US Chamber of Commerce

US Chamber of Commerce

Background

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce describes itself as “the world’s largest business organization representing the interests of more than 3 million businesses of all sizes, sectors, and regions.” The primary focus of the U.S. Chamber is advocacy and lobbying for pro-business policies. In 2015, the chamber spent more than $80 million on lobbying efforts. [1] 

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce's Board of Directors, which it says “determine the U.S. Chamber's policy positions on business issues and advise the U.S. Chamber on appropriate strategies to pursue,” includes representation from the fossil fuel industry such as ConocoPhillips and Consol Energy (one of the biggest coal producers in the  US), large pharmaceutical companies like Pfizer and Bayer, and the tobacco company Altria (formerly Philip Morris). [2] [3]

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce runs the Institute for 21st Century Energy, now the Global Energy Insitute, a group with the stated mission to “unify policymakers, regulators, business leaders, and the American public behind a common sense energy strategy to help keep America secure, prosperous, and clean. ” [4]

According to the institute's president, Karen A. Harbert, the federal government “has not kept pace with the changing the [sic] landscape” and that in order to “make America a true energy superpower” the country should pursue “offshore energy development” and improve infrastructure. The institute also opposes regulations on coal, advocates eliminating subsidies for renewable energy, and has fought against the EPA. [5]

Gretchen Goldman, lead analyst for the Center for Science and Democracy, speculates about the Chamber's lack of transparency at the Union of Concerned Scientists' blog: [6]

“The U.S. Chamber of Commerce claims to have millions of members and represent both large and small businesses, but its membership list isn’t public and as a trade association, the group has no legal obligation to disclose its donor [sic]. With this lack of transparency we have very little information about who supports the Chamber’s anti-science position on climate change and who funds its efforts to block policies that would address it. As a result, the Chamber can use its vast resources to influence public policy without any accountability for those behind it.

Are the Chamber’s members in agreement with this climate policy and simply using the group to do their bidding without company affiliation (and potential reputational damage)? Or is the Chamber’s climate agenda controlled by a handful of powerful companies while the majority of members disagree? Without greater transparency around the political activities of companies and trade associations, we don’t know.”

The U.S. Chamber was a member of the Global Climate Coalition (GCC) before it disbanded in 2002. GCC was an industry group opposing policies that would reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, early members included Amoco, the American Forest & Paper Association, American Petroleum Institute (API), Chevron, Chrysler, Cyprus AMAX MineralsExxonFordGeneral MotorsShell OilTexaco, and more than 40 other corporations and trade associations[101], [102]

Allegations and Complaints

In September 2010, two watchdog groups, U.S. Chamber Watch and StopTheChamber.com, filed complaints (PDF) with the Internal Revenue Service asking it to investigate the chamber for fraud and money laundering. They alleged the chamber illegally funneled donations from wealthy charitable foundation Starr Foundation into its political battles. [7]

Chamber Watch also said $12 million of an $18 million donation that Starr Foundation gave to the National Chamber Foundation were in loans that had not been repaid by the chamber. Chamber Watch also said this money had been diverted to political causes that would shield companies like AIG from liability lawsuits. 

Sourcewatch notes that the Starr foundation includes a number of connections to AIG including founder Cornelius Vander Starr, who also founded AIG. The foundation's Chairman of the Board of Directors is Maurice R. Greenberg, former President and CEO of AIG. The Foundation's Director (and Treasurer) Howard I. Smith was also AIG's former Chief Financial Officer. 

StopTheChamber.com says it was contacted by a chamber whistleblower who described (PDF) how chamber CEO Tom Donohue is “scamming [business] clients to serve his own interests rather than the interests of the business community.” [8]

Stance on Climate Change

2016 - 2017

According to theU.S. Chamber Policy Priorities for 2017,” the group promises to fight against efforts to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. [84]

Under the “Air Quality Regulation” category, the Chamber promises to “Oppose efforts to regulate greenhouse gas emissions through existing environmental statutes, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act.”

2016

From the U.S. Chamber of Commerce's “Institute for 21st Century Energy”:

“A deeper understanding of the issues and developing science associated with the environment and climate change will influence national and global energy, economic, and environmental policy choices. Balancing these priorities requires greater consideration of the complex processes driving climate change and increased attention to adaptation measures. We must increase our investment in climate science, which will enable us to adjust policies as scientific understanding advances. At the federal level, we need better coordination and collaboration across agencies for policy coherence and balance.” [10]

2014

During a hearing in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Bob Menendez asked the Chamber's Karen Harbert whether the US Chamber of Commerce agrees that climate change is real and caused by humans. After being repeatedly pressed by Menendez for a direct response, Harbert admitted that “The climate is warming, without a doubt,” however she claimed the science was not settled as to whether it is caused by human activites: [9]

“It is caused by lots of different things, and you can't say that climate change is only caused by humans,” Harbert said. “I think the science is what you're pointing to, and we have a robust debate going on in this country, as we should, and those that would say everything is settled sort of undercut the integrity of science. It's an ongoing discussion.”

2013

The Chamber described its strategy on climate change as follows:

“Resist ill-conceived legislation that is economically disruptive of business and industry activities, that creates regulatory and legislative obstacles to development and deployment of affordable, innovative energy technologies, and that could severely damage the security and economy of the United States.” [11]

2009 (Internal Dissension)

Described as a “predictably stalwart opponent of climate change legislation,” some of the US Chamber of Commerce's own members began opposing its views on climate change including Johnson & Johnson and Nike. [12], [13]

“We would appreciate if statements made by the Chamber would reflect the full range of views, especially those of Chamber members advocating for congressional action,” Clifford Holland, Johnson & Johnson’s corporate vice president of government affairs and policy, wrote in an April 16 letter. 

