Timothy F. Ball (Tim Ball)
- Ph.D. (Doctor of Science), University of London, England, 1982.
- M.A., University of Manitoba, 1971.
- B.A., University of Winnipeg, 1970.
Tim Ball was a professor of geography at the University of Winnipeg from 1988 to 1996. He is a prolific speaker and writer in the skeptical science community. 
He has been Chairman to the now-defunct Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP), “Consultant” to the Exxon-funded Friends of Science (FoS), senior fellow at the Frontier Centre for Public Policy (FCPP), and has connections to numerous other think tanks and right-wing organizations. , , 
Tim Ball is member of Climate Exit (Clexit), a climate change denial group formed shortly after the UK’s decision to leave the EU. According to Clexit's founding statement (PDF), “The world must abandon this suicidal Global Warming crusade. Man does not and cannot control the climate.” , 
NRSP Denier Connections
DeSmog previously noted that two of the three directors on the board of the Natural Resources Stewardship Project were at one time senior executives of the High Park Advocacy Group, a Toronto-based lobby firm that specializes in “energy, environment and ethics.” 
First PhD in Climatology?
Ball and the organizations he is affiliated with have repeatedly made the claim that he is the “first Canadian PhD in climatology.” Ball himself claimed he was “one of the first climatology PhD's in the world.” , 
Ball was a former professor of geography at the University of Winnipeg from 1988 to 1996. The University of Winnipeg never had an office of Climatology. His degree was in historical geography and not climatology. 
Stance on Climate Change
August 5, 2016
“'Climate change is real,' they say. Of course, that is true. Climate has been changing since the origin of the atmosphere billions of years ago, and there is nothing humans can do to stop it from changing.” — Tim Ball & Tom Harris. 
July 30, 2016
Tim Ball co-wrote an article with Tom Harris of the ICSC, claiming:
“'Climate change is real,' they say. So what? Gravity and sunrise are also real. That doesn’t mean we cause them or we would be better off without them. Climate has been changing since the origin of the atmosphere billions of years ago.” 
“What's wrong with global warming? There are lots of positive benefits to global warming.” 
In a guest opinion post Watts Up With That, a blog maintained by climate change denier Anthony Watts, Tim Ball declared (Emphasis added):
“The problem is not adequate funding. It is too many people getting too much money for useless projects because there are too many people in universities. It is too many people going to university. The blunt truth is that for the majority of students it is a socially acceptable form of unemployment. Students getting less than a B average should not even be in university; for them, it is simply Grades 13, 14, 15, and (16). Some of this over attendance is because immigrant or newly successful middle-class families want their children to attend university.“ 
July 30, 2016
“All this would be humorous if it did not have such serious ramifications. In the vain hope of stopping trivial changes in climate, activists and compliant politicians are working hard to force us to switch from coal and other fossil fuels, America's least expensive and most abundant power sources, to unreliable and expensive alternatives such as wind and solar power. The public need to ask them, 'Why are you doing this? Who are you trying to please?'.” 
In a guest opinion post at the blog Watts Up With That, Tim Ball said:
“Pope Francis advocates the global warming agenda of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with the help of the Obama White House. Apparently, he doesn’t know their ultimate objective of reducing and controlling population generally contradicts Catholic doctrine.” 
In a May, 2006 interview with the Ottawa Citizen's editorial staff, Tim Ball said:
February 23, 2017
Tim Ball was a signatory of a petition (PDF) organized by Richard Lindzen of the Cato Institute urging President Donald Trump to pull the United States out of the United Nations international convention on climate change (UNFCCC). 
“In just a few weeks, more than 300 eminent scientists and other qualified individuals from around the world have signed the petition below,” Lindzen wrote in the letter. 
DeSmog investigated the list, and found that only a small handful of the signatories could be considered “even remotely ‘qualified’ or ‘eminent’ — but not in the field of climate science.” The list included individuals “interested in climate,” and one signatory who only identified as an “emailer who wished to sign the petition” while some signers provided no affiliation or address whatsoever. 
January 5, 2017
Timothy F. Ball was a signatory to a Cornwall Alliance open letter supporting Scott Pruitt for EPA Administrator under the Trump administration. 
