Timothy F. Ball (Tim Ball)

Timothy F. Ball (Tim Ball)

Credentials

  • Ph.D. (Doctor of Science), University of London, England, 1982.
  • M.A., University of  Manitoba, 1971.
  • B.A., University of Winnipeg, 1970.

Source: [1], [2]

Background

Tim Ball was a professor of geography at the University of Winnipeg from 1988 to 1996. He is a prolific speaker and writer in the skeptical science community. [2]

He has been Chairman to the now-defunct Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP), “Consultant” to the Exxon-funded Friends of Science (FoS), senior fellow at the Frontier Centre for Public Policy (FCPP), and has connections to numerous other think tanks and right-wing organizations. [3][4], [1]

Tim Ball is member of Climate Exit (Clexit), a climate change denial group formed shortly after the UK’s decision to leave the EU. According to Clexit's founding statement (PDF), “The world must abandon this suicidal Global Warming crusade. Man does not and cannot control the climate.” [5][6]

NRSP Denier Connections

The NRSP's past list of “scientific advisors” has also included prominent deniers Tim Patterson, Tad Murty and Sallie Baliunas, all of which are also listed as advisors to the FOS[3], [7]

DeSmog previously noted that two of the three directors on the board of the Natural Resources Stewardship Project were at one time senior executives of the High Park Advocacy Group, a Toronto-based lobby firm that specializes in “energy, environment and ethics.” [8]

First PhD in Climatology?

Ball and the organizations he is affiliated with have repeatedly made the claim that he is the “first Canadian PhD in climatology.” Ball himself claimed he was “one of the first climatology PhD's in the world.” [9], [10]

Many have pointed out that there have been numerous PhD's in the field prior to Ball. [11]

Ball was a former professor of geography at the University of Winnipeg from 1988 to 1996. The University of Winnipeg never had an office of Climatology. His degree was in historical geography and not climatology. [12]

Stance on Climate Change

August 5, 2016 

“'Climate change is real,' they say. Of course, that is true. Climate has been changing since the origin of the atmosphere billions of years ago, and there is nothing humans can do to stop it from changing.” — Tim Ball & Tom Harris. [54]

July 30, 2016

Tim Ball co-wrote an article with Tom Harris of the ICSC, claiming:

“'Climate change is real,' they say. So what? Gravity and sunrise are also real. That doesn’t mean we cause them or we would be better off without them. Climate has been changing since the origin of the atmosphere billions of years ago.” [53]

2006

“What's wrong with global warming? There are lots of positive benefits to global warming.” [13]

Key Quotes

July, 2016

“The problem is not adequate funding. It is too many people getting too much money for useless projects because there are too many people in universities. It is too many people going to university. The blunt truth is that for the majority of students it is a socially acceptable form of unemployment. Students getting less than a B average should not even be in university; for them, it is simply Grades 13, 14, 15, and (16). Some of this over attendance is because immigrant or newly successful middle-class families want their children to attend university” (Emphasis added). [14]

July 30, 2016

“All this would be humorous if it did not have such serious ramifications. In the vain hope of stopping trivial changes in climate, activists and compliant politicians are working hard to force us to switch from coal and other fossil fuels, America's least expensive and most abundant power sources, to unreliable and expensive alternatives such as wind and solar power. The public need to ask them, 'Why are you doing this? Who are you trying to please?'.” [53]

February, 2015

“Pope Francis advocates the global warming agenda of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with the help of the Obama White House. Apparently, he doesn’t know their ultimate objective of reducing and controlling population generally contradicts Catholic doctrine.” [15]

May, 2006

CFC's were never a problem… . it's only because the sun is changing.” [13]

Key Deeds

December 3, 2016

Tim Ball is listed as a speaker at Freedom Force International's “3rd Congress” event titled “Global-Warming; an Inconvenient Lie.” Freedom Force International describes the event as “a gathering of the world’s top experts on this subject who will put an end, once-and-for-all, to the myth of anthropogenic (man-caused) global-warming.” [56]