Bill Kovacs, the Chamber's vice president for the environment, technology, and regulatory affairs, tried to sweep aside the issue, saying “At the end of the debate, there were no members asking to change our policy.” [14]

Jeanette Pablo, an executive with PNM Resources, recounted events differently

“In my opinion it is inaccurate to call it a debate, and it is especially inaccurate to say that there was no call for changes to the policy when there were a number of members who stated the chamber policy did not represent their corporate position and they were therefore interested in how to change that policy,” Pablo said. [15]

Stance on Coal

“Coal is an indispensable foundation of the U.S. energy mix. But the EPA has begun issuing a rash of new regulations that are making it difficult to operate coal plants and virtually impossible to build a new ones. […] Steps should be taken to limit the harm from new and proposed rules that aim to curtail the use of one of our most abundant and secure sources of energy, ultimately harming businesses, consumers and the overall economy.” [16]

Stance on Renewables

“While these forms of energy face challenges of cost and reliability, over time, additional research and development will bring prices down and deliver more reliable power—ultimately providing more clean energy to Americans. The government must phase out subsidies and reform its policies, which have fallen out of sync with the realities of their supply and the operation of power markets.” [17]

Stance on Nuclear

“Nuclear energy is a key source of electric power and has operated safely in the United States for decades, with no emissions. […] Even with these benefits in mind and the clear need for nuclear energy as a safe, reliable and affordable source of electricity, the government has created barriers for new construction and jeopardized existing plants.” [18]

Stance on Fracking, Offshore Drilling, and the EPA

“The combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have unlocked vast shale energy resources that were not even known to us a few years ago. These resources have already improved our economy by creating jobs, spurring manufacturing, and forcing us to shift from a mindset of energy scarcity to energy opportunity.

Unfortunately, the federal government has not kept pace with the changing the landscape. There’s so much more than can be done to make America a true energy superpower, from expanding offshore energy development to improving our infrastructure to better move electricity.

Not only have our policies not been updated, but the EPA is on a long march toward regulating almost all aspects of our economy, placing our global competitiveness at risk. ” [5]

Funding

In 2010, the New York Times reported that half of the Chamber's $140 million in contributions for 2008 had come from just 45 donors: [19]

“[T]he chamber has had little trouble finding American companies eager to enlist it, anonymously, to fight their political battles and pay handsomely for its help. […] the chamber makes no apologies for its policy of not identifying its donors. It has vigorously opposed legislation in Congress that would require groups like it to identify their biggest contributors when they spend money on campaign ads.”

Some funders highlighted in the New York Times article include: [19]

As it is not required to disclose its donors, the precise funding values of the US Chamber of Commerce are unclear. The following is a brief summary based on available data compiled by the Conservative Transparency project, and only a small sample of the full funding received by the Chamber. [20]

View the attached spreadsheet for additional information on the US Chamber of Commerce's funding by year (.xlsx). Note that conservative transparency data does not specify if funding was to the US Chamber or US Chamber Foundation. Not all funding values have been verified by DeSmog,

Donor Total
Crossroads GPS $5,250,000
Freedom Partners $5,000,000
Dow Chemical Company $4,573,750
Aetna $4,150,000
Merck $2,677,500
WellPoint $2,116,502
Intel Corporation $1,233,583
American Electric Power $1,025,000
Microsoft $867,500
Prudential Financial $600,000
Qualcomm $555,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $500,000
Exelon Corporation $250,000
eBay $200,000
Alcoa $135,000
Norfolk Southern $100,000
John Deere $55,000
Reynolds American $45,000
Grand Total $29,333,835

U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation

The affiliated U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation describes itself as ”[A] nonprofit affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce dedicated to strengthening America’s long-term competitiveness and educating the public on how the Free Enterprise system improves society and the economy.” [21]

The Commerce Foundation runs under the EIN 46-1561597. See publicly-available IRS 990 forms below:

Lobbying

OpenSecrets reports that the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and its subsidiaries spent nearly $104 Million on lobbying efforts in 2016, with a combined total of $1,369,025,680 since 1998. Notably, the CGCN Group, for which Donald Trump's top energy policy aide Mike Catanzaro has worked, was a lobbyist for the U.S. Chamber as recently as 2017. [22], [121]

Year Lobbying Expenditures
2017 (So Far) $39,960,000
2016 $103,950,000
2015 $84,730,000
2014 $124,080,000
2013 $74,470,000
2012 $136,300,000
2011 $66,370,000
2010 $132,067,500
2009 $144,606,000
2008 $91,955,000
2007 $53,082,500
2006 $72,995,000
2005 $39,805,000
2004 $53,380,000
2003 $34,602,640
2002 $41,560,000
2001 $20,662,880
2000 $18,689,160
1999 $18,760,000
1998 $17,000,000
Total $1,369,025,680

OpenSecrets also breaks down the US Chamber's lobbying by bill and by issue.

990 Forms

Key People

Senior Management Committee

Name 2003[83] 2004[82] 2005[81] 2006[80] 2007[79] 2008[78] 2009[77] 2011[75] 2012[74] 2014[72] 2015[71] 2016[2] 2017 Title
Agnes Warfield-Blanc Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Development
David Hirschmann Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, U.S. Chamber of Commerce; President & CEO, U.S. Chamber Center for Capital Markets Competitiveness; President and CEO, the Global Intellectual Property Center
Lisa Rickard Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y President, U.S. Chamber Institute for Legal Reform, President, Workforce Freedom Initiative, Executive Vice President, U.S. Chamber of Commerce
Stan Harrell Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Information Officer
Thomas J. Donohue Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y President and CEO
Shannon DiBari Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Chief Operating Officer and Executive Vice President
Thomas J. Collamore Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Communications and Strategy and Counselor to the President
Karen Alderman Harbert Y Y Y Y Y Y Y President and CEO, Institute for 21st Century Energy
Myron Brilliant Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Executive Vice President and Head of International
Lily Fu Claffee Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, and General Counsel; Executive Vice President, U.S. Chamber Litigation Center
Rob Engstrom Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Political Affairs & Federation Relations and National Political Director
Jack Howard Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Congressional and Public Affairs
Randy Johnson Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Labor, Immigration and Employee Benefits
William Kovacs Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Environment, Technology and Regulatory Affairs
John G. Murphy Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President for International Policy
Suzanne Clark Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Executive Vice President
Ann Beauchesne Y Y Senior Vice President, National Security & Emergency Preparedness Department
Christopher D. Roberti Y Chief of Staff, Vice President, and Advisor to the President and CEO, U.S. Chamber of Commerce
Jodi Bond Y Senior Vice President, Americas
Khush Choksy Y Senior Vice President, Middle East & Turkey Affairs
Neil Bradley Y Senior Vice President and Chief Policy Officer
Rob Schroder Y Senior Vice President, International Strategy and Operations
Scott Eisner Y Senior Vice President, Africa
Tami Overby Y Senior Vice President, Asia Affairs
R. Bruce Josten Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Executive Vice President, Government Affairs
Amanda Engstrom Eversole Y Y Y Y President, Center for Advanced Technology and Innovation; Senior Vice President, U.S. Chamber of Commerce; and Senior Vice President, U.S. Chamber Center for Capital Markets Competitiveness
John Sullivan Y Y Y Executive Director, Center for International Private Enterprise
Marty Regalia Y Y Y Senior Vice President and Chief Economist
Carl Grant Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Chairman of the President's Advisory Group
James Robinson Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President and Counselor to the President
David C. Chavern Y Y Y Y Y Y Executive Vice President and President, Center for Advanced Technology & Innovation
Al Martinez-Fonts Y Executive Vice President, U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation
John R. McKernan Jr. Y Senior Adviser to the President and CEO, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, President, U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation
Rolf Lundberg Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Congressional and Public Affairs
William C. Miller Jr. Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President, Political Affairs & Federation Relations and National Political Director
Amanda S. Engstrom Y Chief of Staff, U.S. Chamber of Commerce; Senior Vice President, U.S. Chamber Center for Capital Markets Competitiveness
Arthur J. Rothkopf Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President and Counselor to the President
Daniel W. Christman Y Y Y Senior Vice President, International Affairs
Steven J. Law Y Y Y Chief Legal Officer and General Counsel
James L. Jones Y Y President and CEO, Institute for 21st Century Energy
Linda Rozett Y Chief of Staff and Senior Vice President of Communications
Stanton Anderson Y Y Y Y Senior Counsel to President
Daniel Christman Y Y Y Senior Vice President, International Affairs
John (J.P.) Moery Y Y Senior Vice President, Federation Relations
Stephen A. Bokat Y Y Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary
Bruce Josten Y Y Executive Vice President, Government Affairs

