Roy W. Spencer
- Ph.D., M.S. Meteorology, University of Wisconsin-Madison (1980, 1981). 
- B.S., atmospheric sciences, University of Michigan (1978) 
Roy W. Spencer is a research scientist at the University of Alabama, Huntsville. He operates his own blog on global warming where he describes himself as a “climatologist, author, [and] former NASA scientist.” 
Spencer is an advisor to the Cornwall Alliance, formerly the Interfaith Steward Alliance (ISA), an evangelical Christian group that claims environmentalism is “one of the greatest threats to society and the church today.” He has done work with other religious groups denying climate change including the Evangelical Climate Initiative. , , 
Stance on Climate Change
September 7, 2017
“We're warming than we've been in probably a few centuries, and I think some of that warmth is due to the CO2 we're producing, but the warming is not nearly as fast as what has been predicted. I think about half of it's natural, and from a policy standpoint there's really nothing we could do about the human caused portion of it anyway,” Spencer said.
December 8, 2016
“Global warming is not something that we should be terribly worried about from a policy perspective, which is my view,” Spencer declared in his presentation at the “At the Crossroads III Energy and Climate Policy Summit.” 
September 24, 2008
“There's probably a natural reason for global warming […] We will look back on it as a gigantic false alarm.”
“The Earth isn't that sensitive to how much CO2 we put into the atmosphere. I think we need to consider the possibility that more carbon dioxide is better than less,” Spencer said, quoted in The Wichita Eagle. 
November 30, 2017
Speaking at the “At the Crossroads IV: Energy & Climate Policy Summit,” co-hosted by The Heritage Foundation and Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF), Spencer claimed uncertainty surrounding climate science: 
“I wish I could tell you that we know things for sure, but in science we don’t know anything for sure. I tell people, science isn’t truth it’s just our idea of how things should work, and usually scientists are wrong.”
September 6, 2017
“For instance, melting on the Greenland ice sheet. That happens every summer, but he makes it sound like it's due to us,” Spencer said. “Rising sea level in Miami Beach. That is partly natural and it's partly because Miami Beach was built on reclaimed swampland, which is sinking just as fast as sea level has been rising for the last 150 years.”
“In any event, [temperatures are] not rising nearly as fast as the climate models say it should be rising. And those climate models are what are being used to dictate our future energy policy,” Spencer said.
December 8, 2016
“Global warming is not something that anybody will ever feel in their lifetime.” 
“I am one of the skeptics who believes that adding CO2 to the atmosphere, theoretically, should cause some warming. […] I would expect slow warming to continue in the future–but I wouldn’t bet money on it.” 
“I’m somewhat of a rocket scientist. I can tell you, predicting climate change isn’t rocket science. It’s way harder than that. 
“Besides, if global warming is settled science, like gravity or the Earth not being flat, why isn’t the agreement 100 percent? And since when is science settled by a survey or a poll? The hallmark of a good scientific theory is its ability to make good predictions.”
“From what we’ve seen, global warming theory is definitely lacking in this regard.” 
“We have no idea what's natural and what's man made. […] There is no fingerprint of human-caused warming.” 
“All scientists should be skeptics. The reason why is that, even with the best of scientific measurements, we can come up with all kinds of explanations of what those measurements mean in terms of cause and effect, and yet most of those explanations are wrong. It's really easy to be wrong in science … it's really hard to be right.” 
“Twice I have testified in congress that unbiased funding on the subject of the causes of warming would be much closer to a reality if 50% of that money was devoted to finding natural reasons for climate change.” 
“Politicians and some of the scientists like to say that there's a consensus now on global warming or the science has been settled, but you have to ask them, what is there a consensus on? Because it really makes a difference. What are you talking about? The only consensus I`m aware of is that it's warmed in the last century. They completely ignore the fact that there's this thing called the Oregon petition that was signed by 19,000 professionals and scientists who don't agree with the idea that we are causing climate change.” 
“We see something change in our climate and we blame ourselves … I don't think we understand what happens. We can watch it happen on the (climate) models, we know it happens, but we don't know for sure how it happens.” 
August 7, 2018
“The purpose of this event is to promote and expand energy freedom in the United States, as outlined in President Donald Trump’s bold America First Energy Plan, a proposal first released during the 2016 presidential campaign. The president’s plan marks a decisive change in direction from the Obama administration’s 'war on fossil fuels' and focus on the theory of catastrophic man-caused climate change,” the conference description reads. 
November 30, 2017
Roy Spencer spoke at the “At the Crossroads IV: Energy & Climate Policy Summit” co-hosted by The Heritage Foundation and Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF). 
Spencer summarizes at the start of his talk, suggesting that the warming is “about half” of what is predicted by climate models (note that this article at SkepticalScience counters the idea that models are inaccurate):
“Basically, the variety of observations we have for measuring temperatures, whether it’s in atmosphere or in the ocean, are all pointing to a picture that suggests the warming we’ve seen lately, even if it is due to increasing CO2, which isn’t entirely clear […] the warming is still only about half of what is being predicted by climate models. And remember those climate models are the basis for energy policy,” Spencer began, going on to show “our version of the hockey stick” graph, which he had crafted with the help of John Christy.
