Joseph Bast

Joseph Bast



Joseph Bast co-founded the Heartland Institute in 1984 with David M. Padden (1927 - 2011). Bast currently serves as the Institute's president and CEO. According to Bast, the Heartland Institute now “reaches more national and state elected officials, more often, than any other think tank,” having 270 policy advisors in all 50 states. [43], [44]

Bast is also the publisher of Heartland’s monthly periodical, Environment and Climate News, as well several other like-minded publications. 

Bast studied economics as an undergraduate at the University of Chicago. He is the author of several books promoting free-market solutions to different public policy problems including Eco-sanity: a common sense guide to environmentalism.  [42]

Heartland International Conferences on Climate Change (ICCC)

As the president and CEO of the Heartland Institute, Bast helped organize and introduce the First (March 2008), Second (March 2009), Third (June 2009), Fourth (May 2010), Fifth (Oct 2010), Sixth (June 2011), Seventh (May 2012), Eighth (November 2012), Ninth (July 2014), and Tenth (March 2017), Eleventh and Twelfth “International Conferences on Climate Change” (ICCCs). 

Stance on Climate Change

Bast claims that most scientists believe that human activity has no appreciable effects on the climate, citing a (since-debunked) 17,000-name petition run by the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine

Some of Bast's assertions include that: [1]

  • “Most scientists do not believe human activities threaten to disrupt the
    Earth's climate” (This is referring to the Oregon Petition).
  • “Our most reliable sources of temperature data show no global warming
  • “Global climate computer models are too crude to predict future climate
  • “The IPCC did not prove that human activities are causing global warming.”
  • “A modest amount of global warming, should it occur, would be beneficial
    to the natural world and to human civilization.”
  • “Efforts to quickly reduce human greenhouse gas emissions would be costly
    and would not stop Earth's climate from changing.”
  • “The best strategy to pursue is 'no regrets.' The alternative to demands
    for immediate action to “stop global warming” is not to do nothing.”

Key Quotes

March 31, 2014

Regarding the NIPCC's contradictory conclusions to the IPCC's 2014 assessment report:

“How could two teams of scientists come to such obviously contradictory conclusions on seemingly every point that matters in the debate over global warming? There are many reasons why scientists disagree, the subject, by the way, of an excellent book a couple years ago titled Wrong by David H. Freedman. A big reason is IPCC is producing what academics call “post-normal science” while NIPCC is producing old-fashioned “real science.” [10]

March 26, 2014

Leading up to the Heartland Institute's Ninth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC-9) in Las Vegas, Nevada, July 7-9, 2014, Jim Lakely and Joseph Bast publish a press release in which Bast is quoted:

“The scientists Heartland works with demanded we host a ninth conference this year to foster a much-needed frank, honest, and open discussion of the current state of climate science and we just couldn’t refuse. The public, the press, and the scientific community will all benefit from learning about the latest research and observational data that indicate climate science is anything but ‘settled.’” [17]

September 19, 2013

“The IPCC – and all the mainstream media and environmental extremists who cite it uncritically — really have become a joke in the scientific community.” [8]

In reference to the Chinese Academy of Sciences' rebuttal of the IPCC's assessment, just months before COP19 in Warsaw, Poland, Bast said:

“This is a historic moment in the global debate about climate change… The translation and publication of a comprehensive critique of the IPPC’s alarmist reports by a leading national academy of sciences is one more sign of the trend toward skepticism and away from alarmism.” [7]

“The benefits of a modest warming would outweigh the costs – by $8.4 billion a year in 1990 dollars by the year 2060, according to Robert Mendelsohn at Yale University – thanks to longer growing seasons, more wood fiber production, lower construction costs, lower mortality rates, and lower rates of morbidity (illness).” [2]

Key Deeds

November 9, 2017 (Upcoming)

Joe Bast is listed as a speaker at the Heartland Institute's upcoming “America First Energy Conference” at the Marriott Hotel in Houston, Texas. The event description read as follows: [47]

At the America First Energy Conference, we plan to examine—one year and one day after Trump’s shocking Election Day victory—the following:

Where does Trump’s America First Energy Plan stand?

How much progress has been made in implementing it, and what remains to be done?

What scientific and economic evidence is there that the plan is putting the nation on the right path for economic growth, environmental protection, or both?”