Board of Directors

The US Chamber of Commerce's Board of Directors represent a wide range of companies with representation from energy companies, coal/oil/natural gas producers, pharmaceutical companies, chemical manufacturers, and the tobacco industry (see below). [3]

According to Chamber's website, “Directors determine the U.S. Chamber's policy positions on business issues and advise the U.S. Chamber on appropriate strategies to pursue.” [2]

View the attached spreadsheet for more information and a listing of US Chamber Board membership by both organization individual (.xslx). Summary below (“1” signifies membership in that year). 

Name 2016[3] 2017 Job Description Company
Adam Cooper 1 1 Senior Managing Director and Chief Legal Officer Citadel LLC
Andrew Abboud 1 1 Senior Vice President, Government Relations Las Vegas Sands Corp.
Andrew D. Lundquist 1 1 Senior Vice President, Government Affairs ConocoPhillips
Anthony J. Allott 1 1 President & CEO Silgan Holdings Inc.
Arnold Baker 1 Chief Executive Officer Baker Environmental / BRM Concrete
Boland T. Jones 1 Founder, Chairman and  Chief Executive Officer PGi
Brackett Denniston III 1 Senior Counsel Goodwin
Bradley M. Halverson 1 1 Group President and Chief Financial Officer Caterpillar Inc.
Brandon W. Sweitzer 1 1 Senior Advisor DryStone Capital LLC
Brian O'Hara 1 Chairman Front Street Advisors, Ltd.
Bruce A. Gates 1 1 Senior Vice President, External Affairs Altria Client Services
C. Clayton Reasor 1 Executive Vice President Investor Relations, Strategy Corporate and Government Affairs Phillips 66
C. Howard Nye 1 1 Chairman, President, and CEO Martin Marietta Materials
C.A. Howlett 1 1 Principal Indigo Partners, LLC
Charles Copeland 1 1 President Associates International, Inc.
Charles J. Kalil 1 1 Executive Vice President and General Counsel The Dow Chemical Company
Charles R. Stamp, Jr. 1 1 Vice President, Corporate Strategy & Business Development  Deere & Company
Christel Slaughter, Ph.D. 1 1 Partner SSA Consultants
Christopher B. Lofgren, Ph.D. 1 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Schneider National, Inc.
Christopher C. Womack 1 1 Executive Vice President & President-External Affairs Southern Company
Chuck Brymer 1 1 President and Chief Executive Officer DDB Worldwide Communications Group, Inc.
Craig L. Fuller 1 1 Chairman The Fuller Company
Cynthia Stinger 1 1 Group Chief Executive, Government Relations AECOM Technology Corporation
Daniel F. Packer 1
Darlene M. Miller 1 President and CEO PERMAC Industries
David Jacobson  1 1 Vice Chairman BMO Financial Group
David R. Emery 1 Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer Black Hills Corporation
David T. Seaton 1 1 Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Fluor Corporation
Dayton H. Molendorp 1 1 Chairman OneAmerica Financial Partners, Inc.
Donald J. Shepard 1 1 Chairman (Retired) AEGON N.V.
Dr. Rajendra Singh 1 1 Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Telcom Ventures, L.L.C.
Edgar L. Smith, Jr. 1 Chairman & CEO World Pac Paper, LLC
Edward B. Rust Jr. 1 1
Edward McCoy 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Eaheart Industrial Service Inc.
Edward Wanandi 1 1 Chairman International Merchants, LLC
Elaine R. Leavenworth 1 1 Senior Vice President, Chief Marketing and External Affairs Officer Abbott
Elanna S. Yalow, Ph.D., M.B.A. 1 1 Chief Executive Officer, KU Early Learning Programs KinderCare Education
Elliot J. Jaffee 1 EVP and Head of Commercial Banking U.S. Bank
Eric Silagy 1 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Florida Power & Light Company
Ernest Green, Jr. 1 President and CEO E&E Enterprises Global, Inc.
Frank C. Sullivan 1 1 Chairman and CEO RPM International Inc.
Frank L. VanderSloot 1 1 Chief Executive Officer Melaleuca, Inc.
Fred Kaiser 1 1 Chairman Alpha Technologies, Inc.
Frederick Kempe 1 1 President and CEO Atlantic Council
Fuad El-Hibri 1 Executive Chairman Emergent BioSolutions Inc.
Gene Barr 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Pennsylvania Chamber of Business and Industry
George Nichols III 1 Senior Vice President of Governmental Affairs New York Life
Gerald L. Shaheen 1 1 FORD Motor Company
Greg Lebedev 1 1 Senior Advisor The Robertson Foundation
Gregory Irace 1 1
H.P. Goldfield 1 1 Vice Chairman Albright Stonebridge Group (ASG)
Hank Linginfelter 1 1 Executive Vice President, Distribution Operations AGL Resources Inc.
Harold Turner, Jr. 1 President and CEO The H.L. Turner Group Inc.
Harry C. Alford 1 1 President and CEO National Black Chamber of Commerce
Heather Wingate 1 SVP and Head of Global Government Relations MetLife
Hector Barreto 1 Chairman The Latino Coalition
J. Thomas Hill 1 Chairman, President and CEO Vulcan Materials Company
James A. Hixon 1 Executive Vice President, Law and Corporate Relations Norfolk Southern Corporation
James E. Stephenson 1 1 Chairman, President & CEO Yancey Bros. Co.
James M. Carroll 1 Global Managing Director, Government Relations Honeywell
James M. Power 1 1 Executive Vice President, Commercial CUNA Mutual Group
James W. Cicconi 1 1 Senior Executive Vice President External and Legislative Affairs AT&T, Inc.
James W. Mendenhall 1 1 President Mendenhall & Associates
Jan L. Jones Blackhurst 1 1 Executive Vice President, Communications, Government Relations, and CSR Caesars Entertainment Corporation
Jeffrey K. Rageth 1 Vice President, Business Affairs 3M
Jessie J. Knight, Jr. 1 1
