Myron Ebell

Myron Ebell

Credentials

  • M.Sc. from the London School of Economics. [1]
  • B.A. from Colorado College. [1]

Background

Myron Ebell is the Director of Energy and Environment at the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) and director of Freedom Action, a “web-based grassroots activist organization loosely affiliated with CEI.” He is also the chair of the Cooler Heads Coalition, a group of organizations “that question global warming alarmism and oppose energy rationing policies.” [1], [2]

According to an article in Vanity Fair, “Though he likes to bash scientists for working outside their degreed fields, Ebell, it turns out, isn't a scientist at all. He majored in philosophy at the University of California in San Diego, then studied political theory at the London School of Economics and history at Cambridge.” [3]

In March 2010, the Financial Times called Mr. Ebell “one of America's most prominent climate-change skeptics.” In July 2009, the Business Insider's Green Sheet named him third in its list of the Ten Most-Respected Global Warming Skeptics and commented that “Myron Ebell may be enemy #1 to the current climate change community.” The nonprofit Clean Air Trust named Ebell its “clean air villain of the month” in 2001, citing his “ferocious lobbying charge to persuade President Bush to reverse his campaign pledge to control electric utility emissions of carbon dioxide.” [1][4]

A biography submitted when Ebell testified before Congress celebrates his reputation with environmental groups, noting he and three of his CEI colleagues were included in “A Field Guide to Climate Criminals” distributed at the UN climate meeting in Montreal in December 2005. Ebell was also listed as one of the six top “Misleaders” by Rolling Stone magazine in a 2005 issue. [68]

In 1998, Ebell was a member of the “Global Climate Science Communications Team” (GCSCT) assembled by the American Petroleum Institute (API), which worked on a plan to convince the public that climate change was uncertain. According to the plan “Victory will be achieved when average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the 'conventional wisdom'.” [33]

Donald Trump's EPA Transition Team

In September of 2016, Myron Ebell was selected by Donald Trump to lead his U.S. EPA transition team, two sources told Scientific American. [64], [65]

“Ebell's views appear to square with Trump’s when it comes to EPA’s agenda. Trump has called global warming 'bullshit' and he has said he would 'cancel' the Paris global warming accord and roll back President Obama’s executive actions on climate change.” [65]

“It's not lost on many observers, liberal and conservative alike, that Ebell is not a scientist and has never worked for the agency whose environmental mission he has attacked for years,” E&E News's ClimateWire notes. Describing Ebell's take on climate policy, one republication called him “very Orwellian […] If there's a Republican who wants to be constructive [on climate policy], they're an enemy.” [96]

In March, 2016, Trump promised to make major budget cuts to the EPA and to “get rid of [EPA] in almost every form. We are going to have little tidbits left but we are going to take a tremendous amount out.” [73]

DeSmog noted that earlier in August, climate change denier Kathleen Hartnett-White, director of the energy and environment project at the Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF) joined Trump's “Economic Advisory team.” A post-election chart provided to Politico confirmed that Ebell would be managing Trump's EPA transition team. [64] , [72]

The Huffington Post reported on “11 Reasons Why Trump’s Climate-Denying EPA Guy Could Spell Disaster For The Environment,” noting that a petition had been posted on the White House website calling for Ebell to be ousted from this role (the petition has since been removed). [92]

Fossil Fuel Funding & CEI

While the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) doesn't reveal the sources behind its $7 million annual budget, the Washington Post was able to glimpse a snapshot of CEI's funding in a list of donors to CEI's annual dinner, which included energy companies Marathon Petroleum, Koch Industries, American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity, and American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM). [75]

According to data from The Conservative Transparency Project, CEI has received over $1.5 million from the oil giant ExxonMobil, as well as a combined total of over $6 million from the secretive DonorsTrust and Donors Capital Fund, groups that Mother Jones magazine described as the “Dark Money ATM” of the conservative movement for their ability to obscure donor sources. [79], [80]

The following is from an interchange between Myron Ebell and the Environmental Defense Fund's Jeremy Symons, discussing CEI's funding from the coal compnay Murray Energy (see video below): [11]

SYMONS: Isn’t Murray Energy your biggest funder of your dinner? They’re the biggest coal company in the United States for underground mining.

EBELL: I’d like to see a lot more funding from all of those companies, but unfortunately many of the coal companies are now going bankrupt.

SYMONS: Wait, You said you don’t represent the companies but you want more money from the companies?

EBELL: I would like to have more funding so that I can combat the nonsense put out by the environmental movement.

Stance on Climate Change

2016

“Believing that man-made climate change exists, as I do, does not necessarily mean that you think that it is rapid or a serious problem or that the policies to address it will actually do anything or that you are willing to pay the costs of those policies.” [82]

May, 2007

“There has been a little bit of warming … but it’s been very modest and well within the range for natural variability, and whether it’s caused by human beings or not, it’s nothing to worry about.” [3]

December, 2006

“So modest climatic improvement would be to have fewer and less severe big winter storms. Amazingly, that’s exactly what we should get if global warming theory turns out to be true. The models say that much of the warming will occur in the upper latitudes and in the winter. At the risk of further ridicule in kooky blogs in England, where global warming alarmism is now a religion, that sounds pretty good to me. Fewer people will die from the cold.” [78]

2004

“True, the climate is always changing. The fact is, however, that a very moderate amount of warming that we've seen in the last century is not a very sound basis to believe that we're going to have a new ice age.” [5]

Key Quotes

September 24, 2016

Describing The National Intelligence Council's report on Implications for U. S. National Security of Anticipated Climate Change, which backs up the Presidential Memorandum on Climate Change and National Security released by the White House, Ebell says: [77]

“Its ten pages of text are filled with gems of junk science, which are summed up in this ridiculous pontification: 'Long-term changes in climate will produce more extreme weather events and put greater stress on critical Earth systems like oceans, freshwater, and biodiversity. These in turn will almost certainly have significant effects, both direct and indirect, across social, economic, political, and security realms during the next 20 years.'”