He repeatedly suggests that “the climate models aren't working right,” and also insinuated that the other main source of satellite temperature data “revise[d] their data upward to get more warming.” 
Spencer also claimed in his talk that “the oceans also haven't been warming as fast as they should be for the climate system to be sensative,” and repeats his suggestion that climate sensitivity is low (see Christy's latter point discussed at SkepticalScience). 
So the bottom line is climate sensitivity could be significantly less than 2 degrees, we really don’t know,” Spencer concludes.
For more information, he points his audience to Judith Curry's blog, and also to work by Nick Lewis.
“Many people said 'we need a PR plan' or a 'single strategy,' otherwise we will continue to lose the battle with AGWalarmists,” Bast wrote in the email. “Heartland, CEI, and other organizations and individuals in the room do have plans and strategies […] We can always do better, and will, but we should not stop doing what is working.” 
Spencer appeared as an “actual scientist” on the Louder with Crowder show to claim that hurricanes Harvey and Irma in 2017 weren't correlated with climate change. A Friends of Science (FoS) press release notes that Spencer also made similar claims in an August 29, 2017 blog post and also in his new book, Inevitable Disaster. , 
Spencer released his new book, Inevitable Disaster, on September 18, 2017. The Washington Times reported the book challenged statements “by Jennifer Lawrence, Bill Nye, Stevie Wonder and others linking global warming to this year’s active hurricane season.” 
“What made Harvey rain totals exceptional was the system stalled next to the coast, which was due to a very temporary weakening of atmospheric steering currents,” Spencer said, quoted by The Washington Times. “Virtually the whole month of August was below normal in temperature over most of the U.S., not what global warming theory predicts at all.” 
Notably, pointing to a single cold month as evidence contrary to global warming theory is listed as a common myth listed at Skepticalscience, right next to the idea that extreme weather isn't linked to climate change. Writing at The Guardian in August, climate scientist Michael Man said that certain elements including sea level rise and sea surface temperatures contributed to the severity of Hurricane Harvey. “Harvey was almost certainly more intense than it would have been in the absence of human-caused warming, which means stronger winds, more wind damage and a larger storm surge,” Mann wrote. , , 
August 19, 2017
Spencer released a book critiquing Al Gore's movie, An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power. In a Fox News interview, Spencer said he “whipped together a quick ebook in about two weeks to respond” to Al Gore's movie. 
“To counter what is in movie theaters now, I had to whip up this book in only 2 weeks, and I didn’t have a marching army of well-funded people like Gore has had. (Too bad he didn’t have someone doing fact-checking.) Despite my disadvantage, I think I present a powerful case that most of what he presents is, at the very least, very deceptive,” Spencer wrote in a post announcing his book's release. 
July 25, 2017
The Institute for Public Affairs (IPA) listed Roy Spencer as a contributor to their book “Climate Change: The Facts 2017.” Prior versions of the book featured contributions from a range of prominent climate change deniers, and describes mainstream climate change research as “pseudo-science.” , 
According to the IPA's media release, “Climate Change: The Facts 2017 contains 22 essays by internationally-renowned experts and commentators, including Dr Bjorn Lomborg, Dr Matt Ridley, Professor Peter Ridd, Dr Willie Soon, Dr Ian Plimer, Dr Roy Spencer, and literary giant Clive James. The volume is edited by Dr Jennifer Marohasy, Senior Fellow at the Institute of Public Affairs. Fourteen of the contributors currently hold or have held positions at a university or a scientific research organisation.” 
- Jennifer Marohasy - Senior Fellow, Institute of Public Affairs
- John Abbot - Senior Fellow, Institute of Public Affairs
- Bjørn Lomborg - Copenhagen Consensus Center
- Jo Nova - Author of The Skeptic's Handbook
- Ian Plimer - Emeritus Professor, University of Melbourne
- Peter Ridd - James Cook University
- Matt Ridley - Author of The Rational Optimist
- Willie Soon - Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
- Roy Spencer - University of Alabama in Huntsville
- Anthony Watts - Watts Up with That?
- Clive James
John Abraham, a professor of thermal science, writes at The Guardian about additional errors identified in Roy Spencer and John Christy's temperature estimates. According to Abraham, Spencer and Christy's claims that troposphere and stratosphere temperatures have not been rising are wrong: 
“They errantly include stratosphere temperatures in their lower atmosphere readings; and they have incorrect temperature calibration on the satellites,” Abraham writes. 
He also points to a recent paper that had questioned Christy and Spencer's decision to use preliminary data in their congressional testimony while it was still in the peer review stage: 
“At present, the UAH v6 (most recent Christy/Spencer data) results are preliminary and a fifth revision has now been released as v6beta5 (Spencer 2016). The release of the UAH version 6 products before publication is unusual, and Spencer recently stated that a manuscript has been submitted for a peer-reviewed publication. While some may find it scientifically inappropriate to utilize UAH v6b6 data before publication, these data have already been presented in testimony during congressional hearings before both the U.S. House and Senate and have also appeared on websites and in public print articles,” Abraham quotes the January 207 paper. 
Abraham adds, “let’s not be deluded into thinking these satellites are more accurate than thermometers (as some people suggest).” 