Jim Brady 1 Chief Executive Officer Grant Thorton
Joan Woodward 1 Executive Vice President for Public Policy; President The Travelers Companies, Inc.; Travelers Institute
John Cannon 1 Executive Vice President & Chief Administrative Officer Health Care Service Corporation
John E. Gallina 1 Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Anthem, Inc.
John F. Biagas 1 1 President & CEO Bay Electric Co., Inc.
John L. Hopkins 1 1 Chairman and CEO NuScale Power LLC
John Mingé 1 Chairman and President BP America Inc.
John Ruan III 1 1 Chairman and CEO Ruan, Incorporated
John W. Bachmann 1 1 Senior Partner Edward Jones
Joseph B. Ucuzoglu 1 1 Chairman and CEO Deloitte & Touche LLP
Joseph W. Craft III 1 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Alliance Resource Partners, L.P.
Kane Calamari 1 1 Vice President - Human Resources, Communications and Organizational Development Ace Hardware Corporation
Karen M. Olson Beenken 1 1 Executive Vice President Blue Rock Companies
Kathy G. Beckett 1 1 Member Steptoe & Johnson PLLC
Ken W. Cole 1 1 Senior Vice President, Government Relations Pfizer, Inc.
Kim T. Rumph 1 President, CHEP North America Brambles Limited
Lance M. Fritz 1 1 Chairman, President and CEO Union Pacific Corporation
Lane Beattie 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Salt Lake Chamber
Laura Lane 1 1 President, Global Public Affairs United Parcel Service
Lee R. Anderson, Sr. 1 1 Chairman of the Board APi Group, Inc.
LeRoy Walker, Jr. 1 1 President and CEO LTM Enterprises
Lisa Flavin 1 Vice President, Audit and Chief Compliance Officer Emerson Electric Company
Manuel Perez de la Mesa 1 President and CEO Pool Corporation
Mark D. French 1 President Leading Authorities, Inc.
Mark E. Watson III 1 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Argo Group International Holdings Limited
Mark S. Ordan 1 1 CEO Quality Care Properties, Inc.
Martin H. Richenhagen 1 1 Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer AGCO Corporation
Matthew K. Rose 1 1 Executive Chairman BNSF Railway Company
Maura W. Donahue 1 1 President DonahueFavret Contractors Holding Company
Maxine Turner 1 Founder Cuisine Unlimited
Michael Flannigan 1 Senior Vice President, Global Governmental Affairs Peabody Energy
Michael J. Graff 1 Chairman and Chief Executive Officer American Air Liquide Holdings, Inc.
Michael L. Ducker  1 1 President and CEO FedEx Freight
Michelle H. Browdy 1 1 Senior Vice President, Legal and Regulatory Affairs and General Counsel International Business Machines
Mick Truitt 1 1 Vice President of Sales Ludlum Measurements, Inc
Nicholas J. DeIuliis 1 President and CEO CONSOL Energy, Inc.
Norman C. Chambers 1 Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer NCI Building Systems, Inc.
Patricia Elizondo 1 Senior Vice President, Global Sales & Marketing, Transportation and Public Sector Xerox Corporation
Patrick M. Finken 1 President Odney
Paul J. Klaassen 1 Founder Sunrise Senior Living, Inc.
Paul S. Speranza 1 1 Vice Chairman, General Counsel, and Secretary (Retired) Wegmans Food Markets, Inc.
Paul W. Jones 1 1 Retired Chairman and CEO A.O. Smith Corporation
Philip D. Kennedy 1 President Comanche Lumber Co., Inc.
Phillip May 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Entergy Louisiana, LLC
Ralph de la Torre 1 1 Chairman & CEO Steward Health Care System LLC
Rance C. Miles 1 1 Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer Select Milk Producers, Inc.
Randal K. Quarles 1 1 Managing Partner The Cynosure Group
Raymond F. Kerins Jr. 1 1 Senior Vice President and Head of Communications & Government Relations Bayer
Richard Bagger 1 1 Executive Vice President, Corporate Affairs & Market Access Celgene Corporation
Richard J. Tobin 1 1 President & CEO CNH Industrial N.V.
Richard K. Studley, IOM 1 1 President & CEO Michigan Chamber of Commerce
Richard L. McNeel 1 Board of Directors LORD Corporation
Robert D. Fatovic 1 1 Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary Ryder System, Inc.
Robert O. Agbede 1 1 President and CEO Chester Group
Robert S. Milligan 1 1 Chairman Wood Stieper Capital Group
Robert W. Quinn 1 Senior Executive Vice President AT&T, Inc.
Scott Anderson 1 1 General Manager Great Western Lodging
Scott L. Holman, Sr. 1 Chairman Emeritus The Bay Cast Companies
Sean Finn 1 EVP, Corporate Services and Chief Legal Officer Canadian National Railway
Steve Van Andel 1 1 Chairman Amway
Steven Davis 1 Corporate Group President of Utilities Sempra Energy
Stewart Alvarez 1 Vice President, Commercial Development  and Industry Affairs Amadeus North America
Susan K. Neely 1 1 President & CEO American Beverage Association
Suzanne Sitherwood 1 President & CEO The Laclede Group
Tamara L. Lundgren 1 1 President and Chief Executive Officer Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc.
Thomas D. Bell, Jr. 1 1 Chairman Mesa Capital Partners, LLC
Thomas J. Donohue 1 1 President and Chief Executive Officer U.S. Chamber of Commerce
Thomas J. Wilson 1 1 Chairman and CEO Allstate Insurance Company
Thomas V. McKernan 1 Chairman of the Board Automobile Club of Southern California
Tracy G. Schmidt 1 1 Enterprise Chief Financial Officer and Group President, Credit Investments CNL Financial Group
Wayne S. DeVeydt 1 Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Anthem, Inc.
William G. Little 1 1 President & CEO Quam-Nichols Company, Inc.
Wolfgang G. Pordzik 1 Executive Vice President, Corporate Public Policy DHL

