Friends of Science (FoS)
Friends of Science (FoS) is a Canadian non-profit group based in Calgary, Alberta, “comprised mainly of active and retired earth and atmospheric scientists, engineers, and other professionals” whose main concern is what they describe as “the abuse of science displayed in the politically inspired Kyoto protocol.”
FoS lists their goal as “To educate the public about climate science and through them bring pressure to bear on governments to engage in public debates on the scientific merits of the hypothesis of human induced global warming and the various policies that intend to address the issue.” 
In a January 28, 2007 article in the Toronto Star titled “Who's still cool on global warming?” the President of the FOS admitted that about one-third of the funding for the FOS is provided by the oil industry. 
In an August 2006 Globe and Mail feature, the FOS was exposed for hiding the fact that they were funded in part by the oil and gas sector. According to the Globe and Mail, the oil industry money was funnelled through the Calgary Foundation charity, to the University of Calgary and then put into an education trust for the FOS. 
Stance on Climate Change
The Friends of Science Society Position Statement (PDF) on climate change is reproduced below: 
“Our goal is to educate the public about climate science and through thembring pressure to bear on governments to engage in public debates on thescientific merits of the hypothesis of human induced global warming andthe various policies that intend to address the issue.While FoS does not do any original scientific research, it draws on theworldwide body of work by scientists in all fields relating to globalclimate change.It is our opinion that the Sun is the main direct and indirect driver ofclimate change.Variations in solar activity and cosmic rays correlate to temperature muchbetter than CO2. This may be because an electro-magnetically active sundiverts cosmic rays from hitting the atmosphere. Cosmic rays have beenshown experimentally to assist in cloud formation. Fewer cosmic raysresult in reduced low cloud cover, which allows more sunlight to warm theEarth’s surface.The United Nations - IPCC reports have been misrepresented by the nonscientificIPCC bureaucrats in preparing the Summary-for-Policy-Makers.Recent research casts doubt on historical data used by the IPCC. Urbaneffects have contaminated surface temperature data. Some measured CO2levels of the past 180 years appear to be in excess of present levels.Current climate computer models are unsuitable for making reliableclimate forecasts mainly because they assume without justification thatCO2 is the major driver of climate. The cosmic ray effects on clouds areignored. The input assumptions are adjusted to make the temperatureprojections match recent temperature trends, thereby grossly exaggeratingthe effects of CO2 on the climate. The models, in response to CO2, predicta distinctive temperature profile in the atmosphere, which is totally absentfrom the observational record. “
- “The earth is cooling.”
- “The Sun causes climate change.”
- “Al Gore was wrong about CO2.”
- “Violent weather isn’t getting worse.”
- “It's been hotter.”
- “Climate computer models are proven wrong.”
“Public support for an alarmist driven agenda has been waning as evidence for a warming atmosphere has not materialized. But still Canadian media such as the CBC and the Globe & Mail continue to stress the coming climate disasters: rising sea levels, greater incidence of malaria, extensive droughts, etc….The Friends have lobbied politicians in an attempt to encourage a debate between the two sides of the climate change issue. But we have failed. It has become clear that our “leaders” are reluctant to adopt a stance which they fear is politically incorrect. If change is to be accomplished it must be driven by the “man on the street”. We won’t change the way politicians act until we change what the majority of Canadians believe.The Friends feel that steps should be taken to make the Canadian public better aware of actual climatic events which render IPCC predictions unacceptable as a basis for government policy. To that end we are planning two projects: a Canada-wide speaking tour by Lord Christopher Monckton and a radio blitz which will direct the listener to the Friends of Science web page.” 
The Globe and Mail reported that FoS has taken undisclosed sums from Alberta oil and gas interests. The money was funneled through the Calgary Foundation, to the University of Calgary and on to the FOS though something called the “Science Education Fund.” 
In the course of an internal review and audit begun in March of 2007, the University determined that some of the research funds accepted on behalf of the Friends of Science “had been used to support a partisan viewpoint on climate change” and had returned unspent grant money on September 10, 2007, according to a Calgary Foundation statement (PDF).
