Harry C. Alford

Harry C. Alford

Credentials

  • Bachelor’s degree in Correctional Administration (School of Sociology, University of Wisconsin). [1]

Background

Harry C. Alford is the president and founder of the National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC). According to his biography at NBCC (PDF), Alford has worked “in a series of key sales and executive positions at Fortune 100 companies such as Procter & Gamble, Johnson & Johnson and the Sara Lee Corporation.” [2]

Harry Alford has testified before House committees, contending that regulations on the energy industry and limitations on offshore drilling would cause job losses and hikes in electricity prices. NBCC positions minorities at odds with the EPA, and claims that regulations would cause undue harm to these groups.

Alford is also a member of the Board of Directors of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and chair of their Government Oversight and Consumer Affairs Committee [3]. The U.S. Chamber has declared it will “Resist ill-conceived legislation” that would slow the development of “affordable, innovative energy technologies.” [4]

A September 2015 profile by The Washington Post described Alford as “a veteran of multiple campaigns to quash regulations intended to improve air quality or fight climate change.” Describing Alford's fight against limits on ozone and other regulations, the post writes that his message “is nearly identical to the one being broadcast widely by the rules’ opponents from business and industry.” [5]

NBCC Funding

The National Black Chamber of Commerce has received over $1,000,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [6]

Harry Alford has been unapologetic about the group's funding, with the following statement published in an NBCC article titled “Fossil Fuels and African Americans – It’s Family!” (emphasis added): [7]

“Recently, a writer from USA Today wanted to know if the National Black Chamber of Commerce receives money from fossil fuel companies (coal, oil, natural gas, petrochemicals, etc.).  That is a 'no brainer'.  Of course we do and it is only natural. The legacy of Blacks in this nation has been tied to the miraculous history of fossil fuel and the economic growth in communities because of the successful harvest of fossil fuels.  Consistent with the emergence of the Industrial Revolution and the availability of the Homestead Act for freed slaves, fossil fuels have been our economic friend.” [7]

Stance on Climate Change

“Certainly the climate changes as time goes on - sometimes for the better and sometimes for the worse.  So far, there is no pattern that seems to be very detrimental to our earth.  There is an ebb and flow and it takes time to see any significant detrimental trend.  It is like Stevie Wonder wrote, 'When you believe in things you don't understand; you suffer.  Superstition ain't the way'.” – Harry Alford, co-founder, President/CEO of the National Black Chamber of Commerce[8]

Key Quotes

Undated

Harry Alford offered a statement of support for the Kemper Power Plant in Kemper County Mississippi, where he also promotes fracking:

“These are very exciting times for the fuel industry in America.  We are at the point of being totally oil independent.  We are finding new reserves in various parts of our great nation.  Natural gas is now abundant thanks to a new process known as Fracturing or Fracking.  In fact, we were once importers of natural gas but now, thanks to Fracking, we are exporting it for attractive profits.  No longer do we have to rely on nations that don’t particularly like us for our energy needs.  God blesses the child who has his own and we are certainly blessed.” [9]

October, 2016

Writing at at the Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy (PACE) website, Alford declares:

“Clearly, there can be no America without the utilization of coal.”[23]

“Coal is a vital component to our infrastructure and will remain a vital resource.  God put it here for us to use and for hundreds of years in the future we will continue to produce with improvements and environmentally safe methods.” [23]

November, 2015

In an article in The Philidelphia Tribune, Alford claims that both the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration reported that “there has been no global warming detected for the last 18 years”:

“No global warming, but millions of jobs have been erased through adverse regulations in the name of addressing the global warming issue. Billions of dollars, mostly tax dollars, have been spent trying to address the same 'ghost.' Many low-income and minority communities have greatly suffered from these onerous regulations that seem to be made in vain.

“The Sierra Club and similar organizations are clinging to the global warming myth. In fact, they can be fanatical about it. They are funded by billionaires who try to manipulate our economic status and disrupt the common peace. They have even funded a cadre of “goons” who will verbally and sometimes physically attack any person or group that questions the global warming issue.