Former Directors (2015) [70]

Name Position Corporation
Daniel F. Evans, Jr. President & Chief Executive Officer Indiana University Health
David Adkisson President & Chief Executive Officer Kentucky Chamber of Commerce
Tchad Robinson Managing Partner Clark Robinson Capital
Walter J. Galvin Retired Vice Chairman Emerson

Global Energy Institute / Center for 21st Century Energy Staff

Name 2008 2010 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 Description
Christopher Guith Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Vice President for Policy
Karen Alderman Harbert Y Y Y Y Y Y Y President and Chief Executive Officer, Global Energy Institute
Stephen Eule Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Vice President for Climate & Technology, U.S.Chamber's Global Energy Institute
Matt Letourneau Y Y Y Y Y Y Managing Director of Communications and Media
Heath Knakmuhs Y Y Y Y Y Senior Director for Policy
Matthew Koch Y Y Y Y Y Vice President
Susan Forrester Y Y Y Y Y Managing Director
Dan Byers Y Y Y Y Vice President, Policy
Leila Getto Y Y Y Y Senior Director, Fundraising and Member Relations
Sara Swabb Y manager of operations and communications
Alyssa Cherif Oakley Y Manager of communications, strategy and operations
Charlie Coon Y Y Executive Director of Policy
Frederick C. Smith Y Y Vice President
Megan Bloomgren Y Executive Director of Strategy
James L. Jones Y President and Chief Executive Officer
Martin Coyne Y Director of Communications and Media
Megan Barnett Y Executive Director of Strategy
Sarah Farnsworth Y Chief of Staff

Actions

May 2017

DeSmog reported that “Your Energy America” a then-newly-formed front group pushing for the Dominion Energy's Atlantic Coast natural gas pipeline, was a sponsor of the Virginia Chamber of Commerce’s 2017 Energy and Sustainability Conference. [88]

An anonymous source who attended the conference spoke with DeSmog, and noted that he had seen Ryan Lowry, DDC’s Vice President of Client Relations, wearing a Your Energy Virginia name badge at the event. Short for Democracy, Data & Communications, DDC is a PR firm behind Your Energy America. A 2007 client list obtained by DeSmog shows that DDC also had the U.S. Chamber of Commerce as an early client. [89]

March 2017

The U.S Chamber of Commerce's Institute for 21st Century Energy was a co-sponsor of a report by National Economic Research Associates (NERA) Economic Consulting cited by President Donald Trump to support his decision to withdraw the United States from the Paris Climate Agreement. [90]

The report, titled “Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Regulations On the Industrial Sector,” was prepared for the American Council for Capital Formation (ACCCF) and concludes that “Regulatory measures are an inefficient way to achieve climate goals.” [91]

Archived records at the the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library reveal that NERA has a history of working with the tobacco industry including Philip Morris and the Tobacco Institute. [92], [93]

January 26, 2017

As reported by Dave Anderson at the Energy and Policy Institute and at DeSmog, The U.S. Chamber's Christopher Guith, senior vice president for policy at the U.S. Chamber’s Institute for 21st Century Energy, spoke at a January 26th event in Kentucky. Guith described concerns about climate change as based on “religion” — not “scientific facts.” [85], [86], [87]

Below is a transcript of Guith's comments, captured by a representative of the Energy and Policy Institute who attended the event: [85]

Transcript: “hell to pay” if Trump targets EPA’s endangerment finding for greenhouse gas emissions

Audience Question: You mentioned the endangerment finding earlier. There’s some thought that revisiting the science behind the endangerment finding, which you probably know was highly dependent on the IPCC models, and that enough time has now passed to potentially argue that the models the IPCC came up with have flaws and need to be revisited. Is there any momentum behind that thought?

Guith: I think there absolutely is momentum, but the one thing I’ll say is that rescinding the endangerment finding, and this is something Ted Cruz talked about quite a bit when he ran for president.

I think people here can appreciate how much political capital that would cost. It’s not … climate has never been, well at least in the last 10 years, about scientific fact. It’s been about religion.

And if you are going to go out there and say, “We’re going to pull this back,” I mean there is going to be hell to pay, not just from those people out there who are protesting those plants.

There’s going to be hell to pay from, you know, soccer moms and soccer dads all throughout the country. People who probably voted for Donald Trump. [emphasis added]

And I don’t put that past them, but what I will say is that will turn into a huge, huge buzzsaw, when perhaps a more elegant solution of slow-rolling the implementation would be only slightly more onerous that actually rescinding that, but would take much less political capital.

Transcript: Carbon likely to be regulated under the Clean Air Act

Guith: This goes back to my point about Congress actually repealing the Clean Power Plan. I firmly believe that sometime in the next 10 years we are going to see another stage of Clean Air Act Amendments, and that’s ultimately because we’re sort of at this the point where carbon is not going to go away.

Because of the endangerment finding it has to get regulated, unless Congress actually repeals that. And I don’t see a Congress saying, “No we’re not going to regulate carbon” because I don’t think there’s the votes there, nor do I anticipate it being there.

The reality is there is an absolute incentive for the environmentalists to cut a compromise because they need some sort of codified regulation. Right now you have the sort of fiat of the Clean Power Plan, and you’ll see what happens when the White House changes over and it’ll just “Thpppt!” … go away. Or you have one bad court ruling, and it just goes away.

Also, you have industry. Industry, utilities specifically wants to know, “What are the rules of the road going to be over the 20 years?” And so having that certainty of what it’s going to look like, there is something in it from both parties.