As a consequence, the University advised FoS “that it would no longer accept funds on the organization's behalf”, according to an email from University legal counsel Elizabeth Osler sent on December 24, 2007 (PDF)
On February 17, 2008, CanWest News Service reported that UofC officials had shut down Cooper's “'Research on Climate Change' trust account”, and were about to advise Elections Canada of the University's ongoing review of the matter. 
SourceWatch also provides a grant history of the Calgary Foundation (PDF).
- Warren Blair — President, Friends of Science
- Ian Cameron — Director, Friends of Science
- Ken Gregory — Past Director, Friends of Science
- Michelle Stirling-Anosh — Communications Manager 
Scientific Advisory Board
Members of the Friends of Science Scientific Advisory Board, last recorded as of July 2014 were: 
The Friends of Science no longer appear to list a Scientific Advisory Board on their website.
Past Members, Scientific Advisory Board:
- Len Maier — Past President Friends of Science
- Ken Gregory — Past Director, Friends of Science
- Ian Cameron — Director, Friends of Science
- Douglas Leahey — Past President Friends of Science (June 2011 newsletter — PDF)
- Chuck Simpson — Past Director Friends of Science (March, 2011 — PDF)
SourceWatch documented the FoS Board as of May 1st 2007:
- Douglas Leahey — President.
- Eric Loughead — Vice President
- Giles Wilderman — Secretary
- Lloyd Flood — Treasurer
- John Leeson
- Leonard F. Maier
- William Howell
- Norm Kalmanovitch
- Charles Simpson — Past President.
Morten Paulsen of the international PR and lobby firm, Fleishmann-Hillard, was listed as the media contact for the Friends of Science until July, 2006. 
Paulsen was senior vice president and general manager of Fleishman-Hillard Canada, and was also a “spokesperson for the Conservative party in the last federal election and co-chaired the 2006 Alberta Provincial PC Convention.” He was registered as a lobbyist for the Friends of Science as well as two oil and gas companies in 2006 along with his associate at Fleishmann-Hillard, Bryon Thomas. 
FoS “Annual Luncheon”
Friends of Science have a “annual luncheon,” often hosted by prominent climate change skeptics promoting the view that man-made carbon dioxide emissions are not contributing to climate change taking place in Calgary, Alberta.
Chris de Freitas is an Associate Professor at the School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Auckland. He is best known for his role as editor of the Climate Research journal where a number of questionable papers were published that caused the resignation of several editors.
June 13, 2016
When asked, Friends of Science communication manager Michelle Stirling said she was unaware of the connection:
“That would be news to us,” wrote Michelle Stirling, in an email response to a query about the funding from National Observer. Stirling said she would need to review the document, which she believes was filed by a party other than Peabody, and said the filing could be a “spurious attempt” to connect the Friends of Science to the coal company: “Until I review the full document and check the source I can't say much more.” 
Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie Soon, Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for Prosperity, American Legislative Exchange Council, CFACT, Institute for Energy Research, State Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. 
“These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”
The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]
Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]
“The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.