“Mr. Pruitt has also demonstrated understanding of and open-mindedness toward scientific insights crucial to the formulation and implementation of environmental regulation. He is prepared to hear all sides in debates over the risks and benefits of various activities that come under the purview of the EPA,” reads the letter.
On January 12, 2017, Senate Democrats raised conflict of interest concerns regarding Scott Prutt's fossil fuel ties. Pruitt had spent years working to combat the Obama Administration's Clean Power Plan. 
In an open letter to the Office of Government Ethics, members of the Senate's environmental panel commented:
“During his tenure as Attorney General of Oklahoma, Mr. Pruitt has blurred the distinction between official and political actions, often at the behest of corporations he will regulate if confirmed to lead EPA,” the letter said. “Public reporting based on documents produced by Freedom of Information Act requests illustrate how Mr. Pruitt and members of his staff have worked closely with fossil fuel lobbyists to craft his office's official positions.”
Some notable signatories of the Cornwall Alliance letter, as of January 5, 2017, included:
- Tim Ball
- Charles G. Battig
- E. Calvin Beisner
- H. Sterling Burnett
- Kenneth Chilton
- Donn Dears
- John Droz
- James E. Enstrom
- Joseph Farah
- Steve Goreham
- Jay Grimstead
- William Happer
- Richard Land
- David Legates
- Richard S. Lindzen
- Anthony R. Lupo
- Rod D. Martin
- Anthony J. Sadar
- Willie Soon
- Roy W. Spencer
- David J. Theroux
- James A. Wanliss
- Anthony Watts
- Peter W. Wood
- Thomas H. Wysmuller
- Benjamin Zycher
December 12, 2016
Tim Ball was an attendee at a private meeting also attended by Trump's EPA Transition team lead Myron Ebell on Capital Hill. E&E News reported that the event was not open to the public or to the press and Ebell refused to give any details. The event was hosted by the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) and held in the hearing room of the Senate Environment and Public Works (EPW) Committee. The EPW committee is chaired by Senator James Inhofe who, like Trump, has described human-caused climate change as a hoax. 
DeSmog reported that the event featured the “Who's Who of Climate Science Deniers.” Australian Senator Malcolm Roberts, who spoke at the event, also wrote that the meeting was a gathering of the Cooler Heads Coalition and then listed some of the participants on Facebook: , 
Names mentioned above included:
- Tony Heller
- Tim Ball
- Fred Singer
- Ken Haapala
- Craig Rucker
- Randy Randall
- Steve Milloy
- Marc Morano
- James Delingpole
- Chris Horner
- Myron Ebell
- Tom de Weise
- James Taylor
- Pat Michaels
- Austin Smithson
- Brandon Middleton
- Marlo Lewis
DeSmog also noted that three of the attendees—Myron Ebell, Randy Randol, and Steve Milloy—had all been part of the Global Climate Science Communications Team in the late 1990s, a group organized by the American Petroleum Institute. According to an early memo, the group said “victory will be achieved when […] Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the 'conventional wisdom'.” 
December 3, 2016
Tim Ball is listed as a speaker at Freedom Force International's “3rd Congress” event titled “Global-Warming; an Inconvenient Lie.” Freedom Force International describes the event as “a gathering of the world’s top experts on this subject who will put an end, once-and-for-all, to the myth of anthropogenic (man-caused) global-warming.” 
Ball's speech is titled “Global Warming Is the Biggest Deception in History.” The complete speaker list is below:
- Lord Christopher Monckton – Global Warming Is A Monstrous Hoax
- William Happer – The Real Inconvenient Truth; More CO2 Benefits the Earth
- Tim Ball – Global Warming Is the Biggest Deception in History
- G. Edward Griffin – Why Do They Deceive?
- Holly Swanson – They Call It Education; Global Warming and Political Indoctrination
- Dan Happel – They Call It Green; Global Warming and Agenda-21
- Patrick Wood – They Call it Science; Global Warming and Technocracy
- Alex Newman – They Call It News; Global Warming and Propaganda
- Debbie Bacigalupi – They Call It Smart Growth: Global Warming and The Depopulation of Rural America
- Elaine Willman – Native Americans – Pawns in the Agenda-21 game
- Jim Lee – Geoengineering, Weather Modification, and the Weaponization of Nature
- Michael Shaw – Agenda-21; Bringing the Soviet System to America
- Willie Soon – Man vs. Sun; Put Your Money on the Sun
- Istvan Marko – CO2 Is Not Pollution. It is Our Friend.