February 23, 2017
Spencer was a signatory of a petition (PDF) organized by Richard Lindzen of the Cato Institute urging President Donald Trump to pull the United States out of the United Nations international convention on climate change (UNFCCC). 
“In just a few weeks, more than 300 eminent scientists and other qualified individuals from around the world have signed the petition below,” Lindzen wrote in the letter. 
DeSmog investigated the list, and found that only a small handful of the signatories could be considered “even remotely ‘qualified’ or ‘eminent’ — but not in the field of climate science.” The list included individuals “interested in climate,” and one signatory who only identified as an “emailer who wished to sign the petition” while some signers provided no affiliation or address whatsoever. 
January 5, 2017
Roy Spencer was a signatory to a Cornwall Alliance open letter supporting Scott Pruitt for EPA Administrator under the Trump administration. 
“Mr. Pruitt has also demonstrated understanding of and open-mindedness toward scientific insights crucial to the formulation and implementation of environmental regulation. He is prepared to hear all sides in debates over the risks and benefits of various activities that come under the purview of the EPA,” reads the letter.
On January 12, 2017, Senate Democrats raised conflict of interest concerns regarding Scott Prutt's fossil fuel ties. Pruitt had spent years working to combat the Obama Administration's Clean Power Plan. 
In an open letter to the Office of Government Ethics, members of the Senate's environmental panel commented:
“During his tenure as Attorney General of Oklahoma, Mr. Pruitt has blurred the distinction between official and political actions, often at the behest of corporations he will regulate if confirmed to lead EPA,” the letter said. “Public reporting based on documents produced by Freedom of Information Act requests illustrate how Mr. Pruitt and members of his staff have worked closely with fossil fuel lobbyists to craft his office's official positions.”
Some notable signatories of the Cornwall Alliance letter, as of January 5, 2017, included:
- Tim Ball
- Charles G. Battig
- E. Calvin Beisner
- H. Sterling Burnett
- Kenneth Chilton
- Donn Dears
- John Droz
- James E. Enstrom
- Joseph Farah
- Steve Goreham
- Jay Grimstead
- William Happer
- Richard Land
- David Legates
- Richard S. Lindzen
- Anthony R. Lupo
- Rod D. Martin
- Anthony J. Sadar
- Willie Soon
- Roy W. Spencer
- David J. Theroux
- James A. Wanliss
- Anthony Watts
- Peter W. Wood
- Thomas H. Wysmuller
- Benjamin Zycher
December 8, 2016
Roy Spencer was a speaker at the “At the Crossroads III Energy and Climate Summit,” an event co-hosted by the Heritage Foundation and the Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF). The event was billed as “the premier energy-and-climate policy event in America,” and attracted a range of prominent climate change deniers as well as a range of names connected to Donald Trump and his transition team. Video and choice quotes below. 
“Global warming is not something that we should be terribly worried about from a policy perspective, which is my view.” [58:03]
“These [models] take marching armies of experts in all different areas.” [58:58]
“No one’s an expert with all of that stuff […] it’s almost hopelessly complex.” [59:16]
“The observations are saying it ain’t warming that fast.” [60:14]
“Clearly, the deep layer atmosphere is not warming as much as the models say it should be.” [61:34]
“We don’t even trust those surface temperatures. Every time they get adjusted, they und up getting a warmer and warmer trend. […] They’re trying to force those surface temperatures to warm up to what the models are saying. They’re trying to make the measurements fit the theory.” [61:34]
“Global warming is not something that anybody will ever feel in their lifetime.” [66:18]
“I am one of the skeptics who believes that adding CO2 to the atmosphere, theoretically, should cause some warming. […] I would expect slow warming to continue in the future–but I wouldn’t bet money on it.” [66:39]
“They’re trying hard to make these data sets better match the models. In the matter of the next couple of years, ours will probably have the coldest temperature trend out of all of them, and we will be increasingly marginalized.” [67:12]
“I’m somewhat of a rocket scientist. I can tell you, predicting climate change isn’t rocket science. It’s way harder than that. [68:01]
Doug Domenech, director of the Texas Public Policy Foundation's “Fueling Freedom” project, wrote about the proceedings at The Hill. Domenech outlined the common climate change denial message shared among the speakers: “Is climate change real? Yes, it has happened in the past and will happen in the future. Is man making an impact on the climate? Perhaps but in very small ways. But the overarching consensus remains the climate change we are experiencing is by no means catastrophic.” 
- Brooke Rollins
- Becky Norton Dunlop
- Mike Lee
- Lamar Smith
- Pete Olson
- Gary Palmer
- James Inhofe
- Kathleen Hartnett White
- Stephen Moore
- Bud Brigham
- David Kreutzer
- Patrick J. Michaels
- Mark P. Mills
- Horace Cooper
- Patrick Forkin
- Allen Gilmer
- Dan Byers
- Nicolas Loris
- Richard Lindzen
- Willie Soon
- Andrew M. Grossman
- William Happer
- Craig Idso
- Roy Spencer
- Patrick J. Michaels
- Brooke Rollins
- Becky Norton Dunlop
- David Legates
- James Taylor
October 25, 2016
Roy Spencer published an article in Forbes titled “Hillary Clinton Boards The Climate Crisis Train To Nowhere” where he makes a number of contentions about climate change. For example, Spencer writes: 
“Global warming and climate change, even if it is 100% caused by humans, is so slow that it cannot be observed by anyone in their lifetime. Hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, droughts and other natural disasters have yet to show any obvious long-term change. “
Eight scientists analyzed Spencer's article and concluded that it's overall scientific credibility was “very low.” Their responses are published at Climate Feedback, with overall feedback summarized below: 
Kerry Emanuel, Professor of Atmospheric Science, MIT:
The article is inaccurate in several places and conveys that one must choose between solving immediate problems, such as poverty, and long-term risks such as climate change. We can do both, and indeed must do both if we take poverty seriously, since climate change disproportionately affects the poor.
