Mackinac Center for Public Policy
The Mackinac Center for Public Policy is a nonprofit, tax-exempt organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the IRS. Originally named the Michigan Research Institute, the organization was founded in 1987 as a state-level conservative policy think tank in Michigan. , 
The Mackinac Center describes itself as a “nonpartisan research and educational institute dedicated to improving the quality of life for all Michigan citizens by promoting sound solutions to state and local policy questions.” 
Mother Jones reports that the Mackinac Center has been known as a vocal opponent of unions in Michigan, while receiving a large portion of their initial funding from the DeVos family.  Dick Devos has also served on the Center's Board of Directors. Mother Jones has also described the Mackinac Center's close ties to the Republican Party: “The Mackinac Center has been tied at the hip with the Republican Party establishment for years,” Doug Pratt, public affairs director at the Michigan Education Association told Mother Jones. “It goes to their funding sources; it goes to their ideology.” 
The Mackinac Center was created with seed money from the Cornerstone Foundation, as well as $335,986 from various officials of Dow Corning and Dow Chemical. Their second-largest donor is Donors Capital Fund (DCF), which contributed at least $3,203,500 to the Mackinac Center between 1993 and 2013. Donors Capital Fund and its sister organization, DonorsTrust have been described as the “dark money ATM of the conservative movement in the US.” They allow for anonymous donations, mostly from conservative individuals and foundations, to flow to organizations while hiding their identity through “donor advised funds.” , 
Academics have criticized the Center, saying that “Mackinac Center research is often of low quality and because of this it should be treated with considerable skepticism by the public, policy makers and political leaders. Much of the work of the Mackinac Center may have caused more confusion than clarity in the public discussion of the issues that it has addressed by systematically ignoring evidence that does not agree with its proposed solutions.” , 
Mackinac Center & Climate Change Denial
The Mackinac Center regularly publishes articles questioning man-made climate change. The Center has questioned prominent climate policy consultants, and have historically cited the work of skeptical individuals and organizations such as the Cato Institute. , 
The Mackinac Center's publication “MichiganScience” has covered the “Climategate” issue more than once. Henry Payne writes in Climategate reveals that some scientists have tilted decidedly toward dishonesty, vilifying their critics and manipulating data to “trick” the public and “hide the decline” in global temperatures. 
Mackinac Center's Nonprofit Status Questioned
Citizens advocacy group Progress Michigan released audio from an Americans for Prosperity “Citizen Watchdog Training” event which they claim shows the Mackinac Center has been involved in lobbying for Right to Work (RTW) laws in Legislature. 
According to a Progress Michigan press release, F. Vincent Vernuccio, the Mackinac Center’s Director of Labor Policy, “admitted to meeting with lawmakers to make a plan for ramming RTW laws through the Legislature.”
“Lansing politicians have spent the last two years ramming through a right-wing wish list of attacks on middle class families through tax increases and cuts to education,” said Zack Pohl, Executive Director of Progress Michigan. “It’s clear that despite calling itself a non-partisan think tank, the Mackinac Center has been intimately involved in lobbying Republicans to get their legislative agenda passed – and the worst part is, they’re doing it without even a minimal amount of transparency or disclosure.”
While the Mackinac Center does not admit to lobbying to the federal Internal Revenue Service or the state of Michigan, emails obtained by Progress Michigan in 2011 indicated that “the Mackinac Center was actively seeking to influence the legislative process on a series of bills related to health care benefits for teachers and other public workers.”
In 2012, Congressman Sander Levin sent the IRS a letter asking them to investigate the tax-exempt status of the Mackinac Center after the emails were found indicating “a long-term plan to lobby.”
Progress Michican released a report on the Mackinac Center that further called the Center's “nonpartisan” and nonprofit status into question.  According to the report, the Mackinac center had made at least wo payments payments categorized in official records as political contributions, one to the Michigan Republican Party and another to the Livingston County Republi-can Committee. 
“Both contributions are apparent violations of the Mackinac Center’s 501(c)(3) nonprofit status,” the report reads. “Moreover, an analysis of campaign contributions made by Mackinac Center board members shows an overwhelming majority going to GOP candidates.”