September 2, 2016

“President Obama’s action in joining the [Paris climate] treaty without ratification by the Senate is clearly an unconstitutional usurpation of the Senate's authority.” [71]

July, 2016

Speaking at private, undisclosed meetings held by the Republican Attorneys General Association (RAGA) in Colorado, Ebell urged the GOP attorneys general to continue their effort to push back against ExxonMobil investigation led by NY AG Eric Schneiderman:

So what does the other side do?” Ebell said. “Well, the first thing they try to do is try to change reality. They try to change the facts. So they try to reinterpret the data… What a number of the attorneys general here today have done is support our rights to free speech and freedom of association…we are very grateful and I think it had a big impact.” [66]

December, 2015

Speaking about the framework conference on climate change in Paris, Ebell said: [94]

“I don’t want to say it’s a disaster, but I think it is potentially a disaster for humankind and not necessarily any good for the planet.”

August 7, 2015

“The Existing Source Performance Standards (or ESPS) being applied under section 111d of the Clean Air Act to coal- and gas-fired power plants already in operation are called by the EPA the 'Clean Power' Plan. Don’t buy it.  More accurate names would be the Costly Power Plan or the Skyrocketing Rates Power Plan (h/t Alan Carlin) or the Obama Power Grab (h/t Senator McConnell’s office) or the National Energy Tax (h/t Speaker Boehner’s office).”

” […] The final ESPS is just as obviously illegal as the proposed rule.  Whether the D. C. Circuit Court of Appeals and ultimately the Supreme Court will see it that way is another matter. ” [70]

2015

“I think he's [the Pope] very ill-informed and he is ill-judged in doing this [climate change encyclical].” [6]

September, 2013

“The IPCC summary is merely further evidence of this denial of reality. They are living in cloud-cuckoo land or, perhaps more accurately, they are remarkably similar to the projectors in Gulliver's third voyage. Most people now understand this. The major groups that don't are, in this country, the bicoastal urban elite, and, in England, what are called London's chattering class.” [93]

2013

“The policies being promoted are insane… If you believe energy poverty is a good thing, you should support controls on carbon emissions. But most of the world disagrees with that.” [7]

October, 2012

“ [W]e believed that the consensus was phony. We believed that the so-called global warming consensus was not based on science, but was a political consensus, which included a number of scientists.” [83]

May, 2012

“As carbon dioxide levels have continued to increase, global temperatures flattened out, contrary to the models [used by climate scientists and the United Nations].” [85]

March, 2012

“[A]s a society, we could waste a fair amount of money on preparing for sea level rise if we put our faith in models that have no forecasting ability” [84]

November, 2009

On the so-called “Climate-Gate” controversy:

“It is clear that some of the 'world's leading climate scientists,' as they are always described, are more dedicated to promoting the alarmist political agenda than in scientific research. Some of the e-mails that I have read are blatant displays of personal pettiness, unethical conniving, and twisting the science to support their political position.” [89]

2007

“Every interview I do, when I'm asked about scientific issues, I say I'm not a climate scientist. I'm just giving you the informed layman's perspective. […]” [3]

2006

In an October 2006 BBC interview, Ebell pointed out that ExxonMobil would probably not fund the CEI if it changed its stance on global warming. [8]

Transcript:

BBC: Myron Ebell why do you imagine that Exxon gives you money?

Ebbel: You know, I think that the attempt here to claim that only the purest of the pure can engage in the public policy debate…

BBC: Please answer the question Mr. Ebell, why do you imagine they give you money?

Ebell: Because we send them letters asking them to support our general programs which… our general program is simply this: we believe in free markets and we support policies that promote less regulation of people's daily lives.

BBC: And they would presumably not be giving you that money if they felt you for taking a different view on, say for example climate change.

Ebell: I suppose that's right. We develop our policies and then we try to find funding.

November, 2005

Myron Ebell spoke on BBC Radio 4, calling Sir David King “ an “alarmist with ridiculous views who knows nothing about climate change.” [98]

2005

“We've always wanted to get the science on trial […] we would like to figure out a way to get this into a court of law […] this could work.”  [31]

2004

“[A]s previous studies have concluded, the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are probably thickening rather than melting.” [9]

2003

“Kyoto is dead and has been dead, but that doesn't mean that it hasn't done some real damage and won't continue to do some real damage,” “If global warming turns out to be a problem, which I doubt, it won't be solved by making ourselves poorer through energy rationing.” “It will be solved through building resiliency and capability into society and through long-term technological innovation and transformation.” [10]

1995

“The federal regulatory regime on public and private lands is in the process of putting whole industries out of business or damaging them severely.” [95]

Key Deeds

July 11, 2016

Myron Ebell attended private, undisclosed meetings held by the Republican Attorneys General Association (RAGA) in Colorado to coordinate on defending ExxonMobil and push back against climate change legislation. [66]

Representatives at the event included representatives from the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) and the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM), both of which have received funding from the petroleum industry or ExxonMobil. [66]

The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) reports Ebell urged the GOP attorneys general to continue their effort to push back against ExxonMobil investigation led by NY AG Eric Schneiderman:

So what does the other side do?” Ebell said. “Well, the first thing they try to do is try to change reality. They try to change the facts. So they try to reinterpret the data… What a number of the attorneys general here today have done is support our rights to free speech and freedom of association…we are very grateful and I think it had a big impact.” [66]