In a fundraising letter obtained by DeSmog, Fred Palmer had promoted the event as having the goal to “review the scientific and economic evidence that exposes the fraud inherent in the Obama-era regulation regime” while discussing “the overwhelming benefits of fossil fuels to us all.” [48]

With an anticipated 300 to 400 attendees, it would be “similar to the attendance at [the Heartland Institute’s] popular International Conferences on Climate Change.” 

 “In particular, we are inviting state legislators, think tank leaders, energy executives, Trump administration political appointees and staff, and policy analysts who write and speak on environment and energy topics,” Palmer said in the letter. [48]

Many of the other speakers have regularly spoken at the Heartland Institute's past ICCCs. Notable speakers listed so far include Joe Bast, Fred PalmerRoger BezdekH. Sterling BurnettHal Doiron, Paul DriessenJohn Dale DunnMyron Ebell, Heartland's new President Tim HuelskampCraig IdsoDavid LegatesJay LehrAnthony LupoRoss McKitrickSteve MilloyTodd MyersJohn Nothdurt, David Schnare, and numerous others. [49]

October 12, 2017

Bast commented on President Donald Trump's appointment of Kathleen Hartnett-White as chair of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), pending approval. Bast was quoted in a October 13 Heartland Institute newsletter: [50]

With his nomination of Kathleen Hartnett White, President Trump continues to make excellent choices for his nominations in the areas of environmental protection and energy. White is an outstanding candidate for this important position. Her past service as a chairman and commissioner of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality gives her the proper experience, and her work before and after that with private-sector groups engaged in environment and energy policy shows a deep familiarity with the issues and trade-offs involved. Best of all, White’s writing and public speaking make it clear she is committed to reversing the intense politicization of science and policy that occurred under President Obama and that started even before then,” Bast said, adding, “We finally will have a head of CEQ who genuinely understands the science and economics of energy policy, and who will resist efforts to debase and ‘weaponize’ it in support of a political agenda.”  [51]

Hartnett-White has a history of representing fossil fuel interests. During her tenure as chair of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), appointed by then-governor Rick Perry, the TCEQ was found to “not consistently ensure violators are held accountable.” According to a 2003 Texas State Audit, polluters “often have economic benefits that exceed their penalties, which could reduce their incentive to comply.” [52]

As head of the CEQ, Hartnett-White would be in charge of coordinating interagency science, climate, and environmental policy and oversee things such as the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review process and agency compliance with that law. [50]

Though CEQ oversees the NEPA process, it remains unclear how seriously Hartnett-White will take the NEPA review process, for decades seen as a bedrock of U.S. environmental regulation since NEPA became law in 1970,” DeSmog's Steve Horn reported[50]

September 28, 2017

The Heartland Institute held closed door meetings to identify candidates for EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt's “red team” exercise on climate change, an email from Joe Bast revealed. As E&E News reported, the email and notes provided “a broad look at skeptics' policy playbook under the Trump administration while exposing stark suspicions about Pruitt.” [53]

EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt's proposal for a Red Team-Blue Team exercise is vague, probably would not be effective, and is unlikely to come about,” Bast wrote in the email. “More likely to occur is a similar exercise directed by the head of another department (NASA, NOAA, or OSTP) with more interest than Pruitt has shown in the scientific debate and more likely to stick around to see the results.”

View Bast's complete email below:

According to the notes, those present at the meeting included David Shnare who “described how policy can be changed from 'inside the swamp' via seven 'legal points of entry' such as legal challenges under the Information Quality Act and violations of peer review,” Heartland president Tim Huelskamp, David Legates, Harry MacDougald, and Jim Lakely.

June 1, 2017

The Illinois Review reported that Joe Bast was seated in the Rose Garden, by invitation, when Donald Trump announced his decision to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris Climate Agreement: [38]

“Although The Heartland Institute has been subject to many attacks from so-called global alarmists, after Joe Bast’s presence was spotted in the Rose Garden an effort was made to harm President Trump by attacking Heartland’s Joe Bast,” The Illinois Review wrote. [38]

Bast, writing at the Heartland Institute's blog, said “I was honored to be invited, and view it as a sign that our efforts for the past 20 years on the climate change issue have not gone unnoticed.  But the left noticed my attendance as well, and so this week they tried to hurt President Trump by attacking me.” [39]