Stance on Climate Change
Note: while the Mackinac Center for Public Policy does not appear to have an official statement on cliamate change, many of its staff members do present their own views on the topic (often in the Center's own publications):
“The claim that 97 percent of climatologists (or climate scientists) agree that global warming poses a significant threat and is being primarily driven by human activities has become the centerpiece of the man-made global warming argument. This, more than all other aspects of the issue, is the big lie that must be challenged” — Jack Spencer, past Capital Affairs Specialist, Mackinac Center. , 
“The alarmists screech and holler, but when their assertions and predictions are debunked, they are consistently allowed to move on to the next temporary circumstance they seek to exploit. It’s high time that they suffer the loss of credibility they deserve. News media and politicians have a responsibility to stand up and take notice when the claims of global warming alarmists are revealed to have been hogwash. Our society in general has a right to be told the true score.” Jack Spencer, Mackinac Center blog. 
“Manipulation of statistics through selective use of base points is a treasured tactic in the pseudosciences. Climatologists Patrick J. Michaels and Robert C. Balling Jr., in their 2000 book “The Satanic Gases,” offer an example that would be amusing if it were not so chilling.” 
Mackinac Center & The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)
“The Mackinac Center is an active member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), a corporate bill mill. Over the years, Mackinac staffers have proposed numerous bills at ALEC task force meetings, where elected officials and private sector members (like corporate lobbyists and special interest groups) vote as equals behind closed doors on tem-plates to change the law. Under ALEC’s public bylaws, its state legislative leaders are tasked with a 'duty' to get those bill introduced into law. The coordinated agenda that ALEC and the Mackinac Center advocate for includes:
- Attacking workers' rights with the recent so-called 'Right to Work' law, pushing paycheck deception measures, calling for the repeal of the pre-vailing wage law and advocating for bills that cut public pension benefits
- Blocking the bipartisan effort in Michigan to expand Medicaid and imple-ment the Affordable Care Act that would give access to affordable health-care to millions of Michigan residents
- Defunding and privatizing Michigan's public schools with voucher pro-grams and charter schools
- Denying the science behind climate change and global warming, while also opposing the use of clean and renewable energy sources”
According to their website, the Mackinac Center “enjoys the support of foundations, individuals, and businesses who share a concern for Michigan's future and recognize the important role of sound ideas.” 
The following is based on data compiled by the Conservative Transparency Project. Note that not all individual funding entries have been verified by DeSmogBlog for accuracy. See the attached spreadsheet for full details on the Mackinac Center for Public Policy's funding by year (.xlsx). 
|Year||Charles Koch Foundation||Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation||Grand Total|
The following is reproduced from an in-depth report by the Michigan Education Association (PDF) which further lists and describes Mackinac's funders from 2002-2009: 
- Aequus Institute — $1,000 | Free Market/Christian Science Advocacy.
- Beach Foundation — $3,000
- Bradley Foundation, Lynde and Harry — $472,500 | Electronic and radio component heirs.
- Brandon Foundation, David A. — 2,500 | Former Domino's Pizza CEO.
- Bretzlaff Foundation, Hilda E. — $1,000
- Broad Foundation, Eli & Edythe — $27,500 | Homebuilding and retirement.
- Castle Rock Foundation — $50,000 | Coors founder's son.
- Chase Foundation of Virginia — $47,150 | JP Morgan banking heirs.
- Chrysler Foundation — $225,000 | Automotive corporation.
- Dart Foundation — $20,000 | Founder of Dart Container Corp.
- DeVos Foundation, Daniel and Pamella — $50,000 | Amway founder's son, CEO DP Fox Ventures.
- DeVos Foundation, Dick & Betsy — $70,000 | Gov candidate./former State Rep. Chair.
- DeVos Foundation, Douglas & Maria — $55,000 | Current Alticor (Amway) Co-CEO.
- DeVos Foundation, Richard and Helen — $90,000 | Amway founder.
- Donner Foundation, William H. — $20,000 | Heirs of Union Steel Co. founder.
- Dow Foundation, Herbert H. and Grace A. — $2,055,500 | Dow Chemical founder's widow.
- Dunn's Found. Advancement of Right Thinking — $576,000 | Investment company founder.
