Frontiers of Freedom (FoF)
Frontiers of Freedom (FoF) is a 501(C)4 nonprofit organization founded in 1995 by U.S. Senator Malcolm Wallup. It describes itself as an educational foundation with the mission “to promote the principles of individual freedom, peace through strength, limited government, free enterprise, free markets, and traditional American values as found in the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.” 
Frontiers of Freedom, Inc. does business as “Frontiers of Freedom,” a 501(C)4 nonprofit which is tax-exempt but can't accept tax-deductible donations, and also maintains a separate “educational organization” called the Frontiers of Freedom Institute that operates under section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code.  In their original mission statement, the Frontiers of Freedom described themselves as “the antithesis to the Sierra Club and Vice President Al Gore's Earth in the Balance.” 
In 2002, Frontiers of Freedom released “Ten Tenets” as their mission statement. Their ninth tenet reads as follows (emphasis added) “To remove sound science from public policy is legislative and regulatory malpractice. To employ junk science in public policy is unethical and irresponsible.” Notably, the term “Junk Science” was often used by by Steve “The Junkman” Milloy. 
Frontiers of Freedom (FoF) maintains a number of “Centers” on their website including the Center for Constitutional and Political Studies, Center for Economic Liberty and Property Rights, Center for National Security, Center for Science and Public Policy, and Reagan Legacy. 
Stance on Climate Change
“Many scientists are predicting the onset of two or three centuries of cooler weather — which would mean bigger glaciers. That’s despite the world’s growing use of fossil fuels. No matter what humans do, temperature trends go up, and then down; glaciers expand and then recede; sea levels rise and then fall, explains Will Happer, professor emeritus of physics at Princeton.” 
- Cliff D. Ollier
- Craig Idso
- Christopher Monkton
- William Kininmonth
- Nigel Lawson
- Senator James Inhofe
- Richard S. Courtney
- Chris Horner
“The Earth's climate has changed many times with many cooling phases and many warming phases. The Earth’s current modest warming trend (less than 1 degree C over 100 years), is well within historical norms.” 
“Climate has always varied, often with large swings. […] These dramatic climatic ebbs and flows are naturally occurring events. A more appropriate response to potential climate change is the production and employment of resources toward meaningful adaptation strategies.” 
Frontiers of Freedom Institute is the 501(c)(3) arm of FoF. The other arm, Frontiers of Freedom, Inc., is a 501(c)4 organization and so is not required to publicly list their donors. According to the IRS, 501(c)4 organizations are also permitted to attempt to influence legislation, and participate in political campaigns or elections. , 
The following is compiled from data the Conservative Transparency Project collected from publicly available 990 tax forms for Frontiers of Freedom, Inc. 
View the attached spreadsheet for additional information on Frontiers of Freedom Funding by year (.xlsx).
|Frontiers of Freedom||Frontiers of Freedom Institute|
|Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation||$175,000|
|John M. Olin Foundation||$125,000|
|Sarah Scaife Foundation||$100,000|
|The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation||$100,000|
|Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation||$75,000|
|The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation||$48,450|
|The Carthage Foundation||$35,000|
|William H. Donner Foundation||$35,000|
|The Roe Foundation||$7,500|
|The Randolph Foundation||$25,000|
|Year||Charles Koch Foundation||Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation||Grand Total|
|Aaron Lee||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Director of Special Projects|
|Amanda E. Telford||Y||Y||Director of Operations|
|Amrita Singh||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Director of Publications|
|Ashley Abbot||Y||Director of Operations|
|Belinda Rankin||Y||Y||Y||Vice President - External Relations|
|Christa Floresca||Y||Y||Director of Development|
|Christopher C. Horner||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||General Counsel and Senior Policy Adviser|
|George C. Landrith||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||President and CEO|
|Ibtihal Khidir||Y||Y||Associate Fellow|
|Jason Wright||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President|
|Kerri Houston||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Vice President of Policy|
|Kimberly A. Martin||Y||Y||Director of Development|
|L. Francis Bouchey||Y||Y||Adjunct Fellow|
|Marie Volcy||Y||Director of Operations|
|Miklos K. Radvanyi||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Executive Vice President|
|Paul Georgia||Y||Y||Y||Y||Chief Economist|
|Peter Roff||Y||Y||Senior Fellow|
|Ric Costales||Y||Pacific Region President, Chairman of the National Policy Board|
|S. Fred Singer||Y||Y||Y||Y||Adjunct Fellow|
|Scott L. Vanatter||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Executive Vice President|
|Shawn Macomber||Y||Y||Visiting Fellow|
|Travis Korson||Y||Y||Director of Communications|
George C. Landrith
George C. Landrith, President and CEO of Frontiers of Freedom, previously served as the Vice President and General Counsel to the National Legal Center for the Public Interest (now associated with the American Enterprise Institute.)