And I think there is a way to build CO2 into the Clean Air Act. I am not necessarily arguing that we should do it, but it’s likely to happen in an incremental way that gives the utility sector and the manufacturing sector decades and decades to plan around.

But it’s not going to happen this Congress.

December 2016

The U.S. Chamber reported that it might challenge President Barack Obama's offshore drilling ban, CNBC reported. [118] 

“It is absolutely accurate to say we're considering it,” Christopher Guith, senior vice president of policy for the Chamber's Global Energy Institute/Institute for 21st Century Energy.

“There's no rush right now. It's just trying to figure out sequentially what works best and what the bandwidth is,” he said. “These sorts of decisions happen over long periods of time. It's more about getting the policy right than trying to rush to the courthouse.”

June 15, 2016

Grist magazine reports that the U.S. Chamber of Commerce is the latest conservative group to spread anti-solar messages. In an email, the Chamber opposes net metering, a policy that pays back people who are feeding solar power back into the grid from solar panels. [69]

While your neighbor is receiving a credit (in the form of a reduced electricity bill) for putting excess energy back on the electricity grid, these outdated net metering policies overlook the costs to use, maintain, and update the grid. So, who is actually paying those costs? You — and everyone else!” The U.S. Chamber email reads. [69]

The Chamber's Institute for 21st Century Energy also posted a video to its YouTube channel on their anti-net-metering case: [69]

June 14, 2016

A Senate report from Senate Democrats including Senator Elizabeth Warren and Senator Bernie Sanders found that the U.S. Chamber of Commerce's “lobbying is at odds with its own public positions,” The New York Times reports. [60]

The Senate report found that none of the U.S. Chamber's 108 board members explicitly supported the group's policies on tobacco and climate change. While the Chamber “strongly professes that it is anti-tobacco” and has claimed to support “efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,” it continued to work globally to fight antismoking measures and opposed the EPA's regulatory measures on climate change. [60][61]

The Senate report also found many of the board members had opposing views to the Chamber: “Approximately half of the companies on the chamber’s board of directors have adopted anti-tobacco and pro-climate positions that contrast sharply with the chamber’s activities. Not a single board member explicitly supported the chamber’s lobbying efforts.” [60]

Members are often left in the dark about the Chamber's activities. Ten companies serving on the board said they “had no knowledge of or input into the chamber’s lobbying activities on tobacco or climate issues.” [60]

The New York Times previously reported on the Chamber's efforts to combat President Obama's climate change regulations. The chamber's strategy included regular meetings with corporate lawyers, coal lobbyists, and Republican political strategists. [62]

May 18, 2016

Tim Huelskamp co-sponsored the “Ozone Standards Implementation Act of 2016,” or H.R. 4775, a bill that would delay implementation of the Clean Air Act's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) program. [114], [115]

The U.S. Chamber wrote a letter of support for the bill, describing it as “a common-sense plan that maintains continued air quality improvement without unnecessarily straining state and local economic resources.” [116]

In opposition, the The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) wrote that the bill was “one of the most irresponsible compilations of attacks on Clean Air Act health standards ever to be introduced in Congress.” [117]

    February 22, 2016

    The US Chamber of Commerce filed an opening brief against the EPA's Clean Power Plan. [23]

    “We are confident in our case, and the sheer number and diversity of challengers in this case is itself a powerful statement against EPA’s overreach,” said Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the Chamber’s Institute for 21st Century Energy in the Chamber's press release.

    The brief argues that the EPAs Rule “unlawfully attempts to radically transform the electric sector and usurp states’ traditional authority over the electric grid.”

    The US Chamber of Commerce's Institute for 21st Century Energy also released the graphic below (click to view full size):

    February 2, 2016

    Steve Eule of the Chamber of Commerce was a witness at a hearing to  “examine the various scientific, economic and other policy issues” following the Paris Climate Agreement hosted by Lamar Smith's Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Witnesses also included noted climate change skeptic John Christy and Steven Groves of The Heritage Foundation[120]

    Listen to a portion of Eule's interview below, as well as his written testimony online:

    December 23, 2015

    The U.S. Chamber filed a lawsuit challenging the EPA's new Ozone Standard. [24]

    “The EPA set an unattainable mandate with this new ozone standard that will slow economic growth opportunities,” said William Kovacs, senior vice president, Environment, Technology & Regulatory Affairs for the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. 

    According to their press release, the Chamber told local communities that “a lower ozone standard would threaten local jobs and economic growth” with efforts including panel discussions with government officials, business leaders and local Chambers of Commerce.

    June 13, 2016

    The US Chamber of Commerce was listed as a creditor in Peabody Energy's 2016 bankruptcy filings, reports the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD/PRWatch). [65]

    While the available bankruptcy documents do not list the scale or dates of funding, they outline Peabody Energy's financial ties to a large network of groups promoting climate change denial. [66]

    Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie SoonRichard LindzenRoy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for ProsperityAmerican Legislative Exchange CouncilCFACTInstitute for Energy ResearchState Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. [67]

    The Guardian also analysed and reported on the Peabody bankruptcy findings: [68]

    These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”

    The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]

    Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]

    The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.

    We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”

    Notable organizations listed in the initial documents include:

    Notable individuals named in the initial documents include the following:

    December 13, 2015

    Writing as a guest blogger on Watts Up With That, CFACT's executive director Craig Rucker denounced the latest UN climate change agreement: [39]

    “This agreement will not meaningfully alter the temperature of the Earth, even under the U.N.’s own computer models.

