President,” CO2 Science. Archived July 15, 2016. URL

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  51. Craig Idso. “The Irrational Legacy of COP21,” The Washington Examiner. Republished by the Cato Institute, December 14, 2016. Archived July 15, 2016. URL

  52. Craig Idso. “Pope Francis, Fossil Fuels Won’t Cause Armageddon,” The Federalist, September 19, 2014. Republished by the Cato Institute. Archived July 16, 2016. URL

  53. Jessica Orwig. “7 global warming 'sceptics' who are massively missing the point,” Business Insider, October 24, 2015. URL

  54. Craig D. Idso. “Made in the Shade,” World Climate Report Vol 3. No. 11. URL:

  55. Craig D. Idso. “Pumped-Up Pines, Oversized Oaks,” Greening Up, Vol. 3, No. 7. URL

  56. COALITION FOR RESPONSIBLE REGULATION, INC., ET AL. (Petitioners) v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND LISA P. JACKSON, ADMINISTRATOR, Respondents (PDF). Retrieved from World Climate Report. Archived.pdf on file at Desmog.

  57. OPINION: Of Course, the Climate is Changing,” Pagosa Daily Post, August 5, 2016. Archived August 15, 2016. URL:

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  59. What is Ocean Acidification?NOAA. Archived August 16, 2016. URL:

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  62. After Brexit, Clexit” (PDF), Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  63. Graham Readfearn. “After Brexit, Climate Science Denialists Form New Group to Call for a Clexit,” Desmog, August 3, 2016.

  64. Hugh Morgan AO,” Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived February 22, 2002. URL