Peter Roff was the political director of Newt Gingrich’s GOPAC.
- Myron Ebell — former Policy Director (1996 - 1999) 
- Paul Driessen — Senior Fellow (as of May, 2005) 
- Robert Ferguson — Past Executive Director, FoF's Center for Science and Public Policy 
- Willie Soon — “Chief Science Researcher,” FoF's Center for Science and Public Policy (as of August,2005) 
- Christopher C. Horner — Past General Counsel and Senior Policy Adviser (2012). 
July 18, 2018
Frontiers of Freedom, represented by George Landrith, was among signatories of a letter supporting an anti-carbon tax resolution from House Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R-La.) and Rep. David McKinley (R-W.Va. 
“We oppose any carbon tax. We oppose a carbon tax because it would lead to less income and fewer jobs for American families,” the letter read. “We support the House Concurrent Resolution in opposition to a job-killing carbon tax and urge members to co-sponsor and support this effort.” 
The resolution would call a carbon tax “detrimental to the United States economy.”E&E News reported it was similar to a measure that passed the House in 2016. Rep. Carlos Curbelo of Florida, co-chairman of the Climate Solutions Caucus, said he would not vote for the resolution. 
“Protecting our environment and economic growth are not mutually exclusive,” he said in a statement. “The resolution presents a false choice.”
January 12, 2017
George C. Landrith, President and CEO of Frontiers of Freedom, was a signatory to a January 12, 2017 official letter of support (PDF) for Scott Pruitt, in which numerous groups, including The Heartland Institute, American Energy Alliance (AEA), and others, declared that the Senate should “swiftly approve his nomination” for Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Other signatories of the letter included: 
- Thomas Pyle, American Energy Alliance
- Michael Needham, Heritage Action for America
- Grover Norquist, Americans for Tax Reform
- Kent Lassman, Competitive Enterprise Institute
- Adam Brandon, FreedomWorks
- David McIntosh, Club for Growth
- Phil Kerpen, American Commitment
- Craig Richardson, Energy and Environment Action Team
- David Williams, Taxpayers Protection Alliance
- Harry Alford, National Black Chamber of Commerce
- Jim Martin, 60 Plus
- Andrew Langer, Institute for Liberty
- Heather Higgins, Independent Women’s Voice
- Independence Institute
- Richard Martin, Americans for Limited Government
- Coalition Opposed to Additional Spending and Taxes (COAST)
- Brett Healy, MacIver Institute
- Joseph Bast, Heartland Institute
- Randy Eminger, Energy Policy Network
- Paul Gessing, Rio Grande Foundation
- Mike Nasi, Balanced Energy for Texas
- Brent Mead, Montana Policy Institute
- Forest Thigpen, Mississippi Center for Public Policy
June 13, 2016
Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie Soon, Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for Prosperity, American Legislative Exchange Council, CFACT, Institute for Energy Research, State Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. 
“These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”
The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]
Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]
“The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.