Ball's speech is titled “Global Warming Is the Biggest Deception in History.” The complete speaker list is below:

  • Lord Christopher Monckton – Global Warming Is A Monstrous Hoax
  • William Happer  – The Real Inconvenient Truth; More CO2 Benefits the Earth
  • Tim Ball – Global Warming Is the Biggest Deception in History 
  • G. Edward Griffin – Why Do They Deceive?
  • Holly Swanson – They Call It Education; Global Warming and Political Indoctrination
  • Dan Happel  – They Call It Green; Global Warming and Agenda-21
  • Patrick Wood – They Call it Science; Global Warming and Technocracy
  • Alex Newman – They Call It News; Global Warming and Propaganda
  • Debbie Bacigalupi – They Call It Smart Growth: Global Warming and The Depopulation of Rural America
  • Elaine Willman – Native Americans – Pawns in the Agenda-21 game
  • Jim Lee – Geoengineering, Weather Modification, and the Weaponization of Nature
  • Michael Shaw – Agenda-21; Bringing the Soviet System to America
  • Willie Soon Man vs. Sun; Put Your Money on the Sun
  • Istvan MarkoCO2 Is Not Pollution. It is Our Friend.

August, 2016

Tim Ball is a member of a group titled Climate Exit (Clexit) founded in the summer of 2016. According to Clexit's founding statement (PDF), “The world must abandon this suicidal Global Warming crusade. Man does not and cannot control the climate.” [5][6]

As Desmog reports, another key member of Clexit's “60 well-informed science, business and economic leaders” is Hugh Morgan, a former board member of the Reserve Bank of Australia and former CEO of Western Mining Corporation with close ties to Australia's Liberal party. [16][17]

According to Clexit's founding statement

If the Paris climate accord is ratified, or enforced locally by compliant governments, it will strangle the leading economies of the world with pointless carbon taxes and costly climate and energy policies, all with no sound basis in evidence or science […]” [6]

July 30, 2016

Tim Ball co-wrote an article with Tom Harris of the ICSC where he claims that “The best answer to most of the claims by climate activists and their political allies is simply: so what?”

“'Climate change is real,' they say. So what? Gravity and sunrise are also real. That doesn’t mean we cause them or we would be better off without them. Climate has been changing since the origin of the atmosphere billions of years ago,” Ball and Harriss write. [53]

July 24, 2016

Writing at Watts Up With That (WUWT), Tim Ball responded to an article in Vox titled “The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists.” [14] 

While Ball agrees with some of the points, Daily KOS reports he ultimately blames immigrants and the middle class for pursuing higher education: (emphasis added) [18] 

“The problem is not adequate funding,” Ball writes at WUWT. “It is too many people getting too much money for useless projects because there are too many people in universities. It is too many people going to university. The blunt truth is that for the majority of students it is a socially acceptable form of unemployment. Students getting less than a B average should not even be in university; for them, it is simply Grades 13, 14, 15, and (16). Some of this over attendance is because immigrant or newly successful middle-class families want their children to attend university.” [14]

Ball concludes that ““We can solve many of our problems quickly by closing down 75 percent of our universities.” Ball's other complaints include the “the use of science for political agendas,” and that “some scientists exploit” the bias of the media.  [14]

March 3, 2016

Tim Ball produced a list of “handy CO2 talking points” to helpo “defeat global warming alarmists.” [19]

“The 'green' activists' focus on CO2 was premeditated and designed to demonize it as the toxic byproduct of fossil-fuel driven industries that was causing runaway global warming,” Ball writes.