“We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”
Notable organizations listed in the initial documents include:
- 60 Plus Association
- The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity
- American Energy Alliance
- Alliance For Energy And Economic Growth
- American Energy Alliance
- American Legislative Exchange Council
- Americans For Prosperity Oklahoma
- Atlas Economic Research Foundation
- Berman And Company, Inc
- Consumer Energy Alliance
- Center For Clean Air Policy
- Center for Energy and Economic Development
- Center For The Study Of Carbon Dioxide And Global Change
- Coalition for Responsible Regulation
- Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow
- Council on State Taxation
- DCI Group AZ, LLC
- Ducks Unlimited
- Energy & Environment Legal Institute
- Edison Electric Institute
- Franklin Center for Government and Public Integrity
- Free Market Environmental Law Clinic
- Frontiers Of Freedom Institute
- George C. Marshall Institute
- Hill Knowlton Strategies
- Hill Knowlton, Inc
- Hudson Institute
- Hunton & Williams
- Independence Institute
- Institute For Energy Research
- Institute for Liberty
- National Association of Manufacturers
- National Black Chamber of Commerce
- National Conference of State Legislatures
- National Mining Association
- National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
- National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
- NextGen Energy Council
- PACE (May refer to Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy)
- Science & Public Policy Institute
- Sidley Austin LLP
- State Policy Network
- Texas Conservative Coalition Research Institute
- Texas Public Policy Foundation
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce
- Western Business Roundtable
Notable individuals named in the initial documents include the following:
December 13, 2015
Writing as a guest blogger on Watts Up With That, CFACT's executive director Craig Rucker denounced the latest UN climate change agreement: 
“This agreement will not meaningfully alter the temperature of the Earth, even under the U.N.’s own computer models.
“The bad news is that it plants the seeds of a new UN climate regime that left unchecked will swell into a bureaucratic behemoth.”
“Both wind and solar require vast quantities of exotic materials and oil, coal and natural gas for the creation of the turbines and panels,” says Michelle Stirling, Communications Manager for Friends of Science Society. “Robert Lyman’s report demonstrates there is no magical replacement for hydrocarbons and the carbon risk has been exaggerated.” “The alleged ‘carbon risk’ related to climate change has been exaggerated,” says Stirling. 
“Canadian premiers will converge on Quebec City April 14, 2015 to discuss climate change policies and Friends of Science want them to make decisions based on evidence, not emotional climate change rhetoric like that of numerous eco-groups that are planning mass demonstrations on April 11th, as reported by CTV Montreal, March 15, 2015.” 
The Friends of Science targeted the Alberta Wilderness Association, having supporters write to the Canadian Revenue Agency. Global News Edmonton reported (“Friends of Science tackle Alberta Wilderness Association”). 
“We think there are some questions that should be asked of the CRA,” Friends of Science spokeswoman Michelle Stirling said.
This was in response to the Association's refusal to print a rebuttal article by FoS in the Wilderness Association's newsletter. The Wilderness Association had previously published an article critical of a billboard rented by the FoS (pictured at the top of this entry) where the FoS said the sun was the cause of climate change as opposed to greenhouse gas emissions.
“Groups like the Friends of Science prey on our values and comforts,” said the Wilderness Association article.“They tell our luxury Lexus LX 570, 5.7L SUV owner, as she speeds by the billboard driving the kids to school, that all is well. To follow this group’s message will deliver this and future generations a fate no better than that of the children who followed the Pied Piper of Hamelin.”
“The Sun is the main driver of climate change. Not you. Not CO2,” the billboard reads. The FoS billboard was also criticized by Slate in an article titled “With Friends Like These.” 
John Bennett at the Sierra Club of Canada describes the billboards as a “classic disinformation campaign to counter important global talks on reducing greenhouse gas emissions that got underway this week in Lima, Peru.” 
The wilderness association filed a complaint of its own against Friends of Science president Len Maier with the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Albertas. Urquhart said Maier has distorted the results of studies contrary to professional ethics.
FoS ran a “radio advertisement blitz” in 15 Canadian cities with the purpose being to “… demonstrate the futility of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions… .that global warming stopped about 10 years ago, and that the Sun is the primary cause of climate change.” 
September 29 - October 8, 2009
Friends of Science, in association with the Frontier Centre for Public policy (FCPP), sponsored Lord Christopher Monckton's cross-Canada speaking tour (See FoS PDF Brochure) from September 28 to October 8, 2009. 
September 22, 2006
FoS sponsored Tim Ball's presentation at a Conservative party gathering in Victoria. “The breakfast speech was organized by Conservative electoral district associations in Victoria, Esquimalt-Juan de Fuca, and [Natural Resources Minister Gary] Lunn's Saanich-Gulf Islands riding.” 