“We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”
Notable organizations listed in the initial documents include:
- 60 Plus Association
- The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity
- American Energy Alliance
- Alliance For Energy And Economic Growth
- American Energy Alliance
- American Legislative Exchange Council
- Americans For Prosperity Oklahoma
- Atlas Economic Research Foundation
- Berman And Company, Inc
- Consumer Energy Alliance
- Center For Clean Air Policy
- Center for Energy and Economic Development
- Center For The Study Of Carbon Dioxide And Global Change
- Coalition for Responsible Regulation
- Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow
- Council on State Taxation
- DCI Group AZ, LLC
- Ducks Unlimited
- Energy & Environment Legal Institute
- Edison Electric Institute
- Franklin Center for Government and Public Integrity
- Free Market Environmental Law Clinic
- Frontiers Of Freedom Institute
- George C. Marshall Institute
- Hill Knowlton Strategies
- Hill Knowlton, Inc
- Hudson Institute
- Hunton & Williams
- Independence Institute
- Institute For Energy Research
- Institute for Liberty
- National Association of Manufacturers
- National Black Chamber of Commerce
- National Conference of State Legislatures
- National Mining Association
- National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
- National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
- NextGen Energy Council
- PACE (May refer to Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy)
- Science & Public Policy Institute
- Sidley Austin LLP
- State Policy Network
- Texas Conservative Coalition Research Institute
- Texas Public Policy Foundation
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce
- Western Business Roundtable
Notable individuals named in the initial documents include the following:
December 13, 2015
Writing as a guest blogger on Watts Up With That, CFACT's executive director Craig Rucker denounced the latest UN climate change agreement: 
“This agreement will not meaningfully alter the temperature of the Earth, even under the U.N.’s own computer models.
“The bad news is that it plants the seeds of a new UN climate regime that left unchecked will swell into a bureaucratic behemoth.”
April 7, 2016
Frontiers of Freedom President George Landrith issued the following statement on proposed renewable energy tax benefits: 
“Millions of Americans are deeply disappointed that Senators John Thune (R-S.D.), Bill Nelson (D-Fla.) and Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) worked to insert sweetheart tax benefits for special interests in the so-called renewable energy industry. Simply stated, hard working Americans who are struggling to make ends meet may now end up paying hundreds of millions of dollars to well-healed 'green energy' companies — like wind and geothermal energy — who can afford the best lobbyists money can buy.Not only do ratepayers pay more on the electrical bill for these forms of 'green energy,' they also pay for the corporate welfare these special interests receive. This is doubly insulting. This is reminiscent of the Solyndra scandal — taxpayers paying hundreds of millions for a failed business model.Just two days ago, Frontiers of Freedom was part of a large coalition of organizations representing millions of Americans expressing our strong opposition to extending expiring renewable energy tax benefits when reauthorizing the Federal Aviation Administration. In that letter, we stated, 'Government subsidies, loans, mandates, and tax policies regarding renewables have consistently failed to deliver on their promises of long-term job creation and economic viability. Americans deserve access to energy solutions that are affordable and reliable — ones that should be able to stand on their own in the marketplace.'Americans have once again been let down by some of their elected representatives in the U.S. Senate. Given the frustration and anger that is plainly visible in the electorate, it is shocking that business continues as usual inside the Beltway. Out of touch politicians often decry the frustrated and angry tone of the public. But if they are concerned about the tone of the electorate, politicians must start listening to regular Americans and abandon cozy corporate welfare deals that have become all too much the norm in Washington. The budget process must return to 'regular order' where the public can see what is being done with their money and where secret backroom deals are prohibited.”
July 27, 2015
Frontiers of Freedom was a signatory to a letter to House members urging them to support a bill that would kill the wind production tax credit (PTC). 