Ebell spoke in a panel presentation titled “Climate Change Debate: How Speech is Being Stifled” alongside Attorneys General Luther Strange and Scott Pruitt, as well as Chet Thompson, President of the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers. [67]

July, 2016

Myron Ebell criticized a letter to Congress from 31 science associations advocating policies to combat climate change, reports The Washington Times. [61]

On June 28, 2016, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) issued the letter and a press release introducing the letter, describing it as a  partnership of 31 leading nonpartisan scientific societies “reaffirming the reality of human-caused climate change, noting that greenhouse gas emissions 'must be substantially reduced' to minimize negative impacts on the global economy, natural resources, and human health.” [62]

The letter (PDF) addresses Members of Congress, writing to remind “of the consensus scientific view of climate change.” [63]

Ebell claims most of the letter’s signers “have little or no expertise in climate science, and virtually none knows anything special about making public policies.” [61]

In this case, the policies being advocated will destroy millions of jobs and cost trillions of dollars, but many of the professionals represented by these associations will probably do very well from more government funding,” Ebell said. [61]

May 18, 2016

Myron Ebell was a signatory to a full page color advertisement in The New York Times titled “Abuse of Power” (PDF) sponsored by The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI).  The ad serves as an open letter from 43 signatories including organizations and individuals in response to  New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, U.S. Virgin Islands Attorney General Claude Walker, and the coalition of AttorneysGeneral investigating groups denying man-made climate change[58][59]

Attempts to intimidate CEI and our allies and silence our policy research are unconstitutional,” said CEI president Kent Lassman. “The First Amendment protects us and everyone has a duty to respect it – even state attorneys general.  CEI will continue to fight for all Americans to support the causes in which they believe.” [58]

The Competitive Enterprise Institute received a subpoena from AG Walker on April 7, 2016. On April 20, CEI filed an objection to the subpoena calling it “offensive,” “un-American,” and “unlawful,” and are contending that AG Walker is “violating CEI’s First Amendment rights.”  [58]

The “freedom of speech” argument was echoed by ExxonMobil's legal team, as well as numerous other conservative groups including the Pacific Legal Foundation, and Heritage Foundation and the recently-formed Free Speech in Science Project, a group created by the same lawyers who defended the Competitive Enterprise Institute in the past. [60]

The CEI letter lists the following signatories:

May 9, 2016

Myron Ebell is a signatory to a letter opposing the National Ozone Standard. “Given the harmful economic effects, we ask that you consider measures to change the ozone standard and reform the rulemaking process,” the letter reads. [88]

February, 2016

Myron Ebell is a signatory to an open letter opposing a carbon tax in the United States and supporting Resolution 89. [91]

“As organizations that support free markets as a fundamental pathway to American prosperity, we oppose government policies – such as a carbon tax – that punish some and reward others in accordance with the government’s prevailing viewpoint on market ideals. Such marketplace manipulation represents a recipe for unintended consequences and self-inflicted economic damage. Too often, poor and middle class families bear the burden,” the letter reads. [91]

December 22, 2015

Myron Ebell, after attending the framework conference on climate change in Paris, went on Federalist Radio to discuss his views.

I don’t want to say it’s a disaster, but I think it is potentially a disaster for humankind and not necessarily any good for the planet,” Ebell said. With regards to Obama and John Kerry's comments that Global Warming is our largest security threat, Ebell said  “This is an attempt to change the subject. It’s to get off real dealing with problems that have very serious dangers and consequences and moving to this kind of feel-good issue of global warming.” [57]

Audio below.

August 5, 2015

Myron Ebell, of the Competitive Enterprise Institute, was interviewed alongside of the Environmental Defense Fund’s Jeremy Symons on the August 5 edition of CSPAN's Washington Journal. During the interview, EDF’s Symons “confronted” Ebell about his sources of funding, asking, “Isn't Murray Energy your biggest funder of your dinner? They're the biggest coal company in the United States for underground mining.” [11]

Ebell responded:

“I'd like to see a lot more funding from all of those companies, but unfortunately many of the coal companies are now going bankrupt … I would like to have more funding so that I can combat the nonsense put out by the environmental movement.” [11]

June 11-12, 2015

Myron Ebell was a speaker on Panel 14: “Action Items for Policymakers,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with Marc Morano and Bette Grande. [12], [76]

View Myron Ebell’s Panel 14 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: [13]

June 18, 2015

Myron Ebell released a statement on Pope Francis's Encyclical on Climate Change at the Competitive Enterprise Institute. [14]

“Global warming is a moral issue, but a proper moral evaluation must include comparing the impacts of global warming, which may be bad, with the impacts of global warming policies, which will almost certainly be catastrophic.  The Pope’s encyclical misses that significant matter,” Ebell Writes. [14]

February, 2015

Ebell spoke up to defend Willie Soon after pieces were published in The Guardian and the New York Times that accuse Soon of failing to disclose a conflict of interest in recent scientific papers. The New York Times writes ”[Soon] has accepted more than $1.2 million in money from the fossil-fuel industry over the last decade while failing to disclose that conflict of interest in most of his scientific papers.” These articles were written in light of documents obtained by Greenpeace through freedom of information filings. [15], [16]

“Soon's integrity in the scientific community shines out,” says Ebell. “He has foregone his own career advancement to advance scientific truth. If he had only mouthed establishment platitudes, he could've been named to head a big university [research center] like Michael Mann.” [17]

July 7 - 9, 2014

Myron Ebell was a speaker at the Heartland Institute’s Ninth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC9) in Las Vegas, Nevada. [18]

DeSmogBlog researched speakers and sponsors from Heartland's ICCC9, noting the conference attempted to boost attendance by coordinating with “Freedomfest,” another conservative event. [19]