In the article, Bast also penned a response to four U.S. senators who had mailed U.S. Department of Education Secretary Betsy DeVos asking for correspondence between the Heartland Institute and her department. Bast's June 8 letter reads: [40], [41]

“For the record, The Heartland Institute has contacted nearly all members of the Trump cabinet. We have sent extensive information to more than 100 members of the administration explaining who we are, enclosing multiple publications (including books, policy studies, and videos) of most relevance to their positions, and offering to make our extensive network of some 370 policy experts available to provide further assistance. Some have gotten back to us.” [41]

May 26, 2017

Writing at the Heartland Institute's blog Somewhat Reasonable, Bast makes a few recommendations on “good short references to the climate debate to share with family and friends over the Memorial Day holiday.” Bast's article, titled “Happy Memorial Day, You Stupid, Arrogant, Liberal Global Warming Alarmist!” [37]

Bast points to an outdated 1922 article on Artic ice as a good “conversation starter” and “a good way to poke a stick in the eye of your global warming alarmist friends.” [37]

Global warming alarmists often claim the recent Arctic warming is unprecedented or must be due to the human presence. On its face, the 1922 article makes those claims dubious. Closer study reveals they haven’t made the case,” Bast wrote. [37]

Among the “short references” listed by Bast include work by by Craig IdsoRobert CarterS. Fred Singer, Joe Bast (himself), Anthony Watts, and the Heartland Institute's newsletter. [37]

May 8, 2017

Bast, representing Heartland, is a signatory to an open letter to President Donald J. Trump urging him “to withdraw fully from the Paris Climate Treaty and to stop all taxpayer funding of UN global warming programs.” [34]

DeSmog reported that the 40 groups represented in the letter, including the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), The Heartland Institute, and the Heritage Foundation, have received a combined total of millions of dollars from the Koch Brothers, ExxonMobil, and other industry groups. [35]

Analysis also showed that the groups accepted about $80 million through Donors Capital Fund and Donors Trust, two groups that have been confirmed is a key financial source for key U.S-based climate change denial groups. [36]

March 23, 2017

Joseph Bast presented at the Heartland-Institute's ”International Conference on Climate Change” (ICCC12), providing opening remarks for breakfast, lunch, and dinner keynotes. [32]

In an interview with Mother Jones, Bast said that rescinding the EPA's endangerment finding was the “number one priority” that he sees for the EPA under Trump. “We’ve been at this for 33 years. We have a lot of people in our network, and many of these people are now in this new administration,” Bast said. He added that Transition staff and new appointees in the Trump administration “occasionally ask us for advice and names of people.” [33]

Opening remarks (Breakfast Keynotes)

Dinner Keynotes (Thursday)

Lunch Keynotes (Friday)

January 12, 2017

Joseph Bast was a signatory to a January 12, 2017 official letter of support (PDF) for Scott Pruitt, in which numerous groups,  including The Heartland Institute, American Energy Alliance (AEA), and others, declared that the Senate should “swiftly approve his nomination” for Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

 Other signatories of the letter included: [30]

July 12, 2016

Joseph Bast, representing the Heartland Institute, was a signatory to a “Coalition” open letter pushing back against what the Heartland Institute describes as an “affront to free speech.” The groups are responding to the recent Web of Denial Resolution brought up in the Senate, calling out fossil fuel industry-funded groups denying climate change. [26]

According to the Climate Investigations Center, all but one of the open letter's signatory organizations have taken money (totaling at least $92 million since 1997) from the “climate denial web” including Koch Brothers' various foundations, ExxonMobil, and two “Dark Money” organizations, Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund. [29]

Championed by Senators Whitehouse, Markey, Schatz, Boxer, Merkley, Warren, Sanders, and Franken, the resolution condemns what they are calling the #WebOfDenial — “interconnected groups – funded by the Koch brothers, major fossil fuel companies like ExxonMobil and Peabody Coal, identity-scrubbing groups like Donors Trust and Donors Capital, and their allies – developed and executed a massive campaign to deceive the public about climate change to halt climate action and protect their bottom lines.” [27]

The open letter addresses the senators, calling them “tyrants”: 

“We hear you. Your threat is clear: There is a heavy and inconvenient cost to disagreeing with you. Calls for debate will be met with political retribution. That’s called tyranny. And, we reject it.” [28]