In fact, C02 is a gas essential to plant life, and thereby all life, because plants produce oxygen.”  [19]

Ball's list includes a number of common myths that Skeptical Science has previously debunked. Some examples below, with information from Skeptical Science below: [19]

Tim Ball: “The IPCC assume an increase in CO2 causes a temperature increase. It doesn’t. Every record for any period shows temperature increases before CO2.” [19]

SkepticalScience: CO2 does not cause the warming, but rather amplifies it: “When the Earth comes out of an ice age, the warming is not initiated by CO2 but by changes in the Earth's orbit. The warming causes the oceans to release CO2. The CO2 amplifies the warming and mixes through the atmosphere, spreading warming throughout the planet. So CO2 causes warming AND rising temperature causes CO2 rise.  Overall, about 90% of the global warming occurs after the CO2 increase.” [20]

Tim Ball: “Let’s assume CO2 IS causing warming. Then, when its density reaches a certain level, the warming ability is maximized. But it IS currently maximized – so how will the addition of more CO2 have much effect?” [19]

SkepticalScience: “If the CO2 effect was saturated, adding more CO2 should add no additional greenhouse effect. However, satellite and surface measurements observe an enhanced greenhouse effect at the wavelengths that CO2 absorb energy. This is empirical proof that the CO2 effect is not saturated.” [21]

Tim Ball: “CO2 is only approximately 0.0397% of the total atmospheric gases. Figure 2 shows the proportional relationship between atmospheric gases and GHGs.” [19]

SkepticalScience: “Saying that CO2 is 'only a trace gas' is like saying that arsenic is 'only' a trace water contaminant. Small amounts of very active substances can cause large effects.” [22]

June 11-12, 2015

Tim Ball was a speaker on Panel 11: “Attacks on Scientists and the Corruption of Science,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with Bob Carter, William Briggs, and Christopher Monckton. [23]

View Tim Ball’s Panel 11 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: [24]

May 12, 2015

Timothy F. Ball is a signatory to an open letter to Pope Francis on climate change. The letter invites the Pope to reconsider his views on climate change before his upcoming encyclical letter on the environment, which is widely expected to call for measures to prevent climate change in the interests of the world's poor. [25]

The open letter was coordinated and signed by Calvin Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance. According to the letter, “Good climate policy must recognize human exceptionalism, the God-given call for human persons to 'have dominion' in the natural world (Genesis 1:28), and the need to protect the poor from harm, including actions that hinder their ascent out of poverty.” [25]

Another excerpt below:

”[…] the [climate] models are wrong. They therefore provide no rational basis to forecast dangerous human-induced global warming, and therefore no rational basis for efforts to reduce warming by restricting the use of fossil fuels or any other means.” [25]

Judith Curry comments on her blog Climate Etc. that “Arguably the most effective 'pushback' comes from Cal Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance, who coordinated An Open Letter to Pope Francis on Climate Change.” [26] 

March, 2015

Tim Ball is one of several climate change skeptics cc'd on an email from S. Fred Singer in hopes of countering the documentary film “Merchants of Doubt,” which exposes the network of climate change skeptics and deniers trying to delay legislative action on climate change. [27]

The October, 2014 email was leaked to journalists before the documentary was released. “Can I sue for damages?” Singer asked in the email. “Can we get an injunction against the documentary?” [27]

InsideClimate News reports in their article “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” how “Many of those copied on the email thread, such as Singer and communications specialist Steven Milloy, have financial ties to the tobacco, chemical, and oil and gas industries and have worked to defend them since the 1990s.” [27]

InsideClimate News also documented all those who were cc'd on the email, including the following skeptics and groups:

DeSmogBlog covered the emails here: “Merchants of Doubt Film Debuts, Textbook Denial Attack Campaign Led By Fred Singer Ensues” and also archived a full copy of the Singer email thread (PDF).