December, 2014

As a relatively new line of criticism coming from climate change skeptics, Myron Ebell argued that delegates from Third World countries largely appear at events such as talks in Lima just to collect a per diem payment and “shop in glamouris cities,” as phrased by the Republic Report in their article “Deniers' Latest Attack on UN Summit: Poor Countries' Delegates Show Up Just for the Per Diem.” [20]

“It's very desirable for them to go to international conferences in nice locales, and bring their wives and you know, have extra payments,” Ebell said. “The United Nations pays these delegates from poor countries to attend and so it's very attractive to keep it going.” [20]

October 26, 2012

Myron Ebell promised to make the idea of a carbon tax “toxic” to any Republicans who might consider it, reports Climatewire: [99]

“And those people, like Glenn Hubbard and Greg Mankiw and Art Laffer, those people are very influential once you get behind closed doors and they start putting a deal together,” said Myron Ebell, who oversees global warming initiatives at the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI). “And so we have to make the idea of a carbon tax toxic.”

May 21 - 23, 2012

Myron Ebell was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 7th International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC7) where he spoke on “Obama's War on Affordable Energy” (video below). [21]

DeSmogBlog researched the co-sponsors behind Heartland's ICCC7 and found that they had collectively received over $67 million from ExxonMobil, the Koch Brothers and the conservative Scaife family foundations. [22]

November 30, 2009

Myron Ebell appeared on Fox News to debate the so-called “Climate-Gate” controversy. Video below. [81]

March 8-10, 2009

Myron Ebell was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 2009 International Conference on Climate Change. [23]

March 2, 2009

The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) held a rally to “Celebrate Coal! and Keep Energy Affordable” in front of the Capitol Power Plant. Myron Ebell, listed as one of the event's organizers, said: [90]

The goal of Celebrate Coal! is to publicize the colossal benefits of coal-fired power and the need for access to affordable energy. If the anti-coal zealots are allowed to prevail politically, electric rates will skyrocket for most Americans and many jobs will be lost in energy-intensive industries as a result of higher power prices.” [90]

2009

Myron Ebell participated in the “Climate Chains” video along with deniers Chris Horner, Marlo Lewis, Patrick Michaels, and Todd Wynn.

The video claims that “One of the greatest threats to freedom and prosperity in America is climate change legislation.” The video was organized by the Cascade Policy Institute. [24]

May 2 - 4, 2008

Myron Ebell is listed as a signatory of The Manhattan Declaration on Climate change. The declaration recommends “That all taxes, regulations, and other interventions intended to reduce emissions of CO2 be abandoned forthwith.” [86], [87]

February 10, 2006

The George Marshall Institute (GMI) and Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) co-hosted a panel discussion titled “The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond: A Roundtable Discussion on the Future of International and U. S. Climate Policy”  that included Senator James Inhofe, Myron Ebell, William O'Keefe, Christopher Horner, and Andrew Wheeler. [37]

“The Senator will present four short speeches questioning the four pillars on which the alarmist view of climate change is based: the 2001 National Academy of Sciences report, the IPCC‘s reliance on Michael Mann‘s discredited ―hockey stick‖ model, the Arctic climate impact assessment report, and the flawed data produced by climate models,” read the event summary. [37]

May 11, 2005

Myron Ebell / the Competitive Enterprise Institute may have been involved in emails relating to the investigation of climate scientists by the U.S. House Energy and Commerce Committee under Republican representatives Joe Barton and Ed Whitfield.

Deep Climate reported that the Energy and Commerce Committee “refused the offer of a proper scientific review from the National Academy of Sciences in favour of an investigative process that was ad hoc, biased and unscientific.” The original Barton-Whitfield investigation was inspired by the allegations of Steve McIntyre, with the defining impetus being “a little known Cooler Heads Coalition-Marshall Institute sponsored presentation by McIntyre and sidekick economist Ross McKitrick in Washington barely a month beforehand.” [43]

McIntyre's “Upcoming Washington Trip” on Capitol Hill which would be their second presentation for the CHC/GMI. See M&M’s presentation here. [50] Both Jeff Keuter of the Marshall Institute and Myron Ebell (representing CEI) were present.

McIntyre presented technical analysis where he purported to show various techniques of “cherrypicking” among paleoclimatologists. He also discussed his complaints regarding Michael Mann's data, as had been previously mentioned in a Wall Street Journal article. [42]

Drawing from this analysis and the roundtable discussion, committee chair Joe Barton and subcommittee chair Ed Whitfield launched an investigation of “hockey stick” authors Michael Mann, Raymond Bradley and Malcolm Hughes. The investigation began with letters of inquiry sent to Mann, Bradley and Hughes, that focused on both data and details of funding and past research associations. Letters were later sent to Rajenda Pachauri, IPCC chair, and Arden Bement, director of the National Science Foundation. [44], [45], [46], [47], [48]

At the time, Myron Ebell boasted to BBC News

We’ve always wanted to get the science on trial,” and “we would like to figure out a way to get this into a court of law,” adding “this could work.” [31]

John Mashey notes that Myron Ebell sent out a combined document of the Barton/Whitfield letters to Perhach just 90 minutes after the documents were created by McGinley, suggesting that he may have had early access to the letters: [49][54] 

“McGinley created 5 PDF files from 4:11PM to 4:15PM, and presumably placed them on the
House website about that time or a little later (A.9.6). But Perhach received a combined copy from Ebell
around 5:47PM, about 90 minutes later, impressive work for late Friday afternoon, unless Ebell had gotten
text files even earlier. The email‘s blind copy (BCC) format strongly hints that it was sent to other people
as well. This was efficient electronic execution, especially compared to faxing letters to people who might
well be away on travel.