The full list of signatories and their respective organizations is as follows:

May 18, 2016

Joseph Bast was a signatory to a full page color advertisement in The New York Times titled “Abuse of Power” (PDF) sponsored by The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI).  The ad serves as an open letter from 43 signatories including organizations and individuals in response to  New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, U.S. Virgin Islands Attorney General Claude Walker, and the coalition of Attorneys General investigating groups denying man-made climate change[23][24]

Attempts to intimidate CEI and our allies and silence our policy research are unconstitutional,” said CEI president Kent Lassman. “The First Amendment protects us and everyone has a duty to respect it – even state attorneys general.  CEI will continue to fight for all Americans to support the causes in which they believe.” [23]

The Competitive Enterprise Institute received a subpoena from AG Walker on April 7, 2016. On April 20, CEI filed an objection to the subpoena calling it “offensive,” “un-American,” and “unlawful,” and are contending that AG Walker is “violating CEI’s First Amendment rights.”  [23]

The “freedom of speech” argument was echoed by ExxonMobil's legal team, as well as numerous other conservative groups including the Pacific Legal Foundation, and Heritage Foundation and the recently-formed Free Speech in Science Project, a group created by the same lawyers who defended the Competitive Enterprise Institute in the past. [25]

The CEI letter lists the following signatories:

March, 2015

Joseph Bast is one of several climate change skeptics cc'd on an email from S. Fred Singer in hopes of countering the documentary film “Merchants of Doubt,” which exposes the network of climate change skeptics and deniers trying to delay legislative action on climate change.  

The October, 2014 email was leaked to journalists before the documentary was released. “Can I sue for damages?” Singer asked in the email. “Can we get an injunction against the documentary?”

InsideClimate News reports in their article “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” how “Many of those copied on the email thread, such as Singer and communications specialist Steven Milloy, have financial ties to the tobacco, chemical, and oil and gas industries and have worked to defend them since the 1990s.” [18]

InsideClimate News also documented all those who were cc'd on the email, including the following skeptics and groups:

DeSmog covered the emails here: “Merchants of Doubt Film Debuts, Textbook Denial Attack Campaign Led By Fred Singer Ensues” and DeSmog also archived a full copy of the Singer email thread (PDF).

August 2014

Joseph Bast testified at a Travis County Texas court hearing regarding the Texas Taxpayers’ Savings Grant Programs (“TTSGP”). The court questions Bast's credibility as a witness (PDF, p. 335 - 336):
“Mr. Joseph Bast, president and CEO of the Heartland Institute, testified for the Intervenors regarding the Texas Taxpayers’ Savings Grant Programs (“TTSGP”), a school voucher bill that failed in the 82nd Legislative Session. As a threshold matter, this Court finds that Mr. Bast is not a credible witness and that he did not offer reliable opinions in this matter. While Mr. Bast described himself as an economist, he holds neither undergraduate nor graduate degrees in economics, and the highest level of education he completed was high school. Mr. Bast testified that he is 100% committed to the long-term goal of getting government out of the business of educating its own voting citizens. Further, his use of inflammatory and irresponsible language regarding global warming, and his admission that the long term goal of his advocacy of vouchers is to dismantle the 'socialist' public education system further undermine his credibility with this Court.”  [20]

May 26, 2014

Joe Bast co-wrote an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal with Roy Spencer entitled, “The Myth of the Climate Change '97%'.” In the commentary attacking the overwhelming scientific consensus on climate science, Spencer and Bast argued that, “There is no basis for the claim that 97% of scientists believe that man-made climate change is a dangerous problem.”

May 19, 2014

As Center for Media and Democracy's PR Watch reports, Joseph Bast was featured on part of a Showtime series titled “Years of Living Dangerously” profiling climate change skeptics. A preview of the interview is available here. [21], [22]

May 6, 2014

Joseph Bast was interviewed by Dorothy Tucker, of CBS 2 News in Chicago, “to give the other side of [the] story about President Obama's National Climate Assessment report.” [16]

1:22-1:40 “We have always had floods, we have always had droughts … I think they [The Obama Administration] are trying to whip up public support and attention for a political agenda. He [Obama] is attempting to shut down coal generation in the United States, and in its place, heavily subsidizing wind and solar, and biofuels.” [16]