“Believe me, I have personally experienced these nuts, and the National Black Chamber of Commerce has been slandered for its energy positions. It appears that we are right and they are wrong. Let the whole world know about it.” [10]

Notably, a June 2015 study (also by the NOAAstates that “the rate of global warming during the last 15 years has been as fast as or faster than that seen during the latter half of the 20th Century.” According to the NOAA summary, “The study refutes the notion that there has been a slowdown or 'hiatus' in the rate of global warming in recent years.” [22]

October, 2015
Harry Alford testified on “how overregulation harms minorities” (PDF) at a Senate Judiciary Subcommittee Hearing:

“[T]he continuous stream of unreasonable and overreaching regulations that have come out of the federal government over the last few years has led to the denial of countless opportunities for minorities.” [11]

“[T]he Clean Power Plan in particular seems poised to escalate energy costs for Blacks and Hispanics in the United States, including individuals, families and minority-owned businesses.” [11]

September, 2015

Evlondo Cooper with the Checks and Balances Project tried to interview Harry Alford regarding Coal pollution's health impacts, but was refused a response. [12]

“You are about the dumbest ass I've ever met in my life,” Alford said. “You've come to Columbus to harass me.” [12]

February, 2013

Harry Alford spoke out against President Barack Obama's call for more gun control, alongside Niger Innis of the Congress of Racial Equality:

“The National Rifle Association was started, founded by religious leaders who wanted to protect free slaves from the Ku Klux Klan. They would raise money, buy arms, show the free slaves how to use those arms and protect their families. God bless you. Many of us probably wouldn’t be here today if it wasn’t for the NRA.” [13]

July, 2009

Harry Alford testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works opposing climate change reglations:

“The bottom line is this: any climate legislation that fails to meaningfully reduce the human impact on the climate or does so in an economically unsustainable manner, can’t be effective. Under the House bill, American consumers and businesses would take on a heavy burden. This burden would fall at exactly the wrong time. “

”[…] I’m not a climate change expert, but I have to believe that there are better options than the one currently on the table.”[14]

Key Deeds

February 12, 2018

Harry Alford was a signatory to an open letter organized by Americans for Prosperity, representing the NBCC. ATR was one of several organizations to join Americans for Prosperity (AfP) in a coalition opposing a federal gas tax increase. [32]

“Raising the gas tax is a bad idea. It will make the burden of government on families and businesses heavier,” the coalition's open letter read[32]

Signatories include: [33]

Name Title Company
Brent Wm. Gardner Chief Government Affairs Officer Amer
Michael A. Needham CEO Heritage Action for America
Grover Norquist President Americans for Tax Reform
David McIntosh President Club for Growth
Nathan Nascimento Executive Vice President Freedom Partners Chamber of Commerce
Mark Scribner Senior Fellow Competitive Enterprise Institute
Jason Pye Vice President of Legislative Affairs FreedomWorks
Tom Schatz President Citizens Against Government Waste
Pete Sepp President National Taxpayers Union
Phil Kerpen President American Commitment
Mario H. Lopez President Hispanic Leadership Fund
Daniel Garza President The Libre Initiative
Carrie L. Lukas President Independent Women’s Forum
Heather R. Higgins President and CEO Independent Women’s Voice
Harry C. Alford President and CEO National Black Chamber of Commerce
Jeffrey Mazella President Center for Individual Freedom
Donald Bryson President Civitas Action
David Barnes Policy Director Generation Opportunity
Norm Singleton President Campaign for Liberty
Judson Phillips Founder Tea Party Nation
Seton Motley President Less Government
Kim Crockett, Esq. Vice President, Senior Fellow and General Counsel Center of the American Experiment
Tom Brinkman, Jr. Chairman Coalition Opposed to Additional Spending and Taxes (COAST)
Matthew Kandrach President Consumer Action for a Strong Economy (CASE)
Katie McAulliffe Executive Director Digital Liberty
Brett Healy President John K. MacIver Institute
Sean Noble President American Encore
Annette Meeks CEO Freedom Foundation of Minnesota
Andrew F. Quinlan President Center for Freedom and Prosperity