How did Ebell know? Why were the letters in Ebell’s hands before recipients were guaranteed to have
seen them? Does this sound like a legitimate request, or a PR tactic to put these letters in “friendly” hands
before the recipients could possibly take action on them?”
[49]

Mashey notes several emails showing Ebell's relationship with Cooney and Perhach, while others promoted the McKitrick and Essex talk. Recipients lists “included an interesting mix of Senate and House staffers, ExxonMobil, Peabody Energy, Singer, Ferguson, and at least some lobbyists.” Some emails of interest include the following:

6/03/02 Email Ebell to Cooney (“Phil, thanks for calling and asking for our help.”) [52]
Shows clear communication between Cooney and Ebell.

02/22/03 Email Sills to Perhach, etc, recommending Essex&McKitrick talk [53]

06/24/05 Email Ebell to Perhach (and likely, others) Barton/Whitfield Letters [54] 

06/29/05 Email Ebell to Perhach (and likely, others) on “McLieberman”) [55]

February 9, 2005

Myron Ebell was a panelist at a congressional and media briefing titled “The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond
: A Roundtable Discussion on the Future of International and U. S. Climate Policy
” sponsored by the Cooler Heads Coalition (CHC) and the George C. Marshall Institute. [38]

The following panelists were listed: [38]

  • Senator James M. Inhofe (R- Oklahoma), Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee
  • Dr. Harlan L. Watson, Senior Climate Negotiator and Special Representative at the U.S. Department of State
  • William O’Keefe, CEO of the George C. Marshall Institute
  • Myron Ebell, Director of Global Warming Policy at the Competitive Enterprise Institute
  • Christopher C. Horner, Counsel to the Cooler Heads Coalition
  • Jeff Kueter, Moderator, President of the George C. Marshall Institute

March 20, 2004

Myron Ebell was a speaker at “NCPA Earth Day Briefing on Global Warming' titled “What Do We Really Know vs. What We Are Told.” [25]

November, 2004

In 2004 The British House of Commons censured Myron Ebell “in the strongest possible terms” for his “unfounded and insulting criticism of Sir David King, The Government's Chief Scientist.” King has notably argued that “climate change is the most severe problem that we are facing today.” [26], [27]

November 18, 2003

The Competitive Enterprise Institute/Cooler Heads Coalition sponsored a visit from Ross McKitrick and Stephen McIntyre (M&M) at a “Washington Roundtable on Science and Public Policy” introducing them to the George Marshall Institute (GMI). The CEI and GMI paid for McIntyre's expenses: [36]

Myron Ebell: “As you probably all know, we have done a lot of these. I think this is one of the most interesting ones, because I think we are just at the beginning of what I think will be a major controversy.” [36]

Stephen McIntyre: “My name is Steve McIntyre. I‘d like to express my appreciation to Marshall Institute and CEI for paying my expenses down here.” [36]

Deep Climate reports that MckItrick and McIntyre's Washington Roundtable visit came shortly after they had published their first joint paper in the Energy and Environment titled “Corrections to the Mann et al (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemispheric Average Temperature Series” (PDF). [39], [40]

David Appell questioned M&M about the rigour of the paper's peer-review, given the short timeframe of publication, but “met with stonewalling from McKitrick.” Deep Climate reports E&E editor-in-chief Sonia Boehmer-Christiansen had rushed the paper into publication for “policy impact reasons, e.g. publication well before COP9.” [39]

At the time, both the CEI and the Marshall Institute were receiving funding from ExxonMobil. Myron Ebell and the Marshall Institute president (and American Petroleum Institute ex-COO) William O’Keefe were both implicated in Bush administration efforts to water down official reports on climate science, according to the Government Accountability Project report “Redacting the Science of ClimateChange” (PDF). [41]

The Wall Street Journal reports that McKitrick was paid $1,000 and had his travel costs covered by the Competitive enterprise Institute, while McIntyre said he took no payment. [42]

February 27, 2003

Myron Ebell was listed as the contact for a Cooler-Heads-Coalition-sponsored “Congressional and Media Briefing” with Christopher Essex and Ross McKitrick at the Senate Everett Dirksen Building where Essex and McKitrick promoted their new book, Taken By Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming. [34]

September 30, 2002

The Cooler Heads Coalition (CHC) sponsored a Congressional briefing by climate change denier Richard Lindzen titled “On The Meaning of Global Warming Claims.” [51]

June 3, 2002

The Guardian reports that Myron Ebell collaborated with Phil Cooney, chief of staff at the White House Council on Environmental Quality, to cover up the findings of an EPA report on climate change. President Bush's staff insisted on several major alterations to the report. [28]

In the email, dated June 3, 2002, White House officials ask for CEI's help in downplaying the EPA's report.  “Thanks for calling and asking for our help,” Ebell tells Cooney. The email discusses tactics, and also suggests how to get rid of EPA officials such as then-EPA-head Christine Whitman: [28]

“It seems to me that the folks at the EPA are the obvious fall guys and we would only hope that the fall guy (or gal) should be as high up as possible,' Ebell wrote in the email. “Perhaps tomorrow we will call for Whitman to be fired,' he added.” [28]

Richard Blumenthal, attorney general of Connecticut, wrote to the White House asking for an inquiry. “This email indicates a secret initiative by the administration to invite and orchestrate a lawsuit against itself seeking to discredit an official US government report on global warming dangers,” Blumethanl said. [28]

October 11, 2001

The Cooler Heads Coalition (CHC), which Ebell chairs, sponsored a US Congress briefing by Ross McKitrick titled “What’s Wrong With Regulating Carbon Dioxide Emissions?[35]

The briefing concludes, “sound reasoning rejects all forms of regulations on CO2 emissions for the foreseeable future.” [35]

April, 1998

Myron Ebell was listed as a member of the “Global Climate Science Communications Team” (GCSCT) who contributed to a 1998 Global Climate Science Communications Plan organized by the American Petroleum Institute (API).