Jim Kossin, Research Scientist, NOAA's Center for Weather and Climate:
The author makes a number of statements that are not supported by the science or by established scientific process. He is basically playing by a different set of rules than the scientific community at large, which allows him to say anything he wants in order to make his case. A number of statements are misleading and some are obfuscating, particularly in terms of potential impacts of climate change on humans.
Victor Venema, Scientist, University of Bonn, Germany:
This article by Roy Spencer is misleading when it comes to his own work on tropospheric temperature changes and several times severely wrong outside of his expertise. It does not give a fair overview of the state of the science.
Peter Gleick, President Emeritus and Chief Scientist, Pacific Institute:
Almost every claim in this article is scientifically inaccurate or misleading.
Alexis Berg, Associate Research Scholar, Princeton University:
This articles uses a number of misleading statements, logical flaws and unsubstantiated claims to try to defend the erroneous idea that climate change is nothing to worry about, that there is nothing to do about it anyway, and that wanting to address it is all a power play by politicians.
Benjamin Horton, Professor, Rutgers University:
The discussion on sea level rise is misleading.
September 1, 2016
Roy Spencer and John Christy co-released a temperature record analysis, finding “August 2016 was the warmest August in the Northern Hemisphere in the satellite temperature record,” reports the press release. 
“While global average temperatures peaked higher this year than they did in 1998, temperatures fell faster this spring and summer to levels that are cooler than they were at this same time of year in 1998,” said Spencer. “We had three months this year that were warmer than their 1998 counterparts, and five that were cooler. There is really no reliable way of predicting what the next four months will do, compared to those same months in 1998.”
“I’ve always cautioned fellow skeptics that it’s dangerous to claim no warming,” Spencer told the Post in March. “There has been warming. The question is how much warming there’s been and how does that compare to what’s expected and what’s predicted.”
“It should be clear that the science of global warming is far from settled,” Spencer writes in the report. “Uncertainties in the adjustments to our global temperature datasets, the small amount of warming those datasets have measured compared to what climate models expect, and uncertainties over the possible role of Mother Nature in recent warming, all combine to make climate change beliefs as much faith-based as science-based.”
The Guardian notes that the Texas Public Policy Foundation has received substantial funding from both the tobacco and fossil fuel industries, including $65,000 from ExxonMobil and at least $911,499 from Koch-related foundations since 1998, as well as over $3 million from “dark money” groups Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund. 
June 13, 2016
Other individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie Soon, Richard Lindzen, and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for Prosperity, American Legislative Exchange Council, CFACT, Institute for Energy Research, State Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. 
“These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”
The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]
Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]
“The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.
“We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.” 
Notable organizations also listed as creditors in the bankruptcy documents include:
- 60 Plus Association
- The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity
- American Energy Alliance
- Alliance For Energy And Economic Growth
- American Energy Alliance
- American Legislative Exchange Council
- Americans For Prosperity Oklahoma
- Atlas Economic Research Foundation
- Berman And Company, Inc
- Consumer Energy Alliance
- Center For Clean Air Policy
- Center for Energy and Economic Development
- Center For The Study Of Carbon Dioxide And Global Change
- Coalition for Responsible Regulation
- Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow
- Council on State Taxation
- DCI Group AZ, LLC
- Ducks Unlimited
- Energy & Environment Legal Institute
- Edison Electric Institute
- Franklin Center for Government and Public Integrity
- Free Market Environmental Law Clinic
- Frontiers Of Freedom Institute
- George C. Marshall Institute
- Hill Knowlton Strategies
- Hill Knowlton, Inc
- Hudson Institute
- Hunton & Williams
- Independence Institute
- Institute For Energy Research
- Institute for Liberty
- National Association of Manufacturers
- National Black Chamber of Commerce
- National Conference of State Legislatures
- National Mining Association
- National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
- National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
- NextGen Energy Council
- PACE (May refer to Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy)
- Science & Public Policy Institute
- Sidley Austin LLP
- State Policy Network
- Texas Conservative Coalition Research Institute
- Texas Public Policy Foundation
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce
- Western Business Roundtable
June 10, 2016
The letter responds to recent investigations by U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch and members of Attorneys General United for Clean Power into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US. , 
Calvin Beisner writes that the attorneys generals' actions are “a dead giveaway that you’re ignorant about climate science and related climate and energy policy.” 
“[U]nlike in the case of tobacco’s health risks, there are innumerable and enormous holes in the case (not for human contribution to global warming but) for manmade global warming dangerous enough to justify spending trillions of dollars reinventing the world’s energy system to mitigate it, particularly when competing use of those trillions might bring far greater benefit,” Beisner addresses the attorneys general. And you, intelligent and learned all, are ignorant of those enormous holes.” 