September 2017

A Bloomberg article on Harry Alford and the National Black Chamber of Commerce illustrates a connection between NBCC, Alford, and DCI Group LLC. DCI Group is a lobbying and PR firm, which has historically worked with R.J. Reynolds Tobacco and was behind the now-defunct Tech Central Station (TCS), a website that worked as a forum for climate change skeptics and received direct funding from ExxonMobil for “climate change support.” Bloomberg noted that many groups that benefited from the NBCC's actions have also hired DCI, donated money to NBCC, or both. Examples included ExxonMobil, Penn National Gaming, and numerous others. [28], [29]

Bloomberg offered a summary chart of causes backed by the NBCC that also benefited large companies and investors, reproduced below: [28]

NBCC ACTION BENEFICIARY HIRED DCI DONATED TO NBCC
Opposed Puerto Rico bankruptcy bill Investors in Puerto Rico bonds Y
Criticized government handling of Fannie Mae Investors in Fannie Mae shares Y
Opposed limits on swipe fees Visa Y
Opposed pollution regulations Exxon Mobil Y Y
Bought ad supporting phosphate mine Mosaic
Backed Samsung at Int'l Trade Commission Samsung in dispute with Apple Y
Advocated for Argentine bondholders Investors in Argentine bonds Y
Supported solar measure backed by utilities Gulf Power Y
Opposed Anna Nicole Smith's claim on fortune Heirs of billionaire J. Howard Marshall II Y
Opposed casino expansion in Maryland Penn National Gaming Y Y
Fought “gainful employment” rule For-profit college operator EDMC Y Y
Defended rum tariff rules in U.S. Virgin Islands Fortune Brands and Diageo

January 12, 2017

Harry Alford was a signatory to a January 12, 2017 official letter of support (PDF) for Scott Pruitt, in which numerous groups, including The Heartland Institute, American Energy Alliance (AEA), and others, declared that the Senate should “swiftly approve his nomination” for Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Other signatories of the letter included: [26]

October 25, 2016

Harry C. Alford writes that he took part in a tour of coal mines in Alabama sponsored by the energy group PACE (Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy), where he has held a board seat since 2015 according to the group's available 990 tax forms. [23], [24], [25]

“Clearly, there can be no America without the utilization of coal,” Alford writes at the PACE website (energyfairness.org).

“Coal is a vital component to our infrastructure and will remain a vital resource.  God put it here for us to use and for hundreds of years in the future we will continue to produce with improvements and environmentally safe methods.”

The Energy and Policy Institute profiles PACE as a “anti-clean energy front group” incorporated by William D. Lineberry, an attorney with Balch & Bingham, a firm that lobbies on behalf of Southern Company and its Alabama Power subsidiary. [25]

PACE is an “official partner” with the Consumer Energy Alliance, an advocacy group that has attached alternative fuels.  In addition to the Consumer Energy Alliance, PACE lists the following fossil fuel interests as official partners: [25]

  • Alabama Rural Electric Association of Cooperatives
  • Empower Consumers
  • Tennessee Mining Association
  • The National Federation of Independent Business
     

November 23, 2015

Alford published an article at The Hill titled “EDMC settlements chart new direction for private-sector education.” HuffPost reported that the article bore signs that it had actually been authored by EDMC (Education Management Corp.) and Alford had put his name on the byline. [30], [31]

The original article contained the following paragraph (emphasis added), which appears to have been accidentally left in by the editor: [30]

“As an observer with a rooting interest in providing students with an education that enables jobs that change lives (or from an employer perspective, if that fits the writer), it makes much more sense to allow the private-sector institutions to do their good work, making corrections where necessary and building on the innovation and nimbleness that is characteristic of the sector.” [30]

November 4, 2015

The National Black Chamber of Commerce's President and CEO Harry Alford published an article in the Philadelphia Tribune where he describes global warming as a “costly farce.” [10]