- Thomas Pyle — American Energy Alliance
- Mike Needham — Heritage Action for America
- Brett Gardner — Americans for Prosperity
- Grover Norquist — Americans for Tax Reform
- Adam Brandon — FreedomWorks
- Myron Ebell — Competitive Enterprise Institute
- Phil Kerpen — American Commitment
- Matthew Kendrach — 60 Plus Association
- George Landrith — Frontiers of Freedom
- David Williams — Taxpayers Protection Alliance
- Sabrina Schaeffer — Independent Women’s Forum
- Heather Higgins — Independent Women’s Voice
- Judson Phillips — Tea Party Nation
- Colin Hanna — Let Freedom Ring
- Andrew Moylan — R Street
- Marita Noon — Energy Makes America Great
- Seton Motley — Less Government
- Kristin Fecteau — Campaign to Free America
- Horace Cooper — Project 21
- Tom Brinkman — Coalition Opposed to Additional Spending and Taxes
March 25, 2015
- Competitive Enterprise Institute
- CO2 Science
- Americans for Tax Reform
- Institute for Energy Research
- E&E Legal
- Science and Environmental Policy Project
- SBE Council
- American Commitment
- Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation
- The Heartland Institute
- 60 Plus Association
- National Centre for Public Policy Research
“We, collectively and individually, believe the only reform to this failed government mandate should be to repeal the RFS. Repealing this mandate would bring certainty to the fuel markets and eliminate the harmful impacts this government program has had on businesses and consumers,” the FoF letter reads. “[…] With the recent scandals at EPA showing its lack of transparency and its willingness to break the law to further its agenda, expanding the RFS would only give the EPA another avenue to exercise power over the lives of Americans and further harm the economy.” 
May 21 - 23, 2012
April 12, 2007
ExxonMobil received two grants from ExxonMobil in 2003: one $95,000 grant for “Global Climate Change Outreach,” and another $50,000 grant for “Global Climate Change Activities,” Greenpeace reports. 
June 7, 2002
President George Landrith signed a letter to President Bush, asking him to withdraw the “Climate Action Report 2002.” 
The letter describes the Climate Action Report as “largely a compilation and summary of junk science produced by the Clinton-Gore Administration in order to support their Kyoto agenda,” and calls on Bush to have the report “re-written on the basis of sound science.”
A further demand of the letter is for Bush to “dismiss or re-assign all administration employees who are not pursuing your agenda, just as you have done in several similar instances.” 
May 14, 2002
Held a briefing at the National Press Club, in conjunction with the Cooler Heads Coalition and The Science and Environmental Policy Project, entitled “Experts Discuss Why United States Should Withdraw Its Signature From Kyoto; Whatever Happened To Global Warming Anyway?” 
August 19, 1997
Held a “Countdown to Kyoto” conference in Canberra, Australia “to bolster support for the government's increasingly isolated position on global warming in preparation for Kyoto.”
The conference was co-organized by The Australian APEC Study Centre and featured well known climate change deniers such as Patrick Michaels, John Christy, and Alan Oxley. Other speakers including Jerry Ellis, past Chairman of the multinational BHP Ltd. And Peter Hartley, director of a think tank called the Tasmania Institute. 
At the conference, U.S. Senator Chuck Hagel commented, “I believe we are headed down the wrong path in the negotiations for any global climate treaty to be signed in Kyoto, Japan, this December.” 
Contact & Location
Frontiers of Freedom
4094 Majestic Blvd., #380
Fairfax, Virginia 22033
Email: [email protected]
- The Center for Science and Public Policy (CSPP) — A past project of FoF, set up in 2003.
- The Alliance for America Network
- The Grassroots ESA Coalition
- Cooler Heads Coalition — Member 
“About Us,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived February 5, 2003.
“Frontiers of Freedom Mission Statement,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived August 16, 2000. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
(Press Release). “Frontiers of Freedom Releases 'Ten (Belief) Tenets,'” Frontiers of Freedom, September 20, 2002. Republished by Free Republic. Archived October 17, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cMEr8A1E
“Wake up, Obama, climate change has been happening forever,” Frontiers of Freedom, October 10, 2015. Archived October 18, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cMc4Wtlq
George Landrith. “Climate Change: Fabricating the Numbers,” Frontiers of Freedom, October 3, 2007.
“Global Warming - Papers,” Frontiers of Freedom Centre for Science and Public Policy. Archived July 12, 2010.
Anne Marie Chaker. “Conservatives Seek IRS Inquiry On Environmental Group's Status,” The Wall Street Journal, June 21, 2001 (subscription required).
“Rev. Rul. 68-656, 1968-2 C.B. 216,” (PDF), Internal Revenue Service.
“184.108.40.206 (02-09-1999) Exemption Under IRC 501(c)(4) v. Exemption Under IRC 501(c)(3),” Irs.gov. Accessed October 17, 2015.