    “The bad news is that it plants the seeds of a new UN climate regime that left unchecked will swell into a bureaucratic behemoth”

    October 23, 2015

    The American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) joined U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers, and others in filing a petition for review (PDFattempting to block the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. [119]

    The full list of petitioners is as follows:

    September 18, 2015

    Senators sent letters to the Board of Directors for all 108 member companies of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce asking their positions on the Chamber's efferts to oppose the Clean Power Plan. Full text of the letter is available here (PDF)[63], [64]

    Letter signatories included: [63]

    • Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI),
    • Elizabeth Warren (D-MA),
    • Patrick Leahy (D-VT),
    • Barbara Mikulski (D-MD),
    • Dianne Feinstein (D-CA),
    • Barbara Boxer (D-CA),
    • Bernie Sanders (I-VT),
    • Tom Udall (D-NM),
    • Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH),
    • Al Franken (D-MN),
    • Mazie Hirono (D-HI), and
    • Ed Markey (D-MA)

    The letters were sent after The New York Times reported on the U.S. Chamber's “worldwide effort to fight antismoking laws of all kinds.” [61] The letter explains that the senators seek to “fully understand the U.S. Chamber's support for the tobacco industry, the decision-making process that resulted in this support, and the role of […] board members in this process.” [63]

    June 9, 2015 

    Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the U.S. Chamber’s Institute for 21st Century Energy, testified before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, claiming that lifting the ban oil crude oil exports should be a top priority:

    “While there are many long overdue reforms being considered by the Energy Committee, the one that will have the single biggest positive impact is lifting the outdated ban on crude oil exports,” said Harbert. “Allowing the U.S. to export oil will benefit our economy and reduce the influence of countries and groups that use oil exports for purposes inconsistent with America’s interests.” [25]

    February 24, 2015 

    The U.S. Chamber of commerce's President and CEO, Thomas J. Donohue, released the following statement regarding Obama's decision to veto legislation that would have approved the Keystone XL Pipeline:

    “By vetoing this legislation and continuing to delay a decision on the Keystone XL pipeline, it is becoming harder and harder to take President Obama’s commitment to job creation and energy security seriously. The lack of approval for Keystone has major implications for America’s relationship with Canada—our strongest and most reliable ally—and on the way America is perceived around the world. On behalf of job creators across the country, the Chamber will continue to push for Keystone’s approval.” [26] 

    September, 2014 

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce started its “Keystone XL Pipeline Lost Opportunity Tour,” in Montana at the starting point of the proposed pipeline. [27]

    According to the press release, the Chamber visited with “economic development leaders and a small business eagerly awaiting construction of the pipeline.” 

    The tour ended in Nebraska, the final state on the pipeline route. [28]

    May 28, 2014

    The Chamber's Institute for 21st Century Energy released a report finding that “EPA’s plans to regulate carbon dioxide emissions from power plants will cost America’s economy over $50 billion a year between now and 2030.” [122]

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCC) reviewed the report, finding that the “widely cited report by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce contains no mention of the benefits of reducing carbon emissions and falsely inflates the costs of the proposed standards using what the EPA dubbed 'unfounded assumptions' about the then unpublished Clean Power Plan proposal.” [123]

    As UCC noted, Washington Post and PolitiFact fact checkers have criticized politicians for falsely portraying the U.S. Chamber's report as an analysis of the EPA proposal. [124], [125]

    September 4, 2013 

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce released the third part of a study, titled “America's New Energy Future: The Unconventional Oil and Gas Revolution and the U.S. Economy” (PDF), which opposes regulation to shale energy production (hydraulic fracturing). [29]

    The study, co-sponsored by The Institute for Humane Studies (IHS)claims to demonstrate that shale energy production “could be in jeopardy if the U.S. adopts more restrictive policies or regulations”:

    “While shale energy development holds a great deal of promise, the movement to restrict shale development with further regulations places it all in jeopardy,” said Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the Chamber of Commerce's Institute for 21st Century Energy. “By continuing to push unnecessary federal regulations when strong state regulations already exist, the federal government is risking the only reliable sector of job growth in the entire economy.” [30]

    March, 2013

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce worked with the American Petroleum Institute in a “Grassroots” efforts to beat back “misinformation” from opponents of the Keystone XL pipeline. [31]

    The Hill reported that “the Chamber is making the case that scrapping Keystone would amount to succumbing to 'fringe groups.'”

    “For the business community, the Keystone XL pipeline has become a bellwether indicator of whether America will be open for business during President Obama's second term or not. If the pipeline permit is denied, it will send a strong signal to the private sector to put their money elsewhere,” Karen Harbert, president and chief executive of the Chamber’s Energy Institute, told The Hill in a statement.

    July 26, 2012 

    The U.S. Chamber's Institute for 21st Century Energy launched a “Shale Works for US” campaign focused on “galvanizing support for shale energy resources across America.”

    “Shale energy has the potential to be an economic game-changer for our entire nation,” said Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the Energy Institute. “Thanks to American innovation, we are now in a position to take advantage of vast amounts of shale energy resources that will create jobs and make us more energy secure. The Shale Works for US campaign will help educate the public and the business community about the benefits and opportunities presented by increased shale production.” [32]

    The campaign was launched in Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and New York, with more states to follow.

    November 28, 2011 

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce filed a brief urging the U.S. Court of Appeals to reject a challenge to the federal offshore permitting process that would halt offshore oil and natural gas exploration in the Gulf of Mexico. 

    “Now that oil and natural gas production is finally resuming in the Gulf of Mexico, environmental groups are once again seeking to put the Gulf out of work,” said Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the U.S. Chamber’s Institute for 21st Century Energy. “We cannot afford a ‘just say no’ energy policy. Every drop of oil we produce in the Gulf generates investment in the U.S and reduces our dependence on oil from unstable regions. In addition, if successful, this lawsuit could put tens of thousands of Americans out of work at a time when unemployment is already far too high.” [33]

    August 16, 2011

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce was one of several groups represented at a White House Meeting to lobby against ozone regulations. In addition to the Chamber, members of the National Petrochemical & Refiners Association (now the the American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), and the American Chemistry Council spoke to top administration officials such as Cass Sunstein at OMB's information and regulatory affairs division and EPA's Gina McCarthy. [108]

    According to White House meeting records, those present included:

    Name Affiliation
    Charles Drevna NPRA
    Bruce Josten U.S. Chamber of Commerce
    Cal Dooley American Chemistry Council
    Jack Gerard API
    Jay Timmons NAM
    Donna Harman American Forest & Paper Assn.
    John Engler BRT
    Dan Utech Domestic Policy Council
    Gary Guzy CEQ
    Carl Shapiro CEA
    Michael Fitzpatrick OMB/OIRA
    Cass Sunstein OMB/OIRA
    William Daley White House
    Gina McCarthy EPA
    Dominic Mancini OMB/OIRA

    October, 2010

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce partnered with Scholastic books to distribute approximately 100,000 books to middle schools across America as part of its “Shedding Light on Energy” campaign. [34]

    “What do you think could happen if one of our energy sources was suddenly unavailable (e.g., power plant maintenance, government curb on production, etc.)?” The book asks.