- Earhart Foundation, MI — $333,300 | White Star Oil heirs.
- ExxonMobil Foundation, TX — $10,000 | Oil corporation.
- Fisher Foundation, Max M. and Marjorie S. — $1,000 | Gas stations and real estate.
- Gelman Educational Foundation — $10,000 | Gelman Instrument Company.
- General Motors Foundation, Inc. — $30,000 | Automotive corporation.
- Gerstacker Foundation, Rollin M. — $150,000 | Dow Chemical Chairman (retired).
- Hanover Insurance Group Foundation, Inc. — $5,500 | Insurance corp. (includes Citizens).
- Hansen Foundation, Robert and Marie — $25,000 | Cogen Technologies founder.
- Heritage Mark Foundation — $7,000 | Christian causes, emphasis on evangelism.
- Herrick Foundation — $1,950,000 | Tecumseh Engines founder's son.
- Hickory Foundation — $40,000 | Investment company founder's former wife.
- Hume Foundation, Jaquelin — $375,000 | Basic Vegetable company heir.
- J. P. Humphreys Foundation — $40,000 | TAMKO roofing ,composite decking founder’s wife.
- JM Foundation — $45,000 | Borden Milk Company heirs.
- Kelly Services, Inc. Foundation, MI — $3,500 | Staffing corporation.
- Koch Charitable Foundation, Charles G. — $50,000 Oil corporation heir, founder of Cato Institute.
- Merillat Foundation, Orville D. & Ruth A. — $195,000 | Cabinet manufacturer founder's widow.
- Perrigo Company Charitable Foundation — $36,000 | Over-the-counter drug manufacturer.
- Peters Foundation, Ruth and Lovett, OH — $525,000 | Procter & Gamble heirs.
- Pope Foundation, John William — $4,500 | Variety Wholesalers retail chain founder.
- Prince Foundation, Edgar and Elsa — $125,000 | Prince Automotive founder's widow.
- Rodney Fund — $744,500 | Detroit Forming founder/Mackinac Bd member.
- Roe Foundation — $150,000 | Builder Marts of American / State Policy Network founder.
- Scaife Foundation, Sarah — $50,000 | Mellon industrial, oil and banking heirs
- Schiavone Family Foundation — $10,000 | Construction company investigated for organized crime connections.
- Staley Educational Foundation, Richard Seth — $1,000
- Strosacker Foundation, Charles J — $68,750 | Dow Chemical Board member.
- Van Andel Foundation, Jay and Betty — $20,000 | Amway founder's widow.
- Walton Family Foundation — $100,000 | Wall Mart heirs.
Board of Directors
|D. Joseph Olson||Y||Y||Y|
|Kent Herrick||Y||Y||Y||Vice Chairman|
Board of Scholars
|Andrew Coulson||Y||Y||Cato Institute|
|Annette Kirk||Y||Y||Y||Russell Kirk Center for Cultural Renewal|
|Bradley Birzer||Y||Y||Y||Hillsdale College|
|Bradley Smith||Y||Y||Y||Capital University Law School|
|Burton Folsom||Y||Y||Senior Fellow in Economic Education|
|Charles Meiser||Y||Y||Y||Lake Superior State University (ret.)|
|Christopher Douglas||Y||Y||University of Michigan-Flint|
|Dale Matcheck||Y||Y||Y||Northwood University|
|Dan Crane||Y||Y||University of Michigan Law School|
|David Felbeck||Y||Y||Y||University of Michigan (ret.)|
|David Hebert||Y||Y||Ferris State University|
|David Janda||Y||Y||Y||Institute for Preventative Sports Medicine|
|David Littmann||Y||Y||Y||Senior Economist|
|Donald Alexander||Y||Y||Y||Western Michigan University|
|Gary Wolfram||Y||Y||Y||Hillsdale College|
|George Nastas||Y||Y||Y||Marketing Consultants|
|Glenn Moots||Y||Y||Y||Northwood University|
|Gregory Rehmke||Y||Y||Y||Economic Thinking|
|Harry Hutchison||Y||Y||Y||George Mason University School of Law|
|Harry Veryser||Y||Y||Y||University of Detroit-Mercy|
|Howard Schwartz||Y||Y||Y||Oakland University|
|James Sheehan||Y||Y||Y||Deutsche Bank Securities|