April 30, 2014

At a mining conference in Denver, CO, Republic Report, cross-posted on DeSmogBlog, spoke to Heartland Institute's president, Joseph Bast, about his past support for the tobacco industry. When first asked by Republic Report, Bast denied that he had ever dismissed concerns about the risks of smoking. [13]

In a report entitled, “Please Don't Poop in My Salad,” (PDF) released by Heartland and written by Bast in July of 2006, Bast was quoted on page 57 (pg. 65 in PDF format), “A fourth lie is that even moderate smoking is deadly. Several experts (including two who are very anti-smoking) have told me that smoking fewer than seven cigarettes a day does not raise a smoker's risk of lung cancer.” [14]

View Basts's response below:[15]

March 31, 2014

Bast published an Op/Ed piece in Forbes the same week the IPCC released its latest report: “Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report.” In the article, Bast states that the NIPCC's latest report, released that same day, fully addresses the IPCC's eight “reasons for concern” made in the final draft of its Summary for Policymakers. Bast asks Forbes' readers to not just wonder if man-made global warming is a crisis, but to “understand it yourself,” by “read[ing] one or a few chapters of one of the NIPCC reports, and ask if what you read is logical, factual, and relevant to the debate.” [10]

March 15, 2013 

Joseph Bast, alongside Walter Cunningham, Thomas Wysmuller, and Harold Doiron spoke at a panel discussion of The Right Climate Stuff (TRCS) where they explain “why they are urging government agencies to cease their ‘unbridled advocacy’ of Anthropogenic Global Warming & Return Integrity to the Scientific Method.” [19] In January 2013, TRCS issued this summary of its findings as follows (The Heartland Institute):

  1. The science that predicts the extent of anthropogenic global warming is not settled science.
  2. There is no convincing physical evidence of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming.
  3. Computer models need to be validated before being used in critical decision-making.
  4. Because there is no immediate threat of global warming requiring swift corrective action, we have time to study global climate changes and improve our prediction accuracy.
  5. The U.S. government is over-reacting to concerns about anthropogenic global warming.
  6. A wider range of solution options should be studied for global warming or cooling threats from any credible cause.

September 18, 2013

Joseph Bast and Willie Soon appeared on Fox News Channel's, “Special Report with Bret Baier” to discuss the release of “Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science,” published for the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) by The Heartland Institute. [9]

May 23, 2012

The Heartland Institute's Seventh “International Conference on Climate Change,” took place on May 23, 2012 in Chicago. Heartland President Joseph Bast, during his closing remarks of the conference, appealed for funding from the crowd due to lower attendence numbers and an insufficient ability to raise funds: 

Please consider supporting the Heartland Institute. These conferences are expensive, and I’m not a good fundraiser so as a result I don’t raise enough money to cover them, we really scramble to make payroll as a result to cover these expenses. If you can afford to make a contribution, please do. If you know someone, if you’ve got a rich uncle or somebody in the family or somebody that you work with, please give them a call and ask them if they would consider making a tax-deductable contribution to the Heartland Institute.” [11]

May 4, 2012

The Heartland Institute released a billboard campaign in Chicago featuring “Unabomber” Ted Kaczynski, Charles Manson and Fidel Castro. Heartland's intent with the campaign was to portray those who believe in the overwhelming evidence of man-made climate change as “radical [and] on the fringe of society.” [12]


In a statement announcing the billboard campaign, Heartland explained its rationale as: 

“Because what these murderers and madmen have said differs very little from what spokespersons for the United Nations, journalists for the “mainstream” media, and liberal politicians say about global warming….
The point is that believing in global warming is not “mainstream,” smart, or sophisticated. In fact, it is just the opposite of those things. Still believing in man-made global warming – after all the scientific discoveries and revelations that point against this theory – is more than a little nutty. In fact, some really crazy people use it to justify immoral and frightening behavior.”

The billboard was immediately and widely condemned as outrageous and offensive. Bast soon issued a statement to The Washington Post, rather unapologetically stating:

“We will stop running [the billboard] at 4:00 p.m. CST today. (It’s a digital billboard, so a simple phone call is all it takes.) The Heartland Institute knew this was a risk when deciding to test it, but decided it was a necessary price to make an emotional appeal to people who otherwise aren’t following the climate change debate.” [12]

June 21, 2005

Testified before the Pennsylvania House of Representatives Committee on Environmental Resources and Energy, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania on the  “Cost of Greenhouse Gas Control” (PDF).