[The NOAA and NASA ]have reported that there has been no global warming detected for the last 18 years. That is over 216 months in a row that there has been no detected global warming. At the same time, sea ice in Antarctica is building up at record levels,” Alford writes. “ [10]

“No global warming, but millions of jobs have been erased through adverse regulations in the name of addressing the global warming issue. Billions of dollars, mostly tax dollars, have been spent trying to address the same 'ghost.' Many low-income and minority communities have greatly suffered from these onerous regulations that seem to be made in vain.” [10]

Alford says that the “the National Black Chamber of Commerce has been slandered for its energy positions,” but claims that “we are right and they are wrong.” [10]

However, climate scientists provide an explanation for this supposed hiatus in global warming. According to Michael Mann at Penn State University, “There certainly has not been a hiatus in global warming — global warming hasn't stopped, even though you still hear those contrarian talking points.” [15]

An 2015 analysis by US government scientists in the journal Nature and Climate Change suggested that if temporary natural fluctuations were ignored then world was probably now warming at a rate of about 0.2°C per decade — higher than the IPCC's longer-term average. [16]

October 6, 2015

Harry Alford testified on “how overregulation harms minorities” (PDF) at a Senate Judiciary Subcommittee Hearing. [11]

According to Alford, “the continuous stream of unreasonable and overreaching regulations that have come out of the federal government over the last few years has led to the denial of countless opportunities for minorities.” [11]

The first set of regulations that Alford accuses is the Clean Power Plan (CPP). He contends: “[T]he Clean Power Plan in particular seems poised to escalate energy costs for Blacks and Hispanics in the United States, including individuals, families and minority-owned businesses.” [11]

He points to a June, 2015 NBCC study that suggested the CPP would “ impose severe and disproportionate economic burdens on poor families, especially minorities.” Alford writes how The NBCC study found “EPA’s rule increases Black poverty by 23% and Hispanic poverty by 26%.” [11]

In addition to the CPP, Alford also points to the National Ozone Air Quality Standard as a rule that would “disproportionately affect America’s urban, low-income and minority families.” [11]

September 2, 2015

Harry Alford's NBCC and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce jointly hosted a symposium opposing the EPA Ozone Rule, describing it as devastating to the Pennysylvania Economy. [17]

“As world markets shuttered amidst instability in China, the President reminded us that the American economy is resilient and the backbone of the global market. Unfortunately, the EPA's proposed ozone rule threatens that resiliency, found in our urban centers like Pittsburgh, by bringing the economic recovery to a halt,” Harry C. Alford said. “Today's forum was an opportunity for local business owners and elected officials to discuss the effects of this regulation and how to continue our fight to keep EPA's assault at bay.” [17]

Other contributors at the event included: [17]

  • State Rep. Jake Wheatley (D-Allegheny)
  • Gene Barr, president and CEO of the Pennsylvania Chamber of Business and Industry
  • Robert Agbede, president of Chester Engineers;
  • Howard Feldman, director at the American Petroleum Institute
  • Mark Kempic, president of Columbia Gas
  • Morgan O'Brien, president of Peoples Natural Gas

June 23, 2015

Harry Alford testified at the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee opposing the EPA's Clean Power Plan.  [18]

With reference to a NBCC study, Alford said that “The study finds that the Clean Power Plan will inflict severe and disproportionate economic burdens on poor families, especially minorities.” He continued, saying “The EPA's proposed regulation for GHG [greenhouse gas] emissions from existing power plants is a slap in the face to poor and minority families.” [18]

Video below.