|Jason Taylor||Y||Y||Central Michigan University|
|Jefferson Edgens||Y||Y||Y||Thomas University|
|John Grether||Y||Y||Y||Northwood University|
|John Pafford||Y||Y||Y||Northwood University (ret.)|
|John Taylor||Y||Y||Y||Wayne State University|
|John Walter||Y||Y||Y||Dow Corning Corporation|
|Jürgen Skoppek||Y||Y||Michigan Supreme Court|
|Lawrence Reed||Y||Y||Y||President Emeritus|
|Mark Perry||Y||Y||Y||University of Michigan-Flint|
|Martha Seger||Y||Y||Y||Federal Reserve Board (ret.)|
|Michael Clark||Y||Y||Hillsdale College|
|Michael Heberling||Y||Y||Y||Baker College|
|Michael Hicks||Y||Y||Ball State University|
|Michael Winther||Y||Y||Y||Institute for Principle Studies|
|Ormand Hook||Y||Y||Y||Mecosta Osceola ISD|
|Peter Boettke||Y||Y||Y||George Mason University|
|Richard Cutler||Y||Y||University of Michigan (ret.)|
|Richard Vedder||Y||Y||Y||Ohio University|
|Robert Hunter||Y||Y||Y||Senior Fellow in Labor Policy|
|Robert Sirico||Y||Y||Y||Acton Institute|
|Ross Emmett||Y||Y||Michigan State University|
|Sarah Estelle||Y||Y||Hope College|
|Stephen Colarelli||Y||Y||Y||Central Michigan University|
|Stephen Safranek||Y||Y||Y||Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.|
|Theodore Bolema||Y||Y||Y||Mercatus Center|
|Thomas Bertonneau||Y||Y||Y||SUNY - Oswego|
|Todd Nesbit||Y||Y||Ohio State University|
|William Allen||Y||Y||Y||Michigan State University (Emeritus)|
|William Wilson||Y||Y||Y||The Heritage Foundation|
|Andrew Koehlinger||Y||Y||VoteSpotter Project Director|
|Anne Schieber||Y||Y||Y||Senior Investigative Analyst|
|Audrey Spalding||Y||Education Policy Fellow|
|Ben DeGrow||Y||Director of Education Policy|
|Burton Folsom||Y||Senior Fellow in Economic Education|
|Chantal Lovell||Y||Media Relations Manager|
|Dan Armstrong||Y||Director, Marketing & Communications|
|Darryl White||Y||Vice President for Advancement|
|Derek Draplin||Y||Reporter for Michigan Capitol Confidential|
|Derk Wilcox||Y||Y||Senior Attorney|
|F. Vincent Vernuccio||Y||Y||Director of Labor Policy|
|Geneva Ruppert||Y||Y||Communications Associate|
|Jack McHugh||Y||Y||Y||Senior Legislative Analyst|
|Jack Spencer||Y||Y||Capitol Affairs Specialist|
|James Hohman||Y||Y||Y||Assistant Director of Fiscal Policy|
|Jarrett Skorup||Y||Y||Y||Policy Analyst|
|Jason Hayes||Y||Director of Environmental Policy|
|Jim Walker||Y||Y||Vice President for Advancement|
|John Mozena||Y||Vice President for Marketing and Communications|
|Kahryn Riley||Y||Y||Policy Analyst|
|Kyle Jackson||Y||Education Policy Analyst|
|Lawrence Reed||Y||President Emeritus|
|Lindsey Dodge||Y||Assistant Editor|
|Lorie Shane||Y||Managing Director of Advancement|
|Manny Lopez||Y||Managing Editor, Michigan Capitol Confidential|
|Michael Jahr||Y||Vice President for Communications|
|Michael LaFaive||Y||Y||Y||Director of the Morey Fiscal Policy Initiative|
|Michael Reitz||Y||Y||Executive Vice President|
|Michael Van Beek||Y||Y||Y||Director of Research|
|Patrick Wright||Y||Y||Y||Vice President for Legal Affairs|
|Paul Kersey||Y||Director of Labor Policy|
|Russ Harding||Y||Director of the Property Rights Network|
|Ted O’Neil||Y||Communications Associate|
|Thomas Shull||Y||Senior Editor and Publications Manager|
|Tom Gantert||Y||Y||Y||Managing Editor of Michigan Capitol Confidential|
Below is a sample of staff and authors assocaited with the Mackinac Center. Many individuals are also associated with the Heartland Institute, Reason Foundation, Cato Institute, Heritage Foundation, Property and Environment Research Center, and a variety of other free-market think tanks.