The New York Times described the GCSCT as “An informal group of people working for big oil companies, trade associations and conservative policy research organizations” who oppose a treaty to fight global warming. [32]

The following is taken from the 1998 memo by the API: (See full memo here)[33]

“Victory Will Be Achieved When

“Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the “conventional wisdom”
Media 'understands' (recognizes) uncertainties in climate science
Media coverage reflects balance on climate science and recognition of the validity of viewpoints that challenge the current “conventional wisdom”
Industry senior leadership understands uncertainties in climate science, making them stronger ambassadors to those who shape climate policy
Those promoting the Kyoto treaty on the basis of extent science appears to be out of touch with reality.

“Current Reality

Unless 'climate change' becomes a non-issue, meaning that the Kyoto proposal is defeated and there are no further initiatives to thwart the threat of climate change, there may be no moment when we can declare victory for our efforts. It will be necessary to establish measurements for the science effort to track progress toward achieving the goal and strategic success.”

Members of the “Global Climate Science Communications Team” who the API said  “contributed to the development of the plan” were listed as follows: [33]

1995

Myron Ebell opposed Newt Gingrich's reforms of the Endangered Species Act in 1995, writing of Gingrich: “His soft feelings for cuddly little critters is still going to be a big problem.” [97]

Affiliations

Freedom Action is a “grassroots movement” founded in 2009 by the CEI.

Freedom Action believes in “individual rights,” “free markets” “and limited governments.” Links to three of Ebell's articles appear on the site including one that describes Al Gore as “the leader of the forces of darkness.” All three of the articles were published by Fox News. [30]

Publications

Myron Ebell has not published any articles in peer-reviewed journals on the subject of climate change. He has published many articles skeptical of climate change in newspapers, blogs, and magazines. A list of Ebell's publications is available at the Competitive Enterprise Institute.

Op-Eds and Articles

Studies

Resources

  1. Myron Ebell: Director, Center for Energy and Environment,” Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived December 29, 2011. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/mxjzo

  2. Myron Ebell: Director, Center for Energy and Environment,” Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived May 29, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/XWEaJ

  3. Michael Shnayerson. “A Convenient Untruth,” Vanity Fair, May 2007. Archived May 30, 2016.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/cxUkr

  4. Clean Air Villain of the Month,” cleanairtrust.org, March 15, 2001. Archived May 30, 2016.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/P2yXa

  5. Myron Ebell on Fox Hannity and Colmes,” The Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 25, 2004. Archived May 30, 2016.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/zlYL4

  6. Suzanne Goldenberg. “Republicans' leading climate denier tells the pope to butt out of climate debate,” The Guardian, June 11, 2015. Archived May 30, 2016.  Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/YnQ2I

  7. Associated Press on Climate Hearing: Warmists Clash With Skeptics in 3-Hour Congressional Global Warming Debate: AGW Called 'Sub-prime science' - Carbon-based energy like coal is 'one of the greatest liberators in the history of mankind,'” Climate Depot, May 30, 2013. Archived May 30, 2016.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/aLjnp

  8. Kevin Grandia. “The Competitive Enterprise Institute and all that's fit to spin,” DeSmogBlog, October 18, 2006.

  9. Second Senate Vote on Kyoto-Lite Bill is Delayed Again,” Cooler Heads Digest, Vol. VIII, No 14 (July 7, 2004). Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/nzYz5

  10. Into Thin Air,” New York Times, December 4, 2003. Republished by Mindfully.org. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/AoDML

  11. Competitive Enterprise Institute's Myron Ebell: ‘I’d Like To See A Lot More Funding’ From Big Coal,” Media Matters For America, August 5, 2015. Archived August 11, 2015Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/skjit

  12. Speakers,” ClimateConference.Heartland.org. Archived June 30, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/lpiqu

  13. Panel 14: Action Items for Policymakers with Marc Morano, Bette Grande, and Myron Ebell,” Heartland Institute, June 11, 2015. Archived July 15, 2015. Archived .flv on file at DeSmog. 

  14. Myron Ebell. “Statement on Pope's Encyclical on Climate Change,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, June 18, 2015. Archived June 24, 2015.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/bNYn6

  15. Suzanne Goldenberg. “Work of prominent climate change denier was funded by energy industry,” The Guardian. February 21, 2015. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/yrNy0

  16. Justin Gillis and John Schwarts. “Deeper Ties to Corporate Cash for Doubtful Climate Researcher,” The New York Times. February 21, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/X47Ym

  17. Henry Payne. “Global Warming: Follow the Money,” National Review, February 25, 2015. Archived May 30, 2016.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/nIsnI

  18. Speakers,” 9th International Conference on Climate Change. Archived July 14, 2014. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/L5hQx

  19. Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmogBlog, July 7, 2014.

  20. Lee Fang. “Deniers' Latest Attack on UN Summit: Poor Countries’ Delegates Show Up Just for the Per Diem,” Republic Report, December 11, 2014. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Z1Yb7

  21. Myron Ebell, ICCC7,” Climateconferneces.Heartland.org. Archived May 30, 2016

  22. Brendan DeMelle. “Heartland Denial-a-Palooza Sponsors Have Received $67 Million From ExxonMobil, Koch and Scaife Foundations,” DeSmogBlog, May 22, 2012.