August 2, 2002

Bast was signed to a letter to President Bush written by Myron Ebell and Fred L. Smith. The letter congratulated President George W. Bush for not attending the World Summit on sustainable Development in Johannesburg, and warned against a “a World Environmental Organization,” which the authors described as “the worst possible outcome at Johannesburg.” [31]


Wrote and designed a series of six brochures on environmental issues for distribution to elected officials, journalists, and other audiences. [3]


Wrote, co-directed, and co-produced a 20-minute video titled Coming Out of the Ice.  The video covered a variety of public policy issues such as tort reform, privatization, school reform, and taxes. [3]



Bast is the coauthor of 12 books, including Rebuilding America's Schools (1990), Why We Spend Too Much on Health Care (1992), Eco-Sanity: A Common-Sense Guide to Environmentalism (1994), and Education & Capitalism (2003). [3]

He has not published any articles in peer-reviewed journals on the subject of climate change. A list of his books, publications, and policy studies is available at his archied profile at the Heartland Institute. [45]


  1. Joseph Bast. “Eight Reasons Why Global Warming is a Scam” (PDF), The Heartland Institute, February 1, 2003.

  2. “Testimony by Joseph L. Bast President, The Heartland Institute to the Environment Committee of the Iowa House Monday, February 9, 2004” (PDF), The Heartland Institute.

  3. Joseph L. Bast - 2008 Resumé.” The Heartland Institute. Archived February 20, 2012. URL

  4. Staff and Board Members: Joseph L. Bast,” Grassroot Institute of Hawaii. Archived April 23, 2011. URL:

  5. The Heartland Institute,” SourceWatch.

  6. Joseph Bast,” SourceWatch.

  7. Chinese Translate Climate Change Reconsidered Volumes,” The Heartland Institute, August 14, 2013.

  8. Joe Bast, Willie Soon talking 'Climate Change Reconsidered' on Fox News,” The Heartland Institute, September 19, 2013.

  9. NIPCC Climate Report Covered on 'Special Report with Bret Baier',” The Heartland Institute, September 17, 2013. Archived April 8, 2014.

  10. The IPCC's Latest Report Deliberately Excludes and Misrepresents Important Climate Science,” Forbes, March 31, 2014. Archived April 8, 2014.

  11. Joe Bast Announces the Death of Denial-a-Palooza at Final Heartland ICCC Conference,” DeSmogBlog, May 23, 2012.

  12. Will Heartland Institute's Corporate Funders Tacitly Endorse Comparing Climate realists to Bin Laden and the Unabomber?” DeSmogBlog, May 4, 2012.

  13. VIDEO: Heartland Institute Reluctantly Stands by Denial of Cigarette Smoking Risks,” Republic Report, April 30, 2014. Archived May 5, 2014.

  14. Joseph Bast. “Please Don't Poop in My Salad” (PDF), Heartland Institute, July, 2006. Archived May 5, 2014.

  15. Joe Bast reluctantly reaffirms cigarette health risk denial,” Lee Fang, April 24, 2014. Archived May 5, 2014.

  16. Heartland Institute President Joseph Bast on CBS 2 in Chicago Talking Climate,” HeartlandTube, May 7, 2014. Archived July 1, 2014.

  17. Jim Lakely, Joseph Bast. “International Gathering of Scientists Skeptical of Man-Caused Global Warming to Take Place in Las Vegas from July 7 to July 9,” Heartland Institute, March 26, 2014. Archived July 1, 2014.

  18. Katherine Bagley. “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” InsideClimate News. March 12, 2015.

  19. Jim Lakely. “Apollo 7 Astronaut Walter Cunningham to Headline 'Right Climate Stuff' Event at CPAC 2013,” The Heartland Institute, March 8, 2013.

  20. The Texas Taxpayer & Student Fairness Coalition et al. vs Williams et al. (pdf),” D-1-GN-11-003130, (District Court of Travis County Texas 2014), 335 to 336. Original also on DocumentCloud. Archived at Internet Archive, June 9, 2015.