Tim Ball is a member of a group titled Climate Exit (Clexit) founded in the summer of 2016. According to Clexit's founding statement (PDF), “The world must abandon this suicidal Global Warming crusade. Man does not and cannot control the climate.” , 
As Desmog reports, another key member of Clexit's “60 well-informed science, business and economic leaders” is Hugh Morgan, a former board member of the Reserve Bank of Australia and former CEO of Western Mining Corporation with close ties to Australia's Liberal party. , 
According to Clexit's founding statement:
“If the Paris climate accord is ratified, or enforced locally by compliant governments, it will strangle the leading economies of the world with pointless carbon taxes and costly climate and energy policies, all with no sound basis in evidence or science […]” 
July 30, 2016
Tim Ball co-wrote an article with Tom Harris of the ICSC where he claims that “The best answer to most of the claims by climate activists and their political allies is simply: so what?”
“'Climate change is real,' they say. So what? Gravity and sunrise are also real. That doesn’t mean we cause them or we would be better off without them. Climate has been changing since the origin of the atmosphere billions of years ago,” Ball and Harriss write. 
July 24, 2016
Writing at Watts Up With That (WUWT), Tim Ball responded to an article in Vox titled “The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists.” 
“The problem is not adequate funding,” Ball writes at WUWT. “It is too many people getting too much money for useless projects because there are too many people in universities. It is too many people going to university. The blunt truth is that for the majority of students it is a socially acceptable form of unemployment. Students getting less than a B average should not even be in university; for them, it is simply Grades 13, 14, 15, and (16). Some of this over attendance is because immigrant or newly successful middle-class families want their children to attend university.” 
Ball concludes that ““We can solve many of our problems quickly by closing down 75 percent of our universities.” Ball's other complaints include the “the use of science for political agendas,” and that “some scientists exploit” the bias of the media. 
“The 'green' activists' focus on CO2 was premeditated and designed to demonize it as the toxic byproduct of fossil-fuel driven industries that was causing runaway global warming,” Ball writes.
In fact, C02 is a gas essential to plant life, and thereby all life, because plants produce oxygen.” 
SkepticalScience: CO2 does not cause the warming, but rather amplifies it: “When the Earth comes out of an ice age, the warming is not initiated by CO2 but by changes in the Earth's orbit. The warming causes the oceans to release CO2. The CO2 amplifies the warming and mixes through the atmosphere, spreading warming throughout the planet. So CO2 causes warming AND rising temperature causes CO2 rise. Overall, about 90% of the global warming occurs after the CO2 increase.” 
Tim Ball: “Let’s assume CO2 IS causing warming. Then, when its density reaches a certain level, the warming ability is maximized. But it IS currently maximized – so how will the addition of more CO2 have much effect?” 
SkepticalScience: “If the CO2 effect was saturated, adding more CO2 should add no additional greenhouse effect. However, satellite and surface measurements observe an enhanced greenhouse effect at the wavelengths that CO2 absorb energy. This is empirical proof that the CO2 effect is not saturated.” 
June 11-12, 2015
Tim Ball was a speaker on Panel 11: “Attacks on Scientists and the Corruption of Science,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with Bob Carter, William Briggs, and Christopher Monckton. 
View Tim Ball’s Panel 11 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: 
May 12, 2015
Timothy F. Ball is a signatory to an open letter to Pope Francis on climate change. The letter invites the Pope to reconsider his views on climate change before his upcoming encyclical letter on the environment, which is widely expected to call for measures to prevent climate change in the interests of the world's poor. 
The open letter was coordinated and signed by Calvin Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance. According to the letter, “Good climate policy must recognize human exceptionalism, the God-given call for human persons to 'have dominion' in the natural world (Genesis 1:28), and the need to protect the poor from harm, including actions that hinder their ascent out of poverty.” 