Sen. Tom Carper (D-Del.) rebutted, saying that states who have taken action on climate change have seen their economies grow:

Many states, such as New York and Delaware, have already taken action to reduce the largest emitter of carbon pollution - power plant emissions,” Carper said. “As we will hear today, the economies of these states continue to grow at a faster rate than the states that have yet to put climate regulations in place. However, we need all states to do their fair share to protect the air we breathe and stem the tide of climate change. The EPA's Clean Power Plan attempts to do just that.”  [18]

June, 2015

Media Matters reports that the National Black Chamber of Commerce published at least seven Op-Eds by Harry Alford attacking the EPA's clean power plan. [19]

“Like Americans for Prosperity, the Beacon Hill Institute, and the State Policy Network before it, the National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC) is the latest oil industry front group to run a deceptive op-ed campaign against the EPA's climate change plan, with NBCC president Harry C. Alford alleging in newspapers across the country that the Clean Power Plan will impose 'economic hardship' on blacks and Hispanics,” Denise Robbins and Andrew Seifter write at Media Matters.  [19]

Articles published by the NBCC include (articles on file at DeSmogBlog):

February 10, 2011

Harry C. Alford testified on behalf of the National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC), opposing the Gulph moratorium which prevented energy companies from purchasing offshore drilling leases after the the Gulf Oil Spill. [20]

“Now is the time to dust ourselves off and get back to work,” Alford's testimony reads. “We must learn from this incident and not be afraid to move forward with domestic energy production.” [20]

Alford also criticizes the EPA, claiming it “has gone beyond the intended scope of their authority and implemented far reaching policies by invoking the Clean  Air Act (CAA) to defend their actions.” [20]

While Alford says that “Reducing emissions to mitigate the effects of climate change is a very real challenge for the U.S. and the global community,” he goes on to state that current regulations on businesses are “unsustainable.” He also claims that “nearly 800,000 jobs are at risk due to EPA greenhouse gas proposals” — a statistic taken from an Environment and Public Works Report, a Senate Committee chaired by prominent climate change denier James Inhofe[20]

February 9, 2011

Alford was a witness at a Subcommittee on Energy and Power hearing on “H.R. 910,” which would amend the Clean Air Act to prevent the EPA from regulating carbon emissions. [27]

Witnesses included:

Name Position Affiliation
Greg Abbott Attorney General State of Texas
Harry C. Alford President & CEO National Black Chamber of Commerce
Betsy Blaisdell Senior Manager Timberland Company
Lonnie N. Carter President & CEO Santee Cooper
Steve Cousins Vice President Lions Oil Company
Peter S. Glaser Partner Troutman Sanders LLP
Lynn Goldman MD American Public Health Association
Fred T. Harnack General Manager, Environmental Affairs US Steel Corporation
James Inhofe United States Senator State of Oklahoma
Lisa Jackson Administrator Environmental Protection Agency
Philip Nelson President Illinois Farm Bureau
James Pearce Director of Manufacturing FMC Corporation
Steven Rowlan General Manager Environmental Affairs for Nucor Corporation
Margo Thorning Senior Vice President and Chief Economist American Council for Capital Formation

July 16, 2009

Harry Alford testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works opposing climate change reglations. He points to a study by the National Black Chamber of Commerce, claiming “ the current legislation out of the U.S. House of Representatives will negatively impact the most vulnerable of our society.” [14]

“The bottom line is this: any climate legislation that fails to meaningfully reduce the human impact on the climate or does so in an economically unsustainable manner, can’t be effective,” Alford said. “Under the House bill, American consumers and businesses would take on a heavy burden. This burden would fall at exactly the wrong time.” [14]

”[…] I’m not a climate change expert, but I have to believe that there are better options than the one currently on the table.” 

During the hearing, Alford had a heated exchange with Chairwoman Senator Boxer regarding global warming job losses (video below).[21]

Affiliations

Publications

Resources

  1. “Our Rotten Prison System” (PDF), African American Voice, October 2013 (P. 8). Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  2. -“Management Bios (PDF)”, National Black Chamber of Commerce, February, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  3. Board of Directors,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived August 16, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/SZjjk

  4. Climate Change,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived February 6, 2013. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  5. Joby Warrick. “In smog battle, industry gets help from unlikely source: black business group,” The Washington Post, September 28, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Pfa2P

  6. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: National Black Chamber of Commerce. Accessed August 16, 2016.