View the attached spreadsheet for a full list of the Mackinac center's staff members (.xlsx).
July 12, 2016
The Mackinac Center for Public Policy, represented by Jason Hayes, was among 22 groups represented in a “Coalition” open letter pushing back against what the Heartland Institute describes as an “affront to free speech.” The groups are responding to the recent Web of Denial Resolution brought up in the Senate, calling out fossil fuel industry-funded groups denying climate change. 
According to the Climate Investigations Center, all but one of the open letter's signatory organizations have taken money (totalling at least $92 million since 1997) from the “climate denial web” including Koch Brothers' various foundations, ExxonMobil, and two “Dark Money” organizations, Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund. 
Championed by Senators Whitehouse, Markey, Schatz, Boxer, Merkley, Warren, Sanders, and Franken, the resolution condemns what they are calling the #WebOfDenial — “interconnected groups – funded by the Koch brothers, major fossil fuel companies like ExxonMobil and Peabody Coal, identity-scrubbing groups like Donors Trust and Donors Capital, and their allies – developed and executed a massive campaign to deceive the public about climate change to halt climate action and protect their bottom lines.” 
The open letter addresses the senators, calling them “tyrants”:
“We hear you. Your threat is clear: There is a heavy and inconvenient cost to disagreeing with you. Calls for debate will be met with political retribution. That’s called tyranny. And, we reject it.” 
The full list of signatories and their respective organizations is as follows:
- Grover Norquist — Americans for Tax Reform
- Lisa B. Nelson — American Legislative Exchange Council
- John A. Charles, Jr. — Cascade Policy Institute
- David Rothbard — Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow
- Kent Lassman — Competitive Enterprise Institute
- Nicole Neily — Franklin Center for Government and Policy Integrity
- Benita Dodd — Georgia Public Policy Foundation
- Bridgett Wagner — The Heritage Foundation
- Fred Birnbaum — Idaho Freedom Foundation
- Joseph Bast — The Heartland Institute
- J. Robert McClure III — James Madison Institute
- Brett Healy — The John K. MacIver Institute for Public Policy
- Kory Swanson — John Locke Foundation
- Dave Trabert — Kansas Policy Institute
- Jason Hayes — Mackinac Center for Public Policy
- Brent Mead — Montana Policy Institute
- Sharon J. Rossie — Nevada Policy Research Institute
- Sally Pipes — Pacific Research Institute
- Kevin Kane — Pelican Institute for Public Policy
- Paul J. Gessing — Rio Grande Foundation
- Lynn Taylor — Virginia Institute for Public Policy
- Carol Platt Liebau — Yankee Institute for Public Policy
Writing in Michigan Capitol Confidential (one of the Mackinac Center's “daily news” sites),  Tom Gantert writes that the recent efforts by a coalition of state attorneys general to investigate ExxonMobil's knowledge of climate change. 
Gantert repeats the same “freedom of speech” argument used by ExxonMobil's own lawyer, as well as the recently-created Free Speech in Science Project. He argues that the attorneys general are trying to “silence opponents of progressive theories” with the “threat of criminal prosecution.” 
“While these nonprofits and climate change dissenters are the current targets, one attorney warns the tactic represents a danger to political free speech that is protected by the First Amendment,” Gantert writes.
Although the author admits that “The development of gas wells using hydraulic fracturing technology poses some environmental risk,” the article suggests that “state officials should resist the temptation to over-regulate the [fracking] process, which could result in the loss of valuable jobs and an additional source of energy to heat Michigan’s homes and power its factories.”
May 21, 2011
The Mackinac Center published a blog post on their website rhetorically asking readers if “90 percent of scientists really buy into global warming alarmism.”