Another excerpt below:
”[…] the [climate] models are wrong. They therefore provide no rational basis to forecast dangerous human-induced global warming, and therefore no rational basis for efforts to reduce warming by restricting the use of fossil fuels or any other means.” 
Judith Curry comments on her blog Climate Etc. that “Arguably the most effective 'pushback' comes from Cal Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance, who coordinated An Open Letter to Pope Francis on Climate Change.” 
Tim Ball is one of several climate change skeptics cc'd on an email from S. Fred Singer in hopes of countering the documentary film “Merchants of Doubt,” which exposes the network of climate change skeptics and deniers trying to delay legislative action on climate change. 
The October, 2014 email was leaked to journalists before the documentary was released. “Can I sue for damages?” Singer asked in the email. “Can we get an injunction against the documentary?” 
InsideClimate News reports in their article “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” how “Many of those copied on the email thread, such as Singer and communications specialist Steven Milloy, have financial ties to the tobacco, chemical, and oil and gas industries and have worked to defend them since the 1990s.” 
InsideClimate News also documented all those who were cc'd on the email, including the following skeptics and groups:
- Ron Arnold
- Timothy Ball
- Joseph “Joe” Bast
- Joe Bastardi
- Michael Bastasch
- William Briggs
- Russell Cook
- Judith Curry
- Joe D'Aleo
- James Delingpole
- David Paul Driessen
- James Enstrom
- Steve Goddard
- Pierre Gosselin
- Greenie Watch
- William Happer
- Jim Lakely
- Patrick J. Michaels
- Steven J. Milloy
- Christopher Monckton
- Marc Morano
- Joanne Nova
- Roger Pielke Sr. (Or Roger Pielke Jr.- Unclear in Email)
- Thomas P. Sheahen
- S. Fred Singer
- Wei-Hock (Willie) Soon
- Roy Spencer
- James Taylor
- Anthony Watts
DeSmogBlog covered the emails here: “Merchants of Doubt Film Debuts, Textbook Denial Attack Campaign Led By Fred Singer Ensues” and also archived a full copy of the Singer email thread (PDF).
February 1, 2015
Tim Ball wrote a guest Opinion piece at Watts Up With That, titled “Pope Francis Apparently Doesn’t Know IPCC Climate Objective Contradicts Catholic Doctrine.” 
Ball writes that “IPCC climate objective contradicts Catholic doctrine,” saying its ultimate objective is “reducing and controlling population.” 
July 7 - 9, 2014
January 21, 2014
Ball publishes a book entitled, “The Deliberate Corruption of Climate Science.” According to the description of the book on Amazon.com, “Dr. Tim Ball exposes the malicious misuse of climate science as it was distorted by dishonest brokers to advance the political aspirations of the progressive left.” 
June 30 - July 1, 2011
March 25, 2011
In the interview, according to court documents, Ball responds to an anonymous questioner regarding the “Climategate” scandal by saying “Michael Mann at Penn State should be in the State Pen, not Penn State.” 
May 27, 2011
Timothy F. Ball was one of fourteen Amici, described as “well-qualified climate scientists,” who claimed that the “EPA's endangerment finding is not 'rational' and therefore arbitrary and capricious.” 
According to the petitioners, representing the Coalition for Responsible Regulation, Inc.:
“[T]he Earth's climate is not changing in an unusual or anomalous fashion. The EPA relied on instrumental data that were adjusted to exaggerate the increase in global temperatures.” 
Petitioners listed were:
- Timothy F. Ball
- Joseph S. D'Aleo
- Don J. Easterbrook
- Anthony Finizza
- William Happer
- Benjamin M. Herman
- Craig D. Idso
- Richard A. Keen
- Anthony R. Lupo
- Nicola Scafetta
- Roy W. Spencer
- George H. Taylor
- James P. Wallace III
- George T. Wolff
Feb 2, 2011
Ball appeared as a “climatologist” in a documentary produced by Alex Jones titled The Fall of the Republic: The Presidency of Barack H. Obama. 
Ball was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's First International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC1). 