  21. Showtime Exposes Climate Change Deniers, like James Taylor and Joseph Bast's Heartland Institute,” PR Watch, May 19, 2014. Archived January 25, 2016. WebCite URL

  22. Years of Living Dangerously: Episode 6,” Showtime. Archived January 25, 2016. WebCite URL

  23. CEI Runs “Abuse of Power” Ad In New York Times,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 18, 2016. Archived May 31, 2016.

  24. “Abuse of Power: All Americans have the right to support causes they believe in” (PDF), Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  25. Steve Horn. “Exxon's Lawyer in Climate Science Probe Has History Helping Big Tobacco and NFL Defend Against Health Claims,” DeSmogBlog, May 10, 2016.

  26. Jim Lakely. “#WebOfDenial Push by Senate Dems Exposes Their Hatred of Free Speech,” Somewhat Reasonable (Heartland Institute Blog), July 12, 2016. Archived July 14, 2016.

  27. Brendan Demelle. “Senators Launch Resolution, Speech Blitz Calling Out #WebOfDenial Blocking Climate Action,” DeSmog, July 11, 2016.

  28. Coalition Letter to Senate Web of Denial Resolution (PDF). Retrieved from the Heartland Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSMogBlog.

  29. Cindy Baxter. “Front Groups Attacking #WebofDenial Senate Action Took Over $92M in Dark, Dirty Money,” Desmog, July 14, 2016. Originally posted at Climate Investigations Center.

  30. “Dear Senators,” (PDF), Competitive Enterprise Institute, January 12, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  31. An Open Letter To President Bush About The World Summit On Sustainable Development,“ Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2, 2002. Archived November 5, 2002. URL:

  32. International Conference on Climate Change 12,” YouTube video uploaded by user The Heartland Institute, March 23, 2017. 

  33. Rebecca Weber. “Leading Global Warming Deniers Just Told Us What They Want Trump to Do: Be Afraid,” Mother Jones, March 24, 2017. Archived April 11, 2017. URL:

  34. “Dear Mr. President” (PDF), retrieved from Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  35. Graham Readfearn. “Conservative Groups Pushing Trump To Exit Paris Climate Deal Have Taken Millions From Koch Brothers, Exxon,” DeSmog, May 10, 2017.

  36. Susanne Goldberg. “Conservative groups spend up to $1bn a year to fight action on climate change,” The Guardian, December 20, 2013. Archived May 12, 2017. URL

  37. Happy Memorial Day, You Stupid, Arrogant, Liberal Global Warming Alarmist!” Somewhat Reasonable, May 26, 2017. Archived May 27, 2017. URL


  39. Joe Bast. “Four Liberal U.S. Senators Attack Heartland, and We Reply,” Heartland Institute, June 9, 2017. Archived June 19, 2017. URL:

  40. Dear Secretary DeVos,” United States Senate, June 7, 2017. Retrieved from

  41. Re: Your recent shameful conduct with regard to our communications with the Trump administration” (PDF), The Heartland Institute, June 8, 2017.

  42. Joseph Bast,” Heartland Institute. Archived June 20, 2017. URL:

  43. ABOUT US,” The Heartland Institute. Archied June 20, 2017. URL:

  44. Joe Bast. “History of The Heartland Institute” (PDF), Heartland Institute, December 2016.

  45. Joseph L. Bast - 2008 Resumé,” The Heartland Institute. Archied February 20, 2012. URL:

  46. Joseph L. Bast: 2013 Resumé” (PDF), The Heartland Institute.

  47. About,” America First Energy. Archived October 11, 2017. URL

  48. October 2017 Fundraising letter by Fred Palmer. On file at Desmog.

  49. SPEAKERS,” America First Energy. Archived October 10, 2017. URL

  50. Steve Horn. “Trump Names Climate Denier Kathleen Hartnett-White to Head White House Environmental Council,” DeSmog, October 13, 2017.

  51. “Heartland Institute Experts React to Trump’s Appointment of Kathleen Hartnett White for CEQ,” The Heartland Institute. Archived newsletter .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  52. An Audit Report on The Commission on Environmental Quality’s Enforcement and Permitting Functions for Selected Programs” (PDF), State Auditor's Office, December 2003.

  53. Skeptics suspicious of Pruitt plan to press him on red team,” E&E News, October 16, 2017. Archived October 17, 2017. URL

Profile image screenshot from YouTube, Joe Bast speaking at the Heartland Institute's 12th International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC12).