  23. Heartland Institute/International Conference on Climate Change (2009),” SourceWatch.

  24. About the Experts,” ClimateChains.com. Archived April 1, 2010. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/30PB3

  25. NCPA Earth Day Briefing on Global Warming: 'What Do We Really Know vs. What We Are Told',” U.S. Newswire, March 20, 2004. Archived January 30, 2006. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/cQDoN

  26. Chris Mooney. “Some Like It Hot,” Mother Jones, May/June 2005 Issue. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/oK7op

  27. Motion to Censure Myron Ebell,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, November 16, 2004. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/pFiBt

  28. Bush covers up climate research,” The Observer, September 21, 2003. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/04DcO

  29. About Us,” Freedom Action. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/CtXN9

  30. Myron Ebell. “Al Gore Returns,” FOXNews.com, March 2, 2010. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/dTipu

  31. Roland Pease. “Politics plays climate 'hockey',” BBC News, July 19, 2005. Archived May 30. 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/d1Mc7

  32. John H. Cushman Jr. “INDUSTRIAL GROUP PLANS TO BATTLE CLIMATE TREATY,” The New York Times, April 26, 1998. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/2fL08

  33. “Global warming: The campaign by the American Petroleum Institute,” e_wesker. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/RwqPQ

  34. Cooler Heads Coalition Briefing With Christopher Essex And Ross McKitrick,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, February 26, 2003. Archived May 30, 2016.  Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/qHXCa

  35. Ross McKitrick. “What’s Wrong With Regulating Carbon Dioxide Emissions?” (PDF), October, 2001. Retrieved from McKitrick's web page at the University of Guelph. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URL:

  36. Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick. “The IPCC, the 'Hockey Stick' Curve, and the Illusion of Experience” (PDF), George C. Marshall Institute, November 18, 2003. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URL:

  37. U.S. Climate Policy After Kyoto’s Ratification” (PDF), George C. Marshall Institute News, Vol. 7, No. 1 (March, 2005). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.  Archive.is URL:

  38. William Yeatman. “The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond: Roundtable discussion on the future of climate policy,” The Cooler Heads Coalition, February 9, 2005. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/DwCOQ

  39. Steve McIntyre and Ross McKitrick, part 1: In the beginning,” Deep Climate, February 4, 2010. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/RbI4K

  40. Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick. CORRECTIONS TO THE MANN et. al. (1998) PROXY DATA BASE AND NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC AVERAGE TEMPERATURE SERIES” (PDF), Energy & Environment, Vol. 14, No. 6 (2003). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. 

  41. Tarek Maassarani and Jay Dyckman. REDACTING THE SCIENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE: AN INVESTIGATIVE AND SYNTHESIS REPORT” (PDF), Government Accountability Project, March 2007. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  42. Antonio Regalado. “In Climate Debate, The 'Hockey Stick' Leads to a Face-Off,” The Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2005. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/7DsFx

  43. Steve McIntyre and Ross McKitrick, part 2: The story behind the Barton-Whitfield investigation and the Wegman Panel,” DeepClimate, February 8, 2010. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/TBKRe

  44. “Dear Dr. Mann” (PDF), June 23, 2005. Retrieved from mission-k.net. Archived.pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  45. “Dear Dr. Bradley” (PDF), June 23, 2005. Retrieved from energycommerce.house.gov. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  46. “Dear Dr. Hughes” (PDF), June 23, 2005. Retrieved from archives.energycommerce.house.gov. 

  47. “Dear Chairman Pachauri” (PDF),  June 23, 2005. Retrieved from energycommerce.house.gov. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  48. “Dear Dr. Bement” (PDF), June 23, 2005. Retrieved from energycommerce.house.gov. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  49. John R. Mashey. “Crescendo to Climategate Cacophony Behind the 2006 Wegman Report and Two Decades of Climate Anti-Science,” (PDF - p. 166), DeSmogBlog, March 15, 2010.

  50. Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick. “The Hockey Stick Debate: Lessons in Disclosure and Due Diligence” (PDF) Marshall Institute, May 11, 2005. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  51. MIT Climatologist Richard S. Lindzen To Address Cooler Heads Coalition,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, November 30, 2002. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/MrBz0

  52. Dear Phil,” Competitive Enterprise Institute. Retrieved from Greenpeace. Archived February 8, 207. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  53. Fw: Invitation to Cooler Heads Coalition briefing by the authors of Taken By Storm, Thursday, 27th February, 2:30 PM,” Perhach, William, July 14, 2004. Retrieved from SlideShare. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  54. Letters from Barton and Whitfield, Energy and Commerce Committee, to Pachauri, NSF, Mann, Bradley, and Hughes,” Perhach, William, June 24, 2005. Retrieved from slideshare. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  55. FW: McLieberman vote tallies, 6-05,” Perhach, William, Wednesday, June 29, 2005. Retrieved from SlideShare. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  56. “Expert: Myron Ebell,” Heartland Institute. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/fYCqS

  57. Myron Ebell Returns From Paris Climate Conference With Concerns,” The Federalist, December 22, 2015. Archived May 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/khKhh

  58. CEI Runs “Abuse of Power” Ad In New York Times,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 18, 2016. Archived May 31, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/DF7gW

  59. “Abuse of Power: All Americans have the right to support causes they believe in” (PDF), Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  60. Steve Horn. “Exxon's Lawyer in Climate Science Probe Has History Helping Big Tobacco and NFL Defend Against Health Claims,” DeSmogBlog, May 10, 2016.

  61. Science groups blasted for crossing line into activism with climate-change letter to Congress,” The Washington Times, July 6, 2016. Archived July 27, 2016.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/TPUTd

  62. (Press Release). “Thirty-One Top Scientific Societies Speak with One Voice on Global Climate Change,” AAAS.org, June 28, 2016. Archived July 27, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/p1Wq5

  63. “Dear Members of Congress” (PDF), AAAS.org, June 28, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  64. Graham Readfearn. “Climate Science Denialist Myron Ebell Named As Trump Adviser As Debate Skirts Climate,” Desmog, September 27, 2016.