March 8, 2007
Nov 10, 2007
In a 2007 FCPP special report, Tim Ball and Tom Harris criticized The Fifth Estate's broadcast of The Denial Machine, describing it as “docu-ganda.” Ball claimed that he was filmed without his consent. , 
Ball also asserted that The Denial Machine violated CBC's “Journalistic Standards and Practices.” He further accused the CBC of misrepresenting the credentials of skeptical scientists. 
Sept 1, 2006
On September 1st, Ball launched a libel suit against Dr. Dan Johnson and the Calgary Herald over a letter the paper ran on April 23, 2006. Johnson is a Professor of Environmental Science at the University of Lethbridge. Original documents below: , 
- TBall statement of claim.pdf
- Johnson statement of defence.pdf
- Calgary Herald Statement of Defence.pdf
Ball had written an article that attacked the qualifications of renowned climate change author Tim Flannery, in which the Herald described Ball as “the first climatology PhD in Canada and … a professor of climatology at the University of Winnipeg for 28 years.”
Johnson's letter to the editor challenged those details, noting that when Ball received his PhD (in Geography) in 1983, “Canada already had PhDs in climatology and it is important to recognize them and their research.” Johnson also pointed out that Ball had been a professor for a much shorter time (Ball later admitted eight years), during which Ball did “not show any evidence of research regarding climate and atmosphere.” 
The Calgary Herald's Statement of Defence, filed with the Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench, dismissed Ball’s credibility saying that “The Plantiff (Dr. Ball) is viewed as a paid promoter of the agenda of the oil and gas industry rather than as a practicing scientist.” 
- Friends of Science (FoS) — Past “Consultant,” member of “Scientific Advisory Board.” 
- Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP) — Former Chairman. , , 
- Frontier Center for Public Policy (FCPP) — “Former Senior Fellow,” Past Member, Board of Advisors. , 
- The Heartland Institute — “Heartland Expert.” 
- The International Climate Science Coalition (ICSC) — Member, “Scientific Advisory Board.” 
- Tech Central Station (TCS) — Contributor. 
- Clexit (Climate Exit) — Member, “Clexit Committee“ 
- Galileo Movement — “Independent Adviser.” 
A search of 22,000 academic journals shows that over the course of his career Ball published four pieces of original research in peer-reviewed journals on the subject of climate change.
According to Google Scholar, his most recent peer-reviewed article on climate change was published in 1986, titled “Historical evidence and climatic implications of a shift in the boreal forest tundra transition in central Canada.” 
Journal Background: In a 1995 article written by Paul Thacker, Energy and Environment was described as being a journal skeptics can go to when they are rejected by the mainstream peer-reviewed science publications.
“CURRICULUM VITAE: Dr Timothy F Ball” (PDF), drtimball.com. Last modified March 8, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.
“The Clexit Committee comprises” (PDF), Clexit.net. Archived.pdf on file at Desmog.
“After Brexit, Clexit” (PDF), Clexit.net. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.
James Hoggan. “NRSP Controlled by Energy Lobbyists,” Desmog, January 18, 2008.
“About Us: Scientific Advisory Board,” Friends of Science. Archived July 7, 2008. Archive.is URL:
Richard Littlemore. “Dr. Tim Ball: The Lie that Just Won't Die,” Desmog, February 5, 2007.
Anthony Watts. “Credibility Loss in Climate Science is Part of a Wider Malaise in Science,” Watts Up With That, July 24, 2016. Archived July 26, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/nGRu5
Dr. Tim Ball. “Pope Francis Apparently Doesn’t Know IPCC Climate Objective Contradicts Catholic Doctrine.” Watts Up With That? , February 1, 2015. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/lP6x9
Graham Readfearn. “After Brexit, Climate Science Denialists Form New Group to Call for a Clexit,” Desmog, August 3, 2016.
Julia Belluz, Brad Plumer, and Brian Resnick. “The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists,” Vox.com, July 14, 2016. Archived July 26, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/FvXSC
Tim Ball. “Defeat global warming alarmists with Dr. Tim Ball's handy C02 talking points!“ The Rebel, March 3, 2016. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/yELKP
“Panel 11: Attacks on Scientists and the Corruption of Science with Bob Carter, Ph.D, William Briggs, Tim Ball, and Christopher Monckton,” Heartland Institute, June 12, 2015. Archived July 14, 2015.