The Cornwall Alliance lists the following signatories to its open letter: 
- E. Calvin Beisner
- Charles Clough
- Colonel John A. Eidsmoe
- Christopher Essex
- Neil L. Frank
- Victor Goldschmidt
- Rev. Peter Jones
- Madhav Khandekar
- Jamieson C. Keister
- Kevin Lewis
- Anthony R. Lupo
- Vishal Mangalwadi
- Tracy Miller
- Ben Phillips
- Shawn Ritenour
- Chris Skates
- Roy W. Spencer
- Timothy Terrell
- James Wanliss
- Anthony Watts
May 2, 2016
- Robert Giegengack
- Judith Curry
- Richard Tol
- Caleb Rossiter
- Ivar Giaever
- Roy Spencer
- Daniel B. Botkin
- Patrick Moore
- Don J. Easterbrook
- Robert M. Carter
- John Theon
- Dennis Rancourt
- William M. Briggs
- Roger Pielke Sr.
- Walter Cunningham
- Patrick J. Michaels
- Lord Christopher Monckton
- Anthony Watts
- Leighton Steward
- Philip Stott
- Will Happer
Marc Morano's Climate Hustle was released in U.S. theatres on May 2, 2016. Bill Nye described it as “not in our national interest and the world’s interest.” 
The film was produced by the Committee for Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) and CDRCommunications. As noted at Desmog's project, ClimateHustler.org, CFACT has received funding from ExxonMobil, Chevron, as well as hundreds of thousands of dollars from foundations associated with Richard Mellon Scaife. CFACT has also received at least $7.8 million in “dark money” through DonorsTrust and Donors Capital Fund. , 
CDR Communications was behind the 2010 video by the Cornwall Alliance titled Resisting the Green Dragon, which claimed environmentalism was a “false religion” and a “global government” power grab. Chris Rogers of CDR Communictions is also chairman of The James Partnership, the umbrella arm that includes the Cornwall Alliance as one of its projects and pays the salary of Calvin Beisner, Cornwall’s founder and spokesperson. 
“We are putting together what I think is the most comprehensive, unique, entertaining and humorous climate documentary that has ever been done or attempted,” Morano had said before the film was released. 
“The reason that this is a unique film,” Morano has said, “is that we are going for a pop culture-friendly… sarcastic approach and we actually give both sides in this movie.” 
In an interview with Ezra Levant, Morano said:
“I am not interviewing a lot of the main climate sceptical scientists because I feel like they have been interviewed by many other people and their stories have been told. I am trying to find another layer of scientist whose stories have not been out there yet. You will see a lot of new names in this.” 
See a preview of the film below:
At the Paris premier of the film, reporters from Desmog and the Irish Times were denied entrance after having their RSVPs accepted days earlier. 
Roy Spencer was one of several witnesses sponsored by Peabody Energy, fighting a legal case on Minnesota's Social Cost of Carbon (SCC). Peabody Energy's list of skeptical scientists included the following: 
DeSmog reviewed the case findings, and reported how the arguments presented by Peabody were rejected by the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ). Some of Peabody's central “scientific” arguments, as commented on by The ALJ in findings documents, were as follows: 
p.18 “Peabody asserted that significant climate change is not occurring or, to the extent climate change is occurring, it is not due to anthropogenic causes. Furthermore, Peabody insisted that any current warming and increased CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere are beneficial. Based on its position on climate change, Peabody maintained that the externality value of CO2 would most accurately be set at or below zero.…”
p.31 “The Administrative Law Judge concludes that Peabody Energy has failed to demonstrate, by a preponderance of the evidence, that climate change is not occurring or, to the extent climate change is occurring, the warming and increased CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere are beneficial.”
The Guardian also suggested a number of reasons that Peabody Energy lost the case, including Richard Lindzen's own admission that the case hinged on ignoring the IPCC expert consensus, and instead listening to contrarian science: 
“All of this [opposition] testimony is flawed to the extent it simply relies on … predictions by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change […] today the best evidence indicates that … a much lower climate sensitivity value of 1°C or 1.5°C is correct […]” 
“Peabody’s scientists made errors that were easy to identify and point out to the Judge. Furthermore, the Judge was smart, quickly able to see through nonsense non-science,” The Guardian reports. “For those of you that read the report, you’ll notice that the Peabody side made claims about the natural variability of Earth’s climate, about Earth temperature changes, and about extreme weather events.” 
“22. The Administrative Law Judge concludes that Peabody failed to demonstrate that an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 1 or 1.5°C is correct.”
“23. The Administrative Law Judge concludes that the climate sensitivity is reasonably considered to be in the 2-4.5°C range.”
“47. The Administrative Law Judge concludes that Peabody failed to demonstrate that the relied upon process is neither peer-reviewed nor transparent.”
December 13, 2015
Writing as a guest blogger on Watts Up With That, CFACT's executive director Craig Rucker denounced the latest UN climate change agreement: 
“This agreement will not meaningfully alter the temperature of the Earth, even under the U.N.’s own computer models.