August 12, 2006
A Globe and Mail feature article by Charles Montgomery, titled “Mr Cool,” revealed that the Friends of Science had taken undisclosed sums of money from Alberta oil and gas interests.
According to the Globe and Mail, the oil industry money was funnelled through the Calgary Foundation charity, to the University of Calgary and then put into an education trust for the FOS. 
Tom Harris of the High Park Group arranged a meeting between Tim Ball and federal conservatives in Ottawa where Ball “gave his slide show to a half-dozen federal Conservative MPs and a clutch of Tory staffers.” 
According to a May, 2006 FoS newsletter (PDF), Tim Ball made “an eye opening presentation … to members of the Alberta PC Calgary Caucus … The Calgary Caucus is an influential body, and we were pleased that several Ministers, including Energy Minister Greg Melchin, were in attendance. That presentation on the lack of science underlying Kyoto has lead to another presentation to be held this month in Edmonton to the Standing Policy Committee on Energy.” 
Before and during the 2006 Canadian federal election campaign, the Friends of Science ran a series of anti-Kyoto radio ads targeted at key Ontario ridings.
The ads were funded through the Calgary Foundation and a University of Calgary “climate change research” trust fund controlled by professor Barry Cooper.
The January, 2006 FoS newsletter (PDF) describes the campaign:
“Our campaign is working. Before and during the election, Friends bought radio advertising in 5 major Ontario markets. Our message was that voters have not been given the facts on climate change, and that candidates need to be questioned on their intentions to spend billions on global warming theories…
“The response was intense. Some radio stations faced pro-Kyoto interest groups who actually demanded that our ads be pulled! We received a great deal of hostile mail from activists stunned that we would challenge the pro-Kyoto status quo. At the same time though, positive mail poured in, and hits to our website soared into the stratosphere. We registered over 300,000 hits to our website in the first 12 days of January alone.” 
FoS released a video directed by Mike Visser entitled “Climate Catastrophe Canceled” in conjunction with Professor Barry Cooper of the Politics Department of the University of Calgary. A second version of the video was released on September 13, 2007. FoS has stated that it “invested $400,000” into the video Climate Catastrophe Cancelled. 
The PR contact is listed as Sheila Roy of APCO Worldwide Canada. 
The video was funded through the Calgary Foundation and the University of Calgary, and it was revealed that one of the largest donors was Talisman Energy.
The video features among others:
Sallie L. Baliunas (credited as being from Tech Central Station)
Prof. Tim Patterson
Feb 10, 2005
Charles Simpson, President of Friends of Science at the time, and Tim Patterson appeared as expert witnesses before the House of commons Standing Committee on the Environment and Sustainable Development.
The FoS witnesses testified that Kyoto should not be implemented “until a national public scientific debate has been held on the science underlying climate change,” because their view is that “the curent scientific evidence” suggests climate change is naturally caused. 
Friends of Science Contact & Location
Friends of Science Society
P.O. Box 23167, Mission Post Office
Calgary, AB T2S 3B1
- Envirotruth - FOS has significant overlap with the skeptics who run the Envirotruth website.
- Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP) - DeSmogBlog noted similarities and overlap between the now-defunct Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP) and FoS. 
- The Frontier Center for Public Policy (FCPP) - As reported at DeepClimate, the FCPP received funding from the Calgary Foundation around the same time as Friends of Science. The Frontier Centre was also involved in the last two Friends of Science annual luncheons. Frontier president Peter Holle introduced featured speaker Patrick Michaels at the 2008 event. And in 2009, at a luncheon featuring Tim Ball, free copies of Alberta geologist Bruno Wiskel’s book “The Emperor's New Climate” were given out to attendees, courtesy of The Frontier Centre. 
“About Us,” Friends of Science. Archived October 24, 2011.
Peter Gorrie. “Who's still cool on global warming?“ The Star. January 28, 2007. Archived June 18, 2015.
“Mr. Cool: Nurturing doubt about climate change is big business,” Globe and Mail, Aug 12, 2006. Republished at Charles Montgomery journalist. Archived May 3, 2011.