Katherine Bagley. “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” InsideClimate News. March 12, 2015. Archived September 5, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/CVOi5
“Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmog, July 7, 2014. Archived July 14, 2014.
“Timothy Ball: 6th International Conference on Climate Change,” the Heartland Institute. Archived March 25, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/wzrJr
Richard Littlemore. “Michael Mann suing Tim Ball for libel,” Desmog, March 29, 2011.
Michael Mann, Plantiff, and Timothy (“Tim”) Ball, The Frontier Center for Public Policy Inc. and Jon Doe (Defendants), Court File No. VLC-S-S111913. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.
COALITION FOR RESPONSIBLE REGULATION, INC., ET AL. (Petitioners) v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND LISA P. JACKSON, ADMINISTRATOR, Respondents (PDF). Retrieved from World Climate Report. Archived.pdf on file at Desmog.
Andrew Weaver (Plantiff) vs. Tomothy (“Tim”) Ball (Defendant), Court File No. VLC-S-S110682. Archived .pdf at Desmog.
Fall of the Republic: The Presidency of Barack H. Obama, Alex Jones Productions, October 21, 2009. Archived video at the Internet Archive. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/7YMkM
Tim Ball and Tom Harris. “CBC’s continuing denial of the climate science debate” (PDF), Frontier Center for Public Policy, November 10, 2007.
Richard Littlemore. “Tim Ball vs Dan Johnson Update,” Desmog, January 10, 2007.
“Tim Ball vs Dan Johnson Lawsuit - Documents,” Desmog, October 13, 2006.
“Climate science and climatology in Canada, the early years,” University of Lethbridge. Archived May 5, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/82S0x
“Tim Ball vs Dan Johnson Lawsuit - Documents,” Desmog, October 13, 2006.
Richard Littlemore. “Ball Bails on Johnson Lawsuit,” Desmog, June 14, 2007.
“Tim Ball” SourceWatch profile.
“Who We Are,” International Climate Science Coalition. Archived September 5, 2016.
Google Scholar search for articles containing search term “Climate” by author “Timothy F Ball” performed September, 2016.
“Slaying the Sky Dragon: Death of the Greenhouse Gas Theory” (PDF), SMP LTD, December, 2010. Retrieved from Principia Scientific International. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.
Tom Harris and Tim Ball. “TOM HARRIS and TIM BALL: Hypochondriac climate change concerns hurt us all,” YourHoustonNews.com, July 30, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/eItjn
George Cahlink. “Trump EPA adviser Myron Ebell meets with Hill aides,” E&E News, December 12, 2016.
Graham Readfearn. “Donald Trump’s Aide at EPA Myron Ebell Meets with Who’s Who of Climate Science Deniers,” DeSmog, December 13, 2016.
“Yesterday I spoke at an event for the Competitive Enterprise Institute called Cooler Heads Coalition in Washington. […]” Facebook post by Malcolm Roberts - QLD Senate - One Nation, December 13 at 6:38 pm. Archived image on file at DeSmog.
“Global Climate Science Communications Plan (1998),” SourceWatch.
“Open Letter Supporting Scott Pruitt for EPA Administrator,” Cornwall Alliance, January 5, 2017. Archived January 19, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/xMash
Ben Jervey. “Mapping EPA Nominee Scott Pruitt's Many Fossil Fuel Ties,” DeSmog, January 13, 2017.
Ben Jervey and Steve Horn. “EPA Nominee Scott Pruitt Gets Grilled on Fossil Fuel Ties at Confirmation Hearing,” DeSmog, January 18, 2017.
Kevin Grandia. “Dr. Tim Ball On CFC's and the Sponsorship Scandal,” DeSmog, June 7, 2006.
“PETITION” (PDF), February 23, 2017. Richard Lindzen. PDF Archived at DeSmog.
Graham Readfearn. “Climate Science Denier Richard Lindzen's List of 300 “Scientists” Sent to Trump Is the Usual Parade of Non-Experts,” DeSmog, February 27, 2017.