“Search String: Frontiers of Freedom,” Conservative Transparency. Search performed May 12, 2016.
ExxonSecrets Factsheet: Frontiers of Freedom, FoF. Accessed October 17, 2015.
“Frontiers of Freedom: Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived March 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/FZcPh
Willie Soon and Robert Ferguson. “Eat More Fish!” (PDF), The Wall Street Journal Online, August 15, 2005 (Dow Jones Reprints). Archived January 9, 2006.
“Staff,” Frontiers of Freedom. Archived January 3, 2012.
“Consideration of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change effects in NEPA Reviews,” Frontiers of Freedom, March 29, 2015. Archived October 18, 2015.
“Seventh International Conference on Climate Change: Sponsored by the Heartland Institute” (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived August 15, 2015.
Michael Fisher. “A Closer Look at Heartland's ICCC7 Denial-a-Palooza Speakers and Sponsors,” DeSmogBlog, May 23, 2012.
“Co-Sponsors,” Third International Conference on Climate Change. Archived July 14, 2010.
Fred L. Smith Jr. “Joint Letter To President Bush On The EPA's Climate Action Report,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, June 7, 2002. Archived October 18, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6cMapDVLb
“Experts Discuss Why United States Should Withdraw Its Signature From Kyoto; Whatever Happened To Global Warming Anyway?” U.S. Newswire, May 14, 2002. Archived October 19, 2002.
“Countdown to Kyoto: The Consequences of Mandatory CO2 Emission Reductions,” Monash University. Archived August 6, 1997.
“Countdown to Kyoto” an International Conference on The Consequences of Mandatory Global CO2 Emission Reductions: Remarks by United States Senator Chuck Hagel” (PDF), Retrieved from APEC.org.au. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Cooler Heads Coalition homepage (globalwarming.org). Archived October 18, 2015.
“Durbin, Hagel say global warming a national security threat,” OneNewsNow, April 12, 2007. Archived May 17, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hZuZ1m6P
“Congressional Staff Seminar” (PDF), Science Hill Watch, February 2, 2004. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Taylor Smith. “Frontiers of Freedom Backs Coalition Supporting Swift Repeal of the Renewable Fuel Standard,” Somewhat Reasonabile (Heartland Institute Blog), October 1, 2013. Archived May 17, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hZvQZiIP
“Coalition Letter Opposing the Renewable Fuel Standard,” Frontiers of Freedom, September 27, 2014. Archived May 17, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hZvv4r51
Cindy Baxter. “Exxon Knew Climate Change Was Coming, but What Matters Is What Exxon Did,” Greenpeace USA, November 12, 2015. Archived May 17, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hZwkzyNw
“Coalition to Congress: Support PTC Elimination Act” (PDF), Marchant.house.gov, July 27, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Elliott Negin. “How the Koch Brothers' 'Bankers' Snuck an Anti-Wind Op-Ed Past the New York Times,” Alternet, January 7, 2016. Archived May 17, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hZz1hus4
Amy Lieberman and Susanne Rust. “While denying climate change in Washington, Big Oil braced for a hotter planet,” Portland Press Herald, January 11, 2016. Archived May 17, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6ha0EYRzD
Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,” PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iPmXjc4W
“In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud.
Farron Cousins. “Court Documents Show Coal Giant Peabody Energy Funded Dozens Of Climate Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, June 13, 2016.
Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iPnEUG1o
“Dear Senators,” (PDF), Competitive Enterprise Institute, January 12, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
“41 Conservative Groups Support Scalise/McKinley Anti-Carbon Tax Resolution,” Americans for Tax Reform, July 18, 2018. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
Nick Sobczyk. “House voting on anti-carbon-tax measure: 'Pass the popcorn',” E&E News, July 16, 2018. Archived Aug 2, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.fo/aTP8h
“Teaching opportunities from House Concurrent Resolution 119 (H.Con.Res.119)” (PDF), Citizens' Climate Lobby, April 30, 2018.
“Frontiers of Freedom,” Sourcewatch profile.
“Deniers: Frontiers of Freedom (including Center for Science & Public Policy),” ExxonSecrets Wiki.