  65. Trump Picks Top Climate Skeptic to Lead EPA Transition,” Scientific American, September 26, 2016. 

  66. GOP ATTORNEYS GENERAL HELD PRIVATE MEETINGS WITH FOSSIL FUEL LOBBYISTS ON EXXON INVESTIGATION,” The Center for Media and Democracy, September 23, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/iePD8

  67. Issue Panel 1,” RAGA Summer National Meeting Presentation Outline. Retrieved from the Center for Media and Democracy. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  68. “Myron Ebell Director of Freedom Action and Director, Center for Energy and Environment Competitive Enterprise Institute” (PDF), U.S. House of Representatives Document Repository. PDF created October 17, 2013. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  69. “A Convenient Untruth,” Vanity Fair, May, 2007. Archived November 10, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/NelC0 [**repeat of S3]

  70. EPA’s Colossally Costly Power Plan Fulfills Obama’s Campaign Promise,” Cooler Heads Coalition, August 7, 2015. Archived November 10, 2016. Archive.is URL:  https://archive.is/mXNBQ

  71. President Obama and Chinese President Xi will officially join the Paris Climate Treaty on 3rd September,” Cooler Heads Coalition, September 2, 2016. Archived November 10, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/FJHOk

  72. Tony Romm. “New details emerge on Trump transition organization,” Politico, November 9, 2016. Archived November 10, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/BoOuP

  73. The Fox News GOP debate transcript, annotated,” The Washington Post, March 3, 2016. Archived November 10, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/CSGnv

  74. Competitive Enterprise Institute's Myron Ebell: 'I'd Like To See A Lot More Funding' From Big Coal,” Media Matters, August 5, 2015. Archived November 10, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/NrMh4 [**Repeat of S11**]

  75. Juliet Eilperin. “Anatomy of a Washington dinner: Who funds the Competitive Enterprise Institute?The Washington Post, June 20, 2013. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/CZoH2

  76. Myron Ebell,” ClimateConference.Heartland.org. Archived June 23, 2015. Archived .flv on file at DeSmog.

  77. Obama Readies the Military for Climate Change, Our No. 1 Global Threat,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, September 24, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/PxtA8

  78. Love Global Warming,” Forbes.com, December 25, 2006. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/K7YX3

  79. Competitive Enterprise Institute,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved May 27, 2016.

  80. Exposed: The Dark-Money ATM of the Conservative Movement,” Mother Jones, February 5, 2013. Archived July 23, 2015.

  81. Myron Ebell Debates Climategate,” (YouTube Video) Uploaded by user Competitive Enterprise Institute, November 30, 2009. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.

  82. Gayathri Vaidyanathan. “How to get a skeptic to believe in climate change? Scientists are studying that,” E&E News, August 8, 2016. Archived November 10, 2016. Arhive.is URLhttps://archive.is/GXmE6

  83. Transcript: Climate of Doubt,” PBS Frontline, October 23, 2012. Archived November 10, 2016. Archive.is URL:  https://archive.is/hHmDG

  84. Justin Gillis. “Rising Sea Levels Seen as Threat to Coastal U.S. The New York Times, March 13, 2012. Archived November 10, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/81z0G

  85. Greenhouse gas level nearing 'significant' level,” The Associated Press, May 31, 2012.  Retrieved from CBC News. Archived November 10, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Ahf6l

  86. ENDORSERS OF THE DECLARATION PRESENT AT THE CONFERENCE IN NEW YORK CITY,” International Climate Science Coalition. Archived November 11, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/b1XAl

  87. THE MANHATTAN DECLARATION ON CLIMATE CHANGE,” International Climate Science Coalition. Archived November 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/kbtY8

  88. CEI Joins 60 Organizations Opposing National Ozone Standard,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 9, 2016. Archived November 11, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/YWSmr

  89. Hacked files expose massive global warming con,” Ice Age Now, November 21, 2009. Archived November 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/vhnHW

  90. Celebrate Coal! Rally Announced,” Instituto Liberdade, February 26, 2009. Archived November 11, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/pA6jo 

  91. ALG joins 21 free market, limited government leaders in opposing carbon tax,” Americans for Limited Government, February 24, 2016. Archived November 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/h8dXO

  92. 11 Reasons Why Trump’s Climate-Denying EPA Guy Could Spell Disaster For The Environment,” Huffington Post, November 15, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/dpM7v

  93. Brian McNicoll. “CEI's Ebell: Warming Alarmists Still 'In Denial' Over Climate Data,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, September 27, 2013. Archived November 22, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/Mv0wq

  94. Myron Ebell Returns From Paris Climate Conference With Concerns,” The Federalist, December 22, 2015. Archived November 22, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/khKhh

  95. Grant Ferrier. Let the People Judge: Wise Use And The Private Property Rights Movement, Island Press (1995). ISBN: 1559632771.

  96. Evan Lehmann. “Who is Myron Ebell?ClimateWire, November 21, 2016. Archived November 22, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/XntXu

  97. Trump's attack dog on climate,” Politico, November 14, 2016. Archived November 22, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/B9ZI4

  98. Steve Connor. “Americans Are Trying to Discredit Me, Claims Chief Scientist,The Independent U.K. January 17, 2005. Republished by Truthout. Archived Novembe 22, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/QcY8p

  99. Evan Lehmann. “Climate skeptics, seeing rising prospects for a carbon tax, vow to make it 'toxic',” ClimateWire, October 26, 2012. Archived November 22, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/QawzB

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