  7. “'Fossil Fuels and African Americans – It’s Family!' National Black Chamber of Commerce. Archived August 16, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/fXC1G

  8. Environmental Racism, Global Warming and Climate Change,” National Black Chamber of Commerce. Archived June 30, 2015.

  9. About The National Black Chamber of Commerce,” Kemperproject.org. Archived June 30, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/mcTZ8

  10. Harry C. Alford. “Global warming proponents cling to costly farce,” The Philadelphia Tribune, November 4, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  11. “Opportunity Denied: How Overregulation Harms Minorities” (PDF - Testimony), October 1, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  12. Evlondo Cooper interviews Harry Alford,” The Washington Post, September 28, 2015.

  13. Nicholas Ballasy. “Black conservatives: Gun control has 'racist' roots [VIDEO],” The Daily Caller, February 22, 2013. Archived August 16, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/zbOtx

  14. Senate Testimony, July 16, 2009,” National Black Chamber of Commerce. Archived August 16, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Or3H9

  15. Graham Readfearn. “Global warming hiatus explained and it's not good news,” ABCEnvironment, April 8, 2015. Archived March 22, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/wA3yg

  16. Near-term acceleration in the rate of temperature change,” Nature Climate Change,  333–336 (2015). 

  17. (Press Release). “Chambers of Commerce: EPA Ozone Rule Will Be Devastating to Pennsylvania Economy,” PR Newswire, September 2, 2015. Archived August 16, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/jhZ5g

  18. Ali Meyer. “Black Chamber of Commerce: EPA Clean Air Plan Will Increase Black Poverty 23%, Strip 7,000,000 Black Jobs,” CNSnews.com, June 24, 2015. Archived July 31, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/l6bFB

  19. Denise Robbins and Andrew Seifter. “National Black Chamber Of Commerce Joins Oil Industry's Op-Ed Campaign Against EPA Climate Plan,” Media Matters, June 26, 2016. Archived March 22, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/O17Fr

  20. Testimony of Harry C. Alford on Behalf of the National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC) Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform” (PDF), National Black Chamber of Commerce, February 10, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  21. National Black Chamber of Commerce President Takes on Chairman Boxer Over Global Warming Job Losses,” YouTube Video uploaded by user Senator Jim Inhofe. July 16, 2009.

  22. Science publishes new NOAA analysis: Data show no recent slowdown in global warming,” NOAA, June 4, 2015. Archived August 18, 2016. Archive.is URL:https://archive.is/LAmwA

  23. “Harry Alford: An Epiphany – Sweet Home Alabama,” PACE, October 25, 2016. Archived January 25, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/9rbOB

  24. 2015 990 Tax Form for Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy, Inc. (EIN-26-4374127). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  25. Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy,” Energy and Policy Institute. Archived January 24, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/fFopF

  26. “Dear Senators,” (PDF)Competitive Enterprise Institute, January 12, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  27. Feb. 9, 2011 - A Hearing on 'H.R. 910',” YouTube video uploaded by user “EnergyCommerce”, July 20, 2011. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.

  28. Zachary R. Mider. “When Harry Alford Speaks Up, a Washington Firm’s Clients Gain,” Bloomberg, September 14, 2017. Archived September 19, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/IuiRd

  29. Kevin Grandia. “ABC News: Gore spoof video linked to Republican/Exxon Spinster,” DeSmogBlog, August 4, 2006.

  30. Harry C. Alford. “EDMC settlements chart new direction for private-sector education,” The Hill, Archived November 24, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/61rjG

  31. Jason Linkins. “For-Profit Education Grift Mill Submits Op-Ed Under Someone Else’s Byline,” HuffPost, December 1, 2015. Archived September 20, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/yzQtH

  32. Americans For Prosperity Leads Coalition Against Gas Tax Hike,” Americans for Prosperity, February 12, 2018. Archived February 20, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/vNQMN

  33. “Dear Representative:” (PDF), Americans for Prosperity, February 12, 2018.

Other Resources