“The bad news is that it plants the seeds of a new UN climate regime that left unchecked will swell into a bureaucratic behemoth.” 
December 8, 2015
“Since poverty is the leading cause of premature death in the world, and fossil fuels have enabled the world to prosper and live longer, more comfortable lives, being against fossil fuels is, in my opinion, either misguided or evil,” Spencer writes. 
Spencer's article responds to a Greenpeace EnergyDesk investigation (“Academics-for-hire”), published the same day, which had revealed a number of academics were willing to take funds from oil companies in order to publish articles promoting the benefits of carbon dioxide. 
“Over the years, I’ve charged to give talks out-of-state, taking vacation time away from my research day job (which is 100% federal and state funded) to avoid any charges of “double-dipping”. A few of those talks have been for fossil fuel-related organizations, a few have been for environmental organizations, but most have not.“My affiliations with the Marshall Institute and Cornwall Alliance have been on a volunteer basis. I’ve also been paid a modest amount to write a couple of reports over the years, as well as to help in a recent legal case. The total compensation I’ve received is very small compared to my day job, and it’s even very small compared to the ad revenue I receive from our little weather website, Weatherstreet.com.“Many years ago I was paid to write articles for a website called TCSDaily.com, which turned out to be fossil-fuel funded. I didn’t know that at the time, but I don’t think it would have mattered. After all, like most of us in the modern world, I’ve given far more money to fossil fuel interests than I’ve ever received from them.“I’m still waiting for that Big Check from Big Oil. After all, I’ve been carrying their water for years. In my case, my support of fossil fuels (and the prosperity and longevity they have enabled humanity to achieve) goes back decades. It’s a no-brainer. If there is another energy technology as cheap and reliable and large-scale, I’m all for it.” 
June 11-12, 2015
View Roy Spencer’s Panel 2 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: 
Confronted by a Greenpeace activist Connor Gibson on camera, Dr. Spencer was filmed repeating several disinformation myths. Spencer denied that the global average temperature record has a documented warming trend over the last century, and then denied that humans have caused the warming trend he refused to acknowledge.
June 1, 2015
Spencer argued that government-run climate change models are inaccurately “biased high” and should therefore not be used to determine the social cost of carbon.
“My testimony will address the validity of climate model projections of global and regional temperatures used in the determination of the social cost of carbon (SCC). Three independent classes of temperature observations show that the climate models used by governments for policy guidance have warmed 2 to 3 times faster than the real climate system over the last 35 to 55 years, which is the period of greatest greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Recent research suggests that the climate models are too sensitive to these emissions, and that increasing greenhouse gases do not cause as much warming and associated climate change as is commonly believed [emphasis added]. These results suggest that any SCC estimates based upon such models will be biased high.” 
Spencer went on to testify that he ascribes to the heavily debunked “no global warming in 18 years” hiatus theory, which he believes is due to “some combination of low climate sensitivity and a natural cooling effect, such as stronger La Nina event in recent years.” 
Spencer's testimony on behalf of Peabody Energy can be read here: Direct Testimony and Exhibits of Professor Roy Spencer June 1, 2015 [PDF].
Roy Spencer is one of several climate change skeptics cc'd on an email from S. Fred Singer in hopes of countering the documentary film “Merchants of Doubt,” which exposes the network of climate change skeptics and deniers trying to delay legislative action on climate change. 
The October, 2014 email was leaked to journalists before the documentary was released. “Can I sue for damages?” Singer asked in the email. “Can we get an injunction against the documentary?” 
InsideClimate News reports in their article “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” how “Many of those copied on the email thread, such as Singer and communications specialist Steven Milloy, have financial ties to the tobacco, chemical, and oil and gas industries and have worked to defend them since the 1990s.” 
InsideClimate News also documented all those who were cc'd on the email, including the following skeptics and groups:
- Ron Arnold
- Timothy Ball
- Joseph “Joe” Bast
- Joe Bastardi
- Michael Bastasch
- William Briggs
- Russell Cook
- Judith Curry
- Joe D'Aleo
- James Delingpole
- David Paul Driessen
- James Enstrom
- Steve Goddard
- Pierre Gosselin
- Greenie Watch
- William Happer
- Jim Lakely
- Patrick J. Michaels
- Steven J. Milloy
- Christopher Monckton
- Marc Morano
- Joanne Nova
- Roger Pielke Sr. (Or Roger Pielke Jr. - Unclear in Email)
- Thomas P. Sheahen
- S. Fred Singer
- Wei-Hock (Willie) Soon
- Roy Spencer
- James Taylor
- Anthony Watts
DeSmogBlog covered the emails here: “Merchants of Doubt Film Debuts, Textbook Denial Attack Campaign Led By Fred Singer Ensues” and DeSmogBlog also archived a full copy of the Singer email thread (PDF).
September 25, 2014
Roy Spencer attends the “At the Crossroads; Energy & Climate Policy Summit” in Houston, Texas, hosted by the Texas Public Policy Foundation and The Heritage Foundation. Spencer presents in “Panel I: The State of the Science,” with Judith Curry and Harold Doiron. 