February 1, 2015

Tim Ball  wrote a guest Opinion piece at Watts Up With That, titled “Pope Francis Apparently Doesn’t Know IPCC Climate Objective Contradicts Catholic Doctrine.” [15]

Ball writes that “IPCC climate objective contradicts Catholic doctrine,” saying its ultimate objective is “reducing and controlling population.” [15]

July 7 - 9, 2014

Tim Ball was a speaker at the Heartland Institute’s Ninth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC9) in Las Vegas, Nevada. [28]

DeSmog reported on speakers and sponsors behind Heartland's ICCC9. [28]

January 21, 2014

Ball publishes a book entitled, “The Deliberate Corruption of Climate Science.” According to the description of the book on Amazon.com, “Dr. Tim Ball exposes the malicious misuse of climate science as it was distorted by dishonest brokers to advance the political aspirations of the progressive left.” [29]

June 30 - July 1, 2011

Ball was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 6th International Conference on Climate Change. [30]

March 25, 2011

Dr. Michael Mann sued Tim Ball and the Frontier Center For Public Policy for libel. The lawsuit arose from an interview with Ball that was posted on the Frontier Center website. [31]

In the interview, according to court documents, Ball responds to an anonymous questioner regarding the “Climategate” scandal by saying “Michael Mann at Penn State should be in the State Pen, not Penn State.” [32]

May 27, 2011

Timothy F. Ball was one of fourteen Amici, described as “well-qualified climate scientists,” who claimed that the “EPA's endangerment finding is not 'rational' and therefore arbitrary and capricious.” [33]

According to the petitioners, representing the Coalition for Responsible Regulation, Inc.: 

“[T]he Earth's climate is not changing in an unusual or anomalous fashion. The EPA relied on instrumental data that were adjusted to exaggerate the increase in global temperatures.” [33]

Petitioners listed were:

Feb 2, 2011

Andrew Weaver, a University of Victoria Professor and Canada Research Chair in Climate Modeling and Analysis, filed suit for libel against Tim Ball[31]

The suit arose from an article Ball wrote for Canada Free Press which accused Weaver of being uninformed about climate and unqualified to teach. Documents attached (.pdf). [34]

October, 2009

Ball appeared as a “climatologist” in a documentary produced by Alex Jones titled The Fall of the Republic: The Presidency of Barack H. Obama. [35]

March, 2008

Ball was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's First International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC1). [30]

March 8, 2007

Tim Ball made a prominent appearance on the Great Global Warming Swindle, appearing as an “eminent scientist.” [36]

Nov 10, 2007

In a 2007 FCPP special report, Tim Ball and Tom Harris criticized The Fifth Estate's broadcast of The Denial Machine, describing it as “docu-ganda.” Ball claimed that he was filmed without his consent. [37], [38]

Ball also asserted that The Denial Machine violated CBC's “Journalistic Standards and Practices.” He further accused the CBC of misrepresenting the credentials of skeptical scientists. [37]

Sept 1, 2006

On September 1st, Ball launched a libel suit against Dr. Dan Johnson and the Calgary Herald over a letter the paper ran on April 23, 2006. Johnson is a Professor of Environmental Science at the University of Lethbridge. Original documents below: [39], [40]

Ball had written an article that attacked the qualifications of renowned climate change author Tim Flannery, in which the Herald described Ball as “the first climatology PhD in Canada and … a professor of climatology at the University of Winnipeg for 28 years.”

Johnson's letter to the editor challenged those details, noting that when Ball received his PhD (in Geography) in 1983, “Canada already had PhDs in climatology and it is important to recognize them and their research.” Johnson also pointed out that Ball had been a professor for a much shorter time (Ball later admitted eight years), during which Ball did “not show any evidence of research regarding climate and atmosphere.” [41]

The Calgary Herald's Statement of Defence, filed with the Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench, dismissed Ball’s credibility saying that “The Plantiff (Dr. Ball) is viewed as a paid promoter of the agenda of the oil and gas industry rather than as a practicing scientist.”  [42]

Ball subsequently dropped his lawsuit. [43]

Affiliations

Publications

A search of 22,000 academic journals shows that over the course of his career Ball published four pieces of original research in peer-reviewed journals on the subject of climate change.