Citing William Happer and John Christy as part of the “remaining 10 percent” that do not “buy into global warming alarmism,” the Mackinac Center's blog post quoted Happer as saying “It is fashionable to believe in harmful global warming due to evil mankind … What could be a more worthy cause than saving the planet?” and Christy as saying “The problem is the degree of warming … Ninety percent would agree that mankind has some impact on the climate, but a lower percentage would say it was a dangerous impact.” 
Mackinac Center Contact & Location
As of June 2016, the Mackinac Center listed the following contact information on its website: 
Mackinac Center for Public Policy
140 West Main Street
P.O. Box 568
Midland, Michigan 48640
E-mail: [email protected]
- State Policy Network — Member.
The Mackinac Center's publications and related sites include:
- MichiganScience Magazine — Mackinac Center's environmental publication.
- Michigan Capitol Confidential
- The Overton Window
- Michigan Education Digest
- Michigan Education Report
- Students for a Free Economy (Defunct?)
- Mackinac Center Legal Foundation
Greg Steimel. “The Truth About the Mackinac Center” (PDF), Michigan Education Association, April 21, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
”Exposed: The Dark-Money ATM of the Conservative Movement,” Mother Jones, February 5, 2013. Archived July 23, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/Iw7IB
Cookson, Molnar, Embree. Great Lakes Center for Education Research & Practice report. Let the Buyer Beware: An Analysis of Social Science Value and Methodological Quality of Educational Studies Published by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy (1990-2001). (PDF), September 28, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
“Mackinac Center for Public Policy,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed May 17, 2016.
“Mackinac Center for Public Policy: Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” GreenPeace USA. Archived March 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/R9euU
Russ Harding. “Hydraulic Fracturing: A look at the future of natural gas extraction,” MichiganScience, June 7, 2011. Archived November 14, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/7sr5E
“Do 90 Percent of Scientists Really Buy Into Global Warming Alarmism?” Mackinac Center for Public Policy, May 21, 2011. Archived November 1, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/kg7ik
Jack Spencer. “'Big Oil' and Climate ChangeL Debunking an urban myth,” Mackinac Center for Public Policy, January 16, 2015. Archived May 17, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/ljMi1
David Hasemyer and Bob Simison. “Exxon Fights Subpoena in Widening Climate Probe, Citing Violation of Its Constitutional Rights,” InsideClimateNews, April 14, 2016. Archived May 11, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/KW6In
Steve Horn. “Exxon's Lawyer in Climate Science Probe Has History Helping Big Tobacco and NFL Defend Against Health Claims,” DeSmogBlog, May 10, 2016.
Tom Gantert. “State Attorneys General Wage War on Political Dissent,” Michigan Capitol Confidential, May 2, 2016. Archived May 17, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/XLLU3
Andy Kroll. “Meet the New Kochs: The DeVos Clan's Plan to Defund the Left,” Mother Jones, January/February 2014. Archived May 17, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/aqNxH
Andy Kroll. “Behind Michigan's 'Financial Martial Law': Corporations and Right-Wing Billionaires,” Mother Jones, March 23, 2011. Archived May 17, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/aAq7J
“Who's Running Michigan? The Far-Right Influence of the Mackinac Center for Public Policy,” November 13, 2013. Retrieved from scribd.com. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/YOqVK
“New reports show power of corporatist groups like Mackinac Center to implement statewide policies/laws benefiting corporations,” Eclectablog.com, November 14, 2013. Archived May 17, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/M2qJL
Jim Lakely. “#WebOfDenial Push by Senate Dems Exposes Their Hatred of Free Speech,” Somewhat Reasonable (Heartland Institute Blog), July 12, 2016. Archived July 14, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/eFCkh
Brendan Demelle. “Senators Launch Resolution, Speech Blitz Calling Out #WebOfDenial Blocking Climate Action,” DeSmog, July 11, 2016.
Coalition Letter to Senate Web of Denial Resolution (PDF). Retrieved from the Heartland Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSMogBlog.
Cindy Baxter. “Front Groups Attacking #WebofDenial Senate Action Took Over $92M in Dark, Dirty Money,” Desmog, July 14, 2016. Originally posted at Climate Investigations Center. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/2TB8i