“Friends of Science Society Position Statement” (PDF), Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.
Homepage, Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.
“Friends of Science,” SourceWatch Profile.
“Elections Canada to investigate anti-Kyoto group,” Canwest News Service. Republished at Canada.com, February 17, 2008. Archived July, 2014.
“SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY BOARD,” Friends of Science. Archived July 2, 2014.
“Scientific Advisory Board,” Friends of Science. Archived July 15, 2007.
“FOS MEMBERSHIP QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER No. 45 (PDF),” Friends of Science, March 2015. Archived June 18, 2015.
“Contact Us,” Friends of Science. Archived January 16, 2006.
“Anti-Kyoto campaigner volunteer member of Tory election team,” Canwest News Service. February 21, 2008. Published at Canada.com. Archived June 18, 2015.
“New Friends of Science Climate Change Billboards Welcome Montreal Grand Prix Revellers,” PRWEB (Press Release) June 5, 2015. Archived June 19, 2015.
“Friends of Science ask NASA to Revise 97% Consensus Statements on Climate Change and Global Warming,” PR Web, March 3, 2015. Archived August 13, 2015.
“FRIENDS OF SCIENCE ASK PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES TO RETRACT LEWANDOWSKY PAPER,” Friends of Science. Archived June 19, 2015.
Bob Weber. “Friends of Science tackle Alberta Wilderness Association,” Global News. November 14, 2014. Archived June 18, 2015.
Phil Plait. “With Friends Like These…“ Slate. June 12, 2014. Archived June 18, 2015.
John Bennet. “Here comes the sun, but I say…” John Bennett's Blog (Sierra Club of Canada, December 4, 2014. Archived June 18, 2015.
“Friends of Science 2009 Radio Ads,” Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.
“Lord Christopher Monckton Canadian Tour,” Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.
“Buybkes.” RealClimate, June 26, 2009. Archived May 9, 2015.
“EPA's Alan Carlin channels Patrick Michaels and the Friends of Science,” Deep Climate. June 28, 2009. Archived September 4, 2014.
“Minister distances self from global-warming skeptic,” Canwest News Service, September 22, 2006. Archived June 18, 2015.
“FOS Membership Quarterly Newsletter No. 10 (May, 2006)” (PDF), Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.
“FOS Membership Quarterly Newsletter No. 9 (January, 2006),” Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.
“Friends Of Science Critiques The Evidence For Man-Made Climate Change,” Daily Oil Bulletin. June 12, 2006. Archived June 16, 2006.
“Climate Catastrophe Cancelled: What You're Not Being Told About the Science of Climate Change,” Friends of Science. Archived December 20, 2005.
Richard Littlemore. “Discredited Friends of Science Re-emerge as the Natural Resources Stewardship Project,” DeSmogBlog, October 12, 2006.
“Friends of Science: They’re back!“ Deep Climate. July 16, 2009. Archived June 18, 2015.
“The F-Word in Quebec Premier's climate change hypocrisy” (PDF), Troy Media, July 27, 2015. Archived January 25, 2016. Retrieved from friendsofscience.org. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“Friends of Science Report 'Why Renewable Energy Cannot Replace Fossil Fuels by 2050' Will Shock Green Investors and Challenges the Grantham Climate Change Risk Scenario,” PRWeb, June 9, 2016. Archived June 14, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iGX7rDbw
“WHY RENEWABLE ENERGY CANNOT REPLACE FOSSIL FUELS BY 2050” (PDF) Friends of Science, May 30, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,” PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iPmXjc4W
Charles Mandel. “Canadian Climate Denial Group, Friends of Science, Named as Creditor in Coal Giant's Bankruptcy Files,” DeSmogBlog, June 20, 2016. Originally published at the National Observer.
“In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud.
Farron Cousins. “Court Documents Show Coal Giant Peabody Energy Funded Dozens Of Climate Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, June 13, 2016.
Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iPnEUG1o
“Friends of Science: Articles,” SourceWatch.