According to Google Scholar, his most recent peer-reviewed article on climate change was published in 1986, titled “Historical evidence and climatic implications of a shift in the boreal forest tundra transition in central Canada.” [50]

Other Publications:

Journal Background: In a 1995 article written by Paul Thacker, Energy and Environment was described as being a journal skeptics can go to when they are rejected by the mainstream peer-reviewed science publications.

Tim Ball is a prolific writer of newspaper articles, opinion pieces, and letters to the editor questioning the existence of climate change. [51]

Ball is also a lead author of Slaying the Sky Dragon: Death of the Greenhouse Gas Theory, a book published in 2011. [52]

Resources

  1. Frontier Research Fellows,” Frontier Center for Public Policy. Archived March 4, 2012. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/6V7j5

  2. CURRICULUM VITAE: Dr Timothy F Ball” (PDF), drtimball.com. Last modified March 8, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  3. NRSP People,” Natural Resources Stewardship Project. Archived May 1, 2009. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/YUZXX

  4. About Us: Scientific Advisory Board,” Friends of Science. Archived July 7, 2008.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/kNrxs

  5. The Clexit Committee comprises” (PDF), Clexit.net. Archived.pdf on file at Desmog.

  6. “After Brexit, Clexit” (PDF), Clexit.net. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  7. NRSP People,” Natural Resources Stewardship Project. Archived July 2, 2007. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/BmZzZ

  8. James Hoggan. “NRSP Controlled by Energy Lobbyists,” Desmog, January 18, 2008.

  9. About Us: Scientific Advisory Board,” Friends of Science. Archived July 7, 2008. Archive.is URL:

  10. Dear Mr. Martin,” Letter from Tim Ball to M.P. Paul Martin. Republished at John-Daly.com. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/IlrVq

  11. Tim Lambert. “Dear Tim Ball: sue me,” Deltoid, June 23, 2006. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/U9676

  12. Richard Littlemore. “Dr. Tim Ball: The Lie that Just Won't Die,” Desmog, February 5, 2007.

  13. Climate of controversy,” Ottawa Citizen, May 18, 2006. Archived November 2, 2012. (Audio no longer available.) Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/jKMwL

  14. Anthony Watts. “Credibility Loss in Climate Science is Part of a Wider Malaise in Science,” Watts Up With That, July 24, 2016. Archived July 26, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/nGRu5

  15. Dr. Tim Ball. “Pope Francis Apparently Doesn’t Know IPCC Climate Objective Contradicts Catholic Doctrine.” Watts Up With That? , February 1, 2015. Archived September 5, 2016.  Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/lP6x9

  16. Graham Readfearn. “After Brexit, Climate Science Denialists Form New Group to Call for a Clexit,” Desmog, August 3, 2016.

  17. Hugh Morgan AO,” Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived February 22, 2002. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/1ObOB

  18. Julia Belluz, Brad Plumer, and Brian Resnick. “The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists,” Vox.com, July 14, 2016. Archived July 26, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/FvXSC

  19. Tim Ball. “Defeat global warming alarmists with Dr. Tim Ball's handy C02 talking points!“ The Rebel, March 3, 2016. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/yELKP

  20. CO2 lags temperature - what does it mean?” SkepticalScience. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/gJ8M6

  21. Is the CO2 effect saturated?” SkepticalScience. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/4QNiH

  22. CO2 is just a trace gas,” SkepticalScience. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Gf7T2

  23. Speakers,” Heartland Institute. Archived June 30, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/lpiqu

  24. Panel 11: Attacks on Scientists and the Corruption of Science with Bob Carter, Ph.D, William Briggs, Tim Ball, and Christopher Monckton,” Heartland Institute, June 12, 2015. Archived July 14, 2015. 