July 7 - 9, 2014
In the commentary attacking the overwhelming scientific consensus on climate science, Spencer and Bast argued that, “There is no basis for the claim that 97% of scientists believe that man-made climate change is a dangerous problem.” , 
In a February 20, 2014 blog post titled, “Time to push back against the global warming Nazis,” Spencer wrote: 
When politicians and scientists started calling people like me “deniers”, they crossed the line. They are still doing it.
They indirectly equate (1) the skeptics’ view that global warming is not necessarily all manmade nor a serious problem, with (2) the denial that the Nazi’s extermination of millions of Jews ever happened.
Too many of us for too long have ignored the repulsive, extremist nature of the comparison. It’s time to push back.
I’m now going to start calling these people “global warming Nazis”.
Dr Spencer gave evidence to the US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works session on climate change. During the hearing (at 3hr 20s), Dr Spencer was asked by Democrat committee member Senator Sheldon Whitehouse: “Do you believe that the theory of creation actually has a much better scientific basis than the theory of evolution.” 
The question was apparently in reference to an article which Spencer had written several years earlier in which he stated the “theory of creation actually had a much better scientific basis than the theory of evolution.” 
Spencer answered that he believed that “evolutionary theory is mostly religion” and that the DNA molecule could not have happened “by chance”. He also claimed that if he was placed in a debate, he would be able to offer more scientific evidence “supporting that life was created” than an opponent could offer that life had evolved. 
In July 2011, a paper co-authored by Spencer was published in the journal Remote Sensing, “[which is] a fine [peer-reviewed] journal for geographers, but it does not deal with atmospheric and climate science,” RealClimate found. 
His paper looked at a potential connection between clouds and global warming. The paper received significant media attention, and climate change skeptics claimed that it “blow[s] a gaping hole in global warming alarmism.” 
Within three days of the publication of Spencer & Braswell's paper, two climate scientists (Kevin Trenberth & John Fasullo) repeated the analysis and showed that the IPCC models are in agreement with the observations, so refuting Spencer's claims. 
In Andrew Dessler's view, “[This] paper is not really intended for other scientists, since they do not take Roy Spencer seriously anymore (he’s been wrong too many times). Rather, he’s writing his papers for Fox News, the editorial board of the Wall Street Journal, Congressional staffers, and the blogs. These are his audience and the people for whom this research is actually useful — in stopping policies to reduce GHG emissions — which is what Roy wants.” 
“After having become aware of the situation, and studying the various pro and contra arguments, I agree with the critics of the paper. Therefore, I would like to take the responsibility for this editorial decision and, as a result, step down as Editor-in-Chief of the journal Remote Sensing.
With this step I would also like to personally protest against how the authors and like-minded climate sceptics have much exaggerated the paper’s conclusions in public statements…” 
May 27, 2011
Roy Spencer was one of fourteen Amici, described as “well-qualified climate scientists,” who claimed that the “EPA's endangerment finding is not 'rational' and therefore arbitrary and capricious.” 
“[T]he Earth's climate is not changing in an unusual or anomalous fashion. The EPA relied on instrumental data that were adjusted to exaggerate the increase in global temperatures.” 
Petitioners listed were:
- Timothy F. Ball
- Joseph S. D'Aleo
- Don J. Easterbrook
- Anthony Finizza
- William Happer
- Benjamin M. Herman
- Craig D. Idso
- Richard A. Keen
- Anthony R. Lupo
- Nicola Scafetta
- Roy W. Spencer
- George H. Taylor
- James P. Wallace III
- George T. Wolff
Apart from concluding that global warming is likely caused by a natural cycle, Blunder poses the question, that “maybe putting more CO2 in the atmosphere is a good thing.” 
March 8, 2007
Roy Spencer appeared on the The Great Global Warming Swindle to talk about the “Great Science Funding Conspiracy.” Spencer claims that “climate scientists need there to be a problem in order to get funding.” 
Swindle received critical response from the scientific community, including a letter addressed to ABC signed by thirty-seven British Scientists that claimed “the misrepresentations of facts and views, both of which occur in your programme, are so serious that repeat broadcasts of the programme, without amendment, are not in the public interest. In view of the seriousness of climate change as an issue, it is crucial that public debate about it is balanced and well-informed.” 
RUSH: You called yesterday and you wanted to say that my instincts on this global warming as you've heard me discuss them, are accurate. You started a discussion of the calculations here, these climate models, saying that they do not factor – because it's not easy to do or maybe it's not even possible to factor – in the role of precipitation and clouds. Could you start there, and basically whatever you were going to say yesterday, go ahead and launch.
DR. SPENCER: Well, I feel like – and there are a few of us that are like this – that the Earth has a natural air-conditioning process which occurs that is mainly through precipitation systems. Now, people will think, “Oh, well, you mean when they come by they cool off the air,” and that's not what I'm talking about. It's about the Earth's natural greenhouse effect which is mostly water vapor and clouds. The Earth has a natural greenhouse effect that keeps the surface of the Earth warm.
RUSH: Isn't it true that the majority of greenhouse gases do come from the sources you just mentioned, not manmade sources?
DR. SPENCER: Well, yeah, that's true. Carbon dioxide is a relatively small part of the Earth's natural greenhouse effect… .