  25. An Open Letter to Pope Francis on Climate Change,” Cornwall Alliance For The Stewardship of Creation. April 27, 2015. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/x9zyb

  26. Judith Curry. “Pope Francis, climate change, and morality,” JudithCurry.com, April 29, 2015. Archived September 5, 2016Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/UNoI5

  27. Katherine Bagley. “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” InsideClimate News. March 12, 2015. Archived September 5, 2016Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/CVOi5

  28. Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmog, July 7, 2014. Archived July 14, 2014.

  29. Tim Ball. The Deliberate Corruption of Climate Science, Stairway Press, January 21, 2014. Archived September 6, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/KqLWO

  30. Timothy Ball: 6th International Conference on Climate Change,” the Heartland Institute. Archived March 25, 2012. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/wzrJr

  31. Richard Littlemore. “Michael Mann suing Tim Ball for libel,” Desmog, March 29, 2011.

  32. Michael Mann, Plantiff, and Timothy (“Tim”) Ball, The Frontier Center for Public Policy Inc. and Jon Doe (Defendants), Court File No. VLC-S-S111913. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  33. COALITION FOR RESPONSIBLE REGULATION, INC., ET AL. (Petitioners) v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND LISA P. JACKSON, ADMINISTRATOR, Respondents (PDF). Retrieved from World Climate Report. Archived.pdf on file at Desmog.

  34. Andrew Weaver (Plantiff) vs. Tomothy (“Tim”) Ball (Defendant), Court File No. VLC-S-S110682. Archived .pdf at Desmog.

  35. Fall of the Republic: The Presidency of Barack H. Obama, Alex Jones Productions, October 21, 2009. Archived video at the Internet Archive. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/7YMkM

  36. Judi McLeod. “Climatologist Tim Ball's star on the rise,” Canada Free Press, March 6, 2007. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Zeh5O

  37. Tim Ball and Tom Harris. CBC’s continuing denial of the climate science debate” (PDF), Frontier Center for Public Policy, November 10, 2007.

  38. The Denial Machine,” CBC News. Archived June 15, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/hFsvn

  39. Richard Littlemore. “Tim Ball vs Dan Johnson Update,” Desmog, January 10, 2007.

  40. Tim Ball vs Dan Johnson Lawsuit - Documents,” Desmog, October 13, 2006.

  41. Climate science and climatology in Canada, the early years,” University of Lethbridge. Archived May 5, 2012. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/82S0x

  42. Tim Ball vs Dan Johnson Lawsuit - Documents,” Desmog, October 13, 2006.

  43. Richard Littlemore. “Ball Bails on Johnson Lawsuit,” Desmog, June 14, 2007.

  44. Natural Resources Stewardship Project,” SourceWatch. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/GMJrx

  45. New Canadian Astroturf Group,” Deltoid, October 13, 2006. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/LisOd

  46. Tim Ball” SourceWatch profile.

  47. Timothy Ball,” The Heartland Institute. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/caR2C

  48. Who We Are,” International Climate Science Coalition. Archived September 5, 2016.

  49. Dr. Tim Ball,” Tech Central Station. Archived April 11, 2005. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/xB6J8

  50. Google Scholar search for articles containing search term “Climate” by author “Timothy F Ball” performed September, 2016.

  51. Mitchell Anderson. “Trust us, we're the media,” The Georgia Straight, January 24, 2007. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/ok2xO

  52. “Slaying the Sky Dragon: Death of the Greenhouse Gas Theory” (PDF), SMP LTD, December, 2010. Retrieved from Principia Scientific International. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  53. Tom Harris and Tim Ball. “TOM HARRIS and TIM BALL: Hypochondriac climate change concerns hurt us all,” YourHoustonNews.com, July 30, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/eItjn

  54. Tom Harris and Tim Ball. “OPINION: Of Course, the Climate is Changing,” Pagosa Daily Post, August 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/gmeDK#selection-243.0-243.43

  55. Who We Are,” Galileo Movement. Archived September 24, 2016. Archive. is URLhttps://archive.is/iyn7s

  56. The 3rd Congress of Freedom Force,” Freedom Force International. Archived December 2, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/xuWxA

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