There's a big problem with [the accepted explanation for the greenhouse effect], though. It makes it sound like the greenhouse effect is what determines the temperature of the Earth, and actually the truth is it's more the other way around. Given a certain amount of sunlight coming in, that is mostly absorbed at the surface of the Earth, weather processes happen which create the greenhouse effect because most of the greenhouse effect is from evaporated water which then turns into clouds, and of course water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas.
RUSH: I dare say I have to interrupt you at this point because most people who only pay attention to the crisis mongers, believe that there is no greenhouse effect other than that created by man. The whole notion of the greenhouse effect has led people to believe that man has totally manufactured this and that it's totally harmful. What you're saying is it's a natural thing that helps keep the Earth's temperatures moderate?
DR. SPENCER: Yeah, that's right. That's right. All the scientists agree with that. What you're talking about is the fact that the media distorts things so much that people don't get the right information. If you're using the media to rely on to get the science about this issue, you won't. 
December 13, 2007
The letter states that “it is not possible to stop climate change, a natural phenomenon that has affected humanity throughout the ages.” 
Spencer is listed as a “scientific advisor” for an organization called the “Interfaith Stewardship Alliance” (ISA), now the Cornwall Alliance. According to their website, the ISA is “a coalition of religious leaders, clergy, theologians, scientists, academics, and other policy experts committed to bringing a proper and balanced Biblical view of stewardship to the critical issues of environment and development.” , 
In July 2006, Spencer co-authored an ISA report refuting the work of another religious organization called the Evangelical Climate Initiative. The ISA report was titled A Call to Truth, Prudence and Protection of the Poor: an Evangelical Response to Global Warming. Along with the report was a letter of endorsement signed by numerous representatives of various organizations, including six that have received a total of $2.32 million in donations from ExxonMobil over the last three years. 
Roy Spencer was one of the 60 “accredited experts” to sign a 2006 open letter to Prime Minister Stephen Harper denying man-made climate change while urging the government avoid implementing climate policy. 
The letter states that “climate changes all the time due to natural causes and the human impact still remains impossible to distinguish from this natural 'noise.'” 
According to an August 12, 2005 New York Times article, Spencer, along with another well-known “skeptic,” John Christy, admitted they made a mistake in their satellite data research that they said demonstrated a cooling in the troposphere (the earth's lowest layer of atmosphere). It turned out that the exact opposite was occurring and the troposphere was getting warmer. 
“These papers should lay to rest once and for all the claims by John Christy and other global warming skeptics that a disagreement between tropospheric and surface temperature trends means that there are problems with surface temperature records or with climate models,” said Alan Robock, a meteorologist at Rutgers University. 
November 16, 2004
The letter concludes that any past warming that occurred in the arctic cannot be attributed to greenhouse gas concentrations. It was signed by prominent climate change skeptics including Richard Lindzen, Tim Ball, David Legates, Pat Michaels, Gary D. Sharp, Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas. 
In the video, “expert scientists assert that CO2 is not a pollutant, but a nutrient to life on earth.” 
July 15, 1997
Spencer appeared in a “Global Warming Conference” with Jonathan Adler, director of the Environmental Program at the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI). While Spencer says that the potential threat of global warming warrants research funding, he also suggests scientists may be influenced by this funding as well as by “peer pressure.” 
“Certainly global warming is a good area for submitting proposals to get government funding to do government-funded research. And I agree that the threat of global warming is sufficient to where we should have that funded activity, Spencer said. […] Now this isn't meant to be an indictment of the scientific process. I just want to point out that scientists are people too. And while the most objective people I've ever met are scientists, for the most part, people that speak out on the issue of global warming have greater motivations than just searching for how things work.” 
Outlining where he stands on global warming, Spencer said that he would expect the trend to be revised downward: 
“I could probably be convinced that maybe - yeah, we’ll just see direct radiative effect of CO2 which maybe, might give you, one - one and a half degree C by the end of the next century. But, I don’t have a whole lot of confidence in that. But I have even less confidence in positive feedbacks in the climate models. And I think as the new reports come out, say in the year 2000, that these estimates of global warming will be further revised downward.” 
- Cornwall Alliance For the Stewardship of Creation (formerly ISA) — Member, Board of Advisors. 
- Interfaith Stewardship Alliance (ISA) — Former Advisor. 
- Tech Central Station (TCS) — Author. 
- International Climate and Environmental Change Assessment Project (ICECAP) — “Expert.” 
- The Heartland Institute — “Expert.” 
- George C. Marshall Institute (Now Defunct) — Formerly Listed as “Expert.” 
Spencer has published research articles in peer-reviewed journals on the subject of satellite climate measurements.
Brian Kaylor. “Signers of Environmental Statement Funded by ExxonMobil,” EthicsDaily.com, October 8, 2006. Archived May 6, 2008. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/mqyQX
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“Re: In the Matter of the Further Investigation into Environmental and Socioeconomic Costs Under Minn. Stat. § 216B.2422, Subd. 3” (PDF), April 12, 2016. PDF archived at DeSmog.
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BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS FOR THE MINNESOTA PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION STATE OF MINNESOTA In the Matter of the Further Investigation in to Environmental and Socioeconomic Costs Under Minnesota Statute 216B.2422, Subdivision 3 OAH Docket No. 80-2500-31888 (PDF), June 1, 2015. Archived at Desmog.
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