    According to Politico, “U.S. Chamber of Commerce wants middle school students to consider what would happen if government regulations shut down the coal industry or another domestic energy source.” [34]

    U.S. Chamber officials maintained that there is no “hidden agenda” behind the question or the educational outreach effort in general, although the book is notably being distributed at a time when the Environmental Protection Agency is set to regulate greenhouse gas emissions.

    Dan Weiss, senior fellow at the Center for American Progress, suggested the Chamber has ulterior motives. “It sounds like this may be one part education and one part fear-mongering,” Weiss said. [34]

    “Weiss said he was concerned about a partnership between the Chamber, which is spending millions to defeat Democratic congressional candidates and has opposed federal and state efforts to deal with global warming, and Scholastic, which has a large presence in public schools around the country.” [34]

    June 28, 2010

    Months after the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, recognized as the worst oil spill in Oil History, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce called for an end to the ban on drilling in the Gulf:

    “We must avoid snap decisions following the spill that would threaten U.S. energy security and harm our economy,” said Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the U.S. Chamber’s Institute for 21st Century Energy. [35]

    November 12, 2009 

    Prior to the 2009 United Nations Climate Conference in Copenhagen, the U.S. Chamber’s Institute for 21st Century Energy released a report titled “The Prospects for Copenhagen: More Realism Can Smooth the Way” (PDF). [36]

    The report suggests that “how rapidly advanced energy technologies are developed and adopted will be the single most important factor in determining how quickly—and at what cost—greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced” and calls for “realistic goals”:

    “For businesses to remain competitive, our national leaders must ensure that a new global climate agreement sets realistic goals, recognizes growing energy needs, ensures global participation, promotes technology, encourages trade, and doesn’t weaken intellectual property,” said Stephen Eule, vice president for climate and technology at the U.S. Chamber’s Institute for 21 Century Energy. [37]

    On November 17, Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the U.S. Chamber’s Institute for 21st Century Energy testified at a Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee hearing “exploring the international aspects of global climate change” where she largely based her testimony on the report findings.

    According to Harbert, an “agreement focusing on technology offers a path forward that developed and developing countries and the business community can embrace” is needed. [38]

    October 2009

    Nike Inc. charged the U.S. Chamber of Commerce of making decisions on climate and energy policy without approval from its board of directors, The New York Times reported. [95]

    “We just weren't clear in how decisions on climate and energy were being made,” said Brad Figel, Nike's director of government relations. “They're not being made at the board-of-director level, because we're a member of the board of directors. We were not consulted. We're convinced that's not really where the action on climate change is being made.” [95]

    Nike decided to withdraw from the Chamber's board of directors, after several decisions were made on climate policy without consulting directors. Nike had told the chamber that it wanted to be consulted on climate issues. Brad Figel, Nike's director of government relations, said that “there were several decisions that were made by the chamber that we weren't consulted on” after their request, including the decision to file a petition opposing EPA's proposed decision to regulate greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. [95]

    “Policy is developed and recommendations are made to the whole board,” Chamber spokesman Wohlschlegel said. “It's an open and voluntary process, and it's formulated by a majority of our members that represents the broader business community's perspective and not just the interests of one sector, one energy sector […] or one sector of the economy.” However, Nike said that they received a different story: [95]

    “They told us these decisions were made by staff,” Figel said. He said that Nike was told that “this is a longstanding chamber policy,” and that “once the policy is established, a lot of these decisions can be made at the staff level.” [95]

    Fred Palmer, who has historically questioned the risks of climate change, and then on the Chamber's board of directors, came to the Chamber's defense: [96], [97]

    “I have never seen an instance where there has been an effort to limit debate and discussion,” said Palmer. “To the extent people feel their voice is not being heard at the chamber, it’s not the chamber’s fault.”

    September 21, 2009 

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce hosted the Major Economies Business Forum (MEBF) on Energy Security and Climate Change.

    “We have to recognize that for many countries, providing modern energy services to their citizens is as important—if not more so—than reducing greenhouse gas emissions,” said Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the U.S. Chamber’s Institute for 21st Century Energy. “An international agreement that fails to recognize the growing need for affordable and reliable energy will not be viable over the long-term.” [39]

    August 2009

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce called for an official trial on the scientific evidence for man-made climate change. The Chamber said it would be “the Scopes monkey trial of the 21st century,” the LA Times reported. The EPA called the hearing a “waste of time” and described the threatened lawsuit by the Chamber as “frivolous.” [98]

    Thinkprogress reported that, in the filings, the U.S. Chamber makes arguments for global cooling and cites the work of the Heartland Insitute's Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC). Some excerpts, as reported and highlighted by Thinkprogress, below: [99], [100]

    It is arbitrary for EPA to rely on 21 years of twentieth-century warming as near-conclusive proof of human warming but then claim that the preceding 31 years of cooling and the following 13 years of no warming prove nothing”

    Over the last 65 years, temperatures have mostly been steady or declining, while CO2 levels have steadily increased

    empirical data from independently derived temperature records show the pattern demanded by this theory and predicted by models does not exist

    2009 Report of the NIPCC, Climate Change Reconsidered”

    August 12, 2009

    leaked memo (PDF) obtained by Greenpeace and written by Jack Gerard for the American Petroleum Institute (API), in cooperation with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), revealed the coordinated campaign behind the “Energy Citizens” which had been designed as a “grass roots” effort to combat climate change legislation. [109]

    DeSmog reported on the API's “Fake 'Grassroots' Campaign” noting that the leaked memo asks API’s member companies to recruit employees, retirees, vendors and contractors to attend “Energy Citizen” rallies in key Congressional districts nationwide.  API is focusing on 21 states that have “a significant industry presence” or “assets on the ground.” [110]

    Energy Citizens” is supported by the API, National Association of Manufacturers, American Farm Bureau, American Highway Users Alliance, National Black Chamber of Commerce, Small Business and Entrepreneurship Council, FreedomWorksAmerican Conservative UnionAmericans for Tax Reform, and Council for Citizens Against Government Waste. [111]

    O'Dwyer's Magazine wrote that Energy Citizens “has loudly protested the EPA’s decision to have greenhouse gas emissions regulated under the Clean Air Act,” also noting that API members include Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, GE, Halliburton and Shell. [112]

    Promotional flyers for the campaign warned that “Climate change legislation being considered in Washington will cause huge economic pain and produce little environmental gain,” reported The Wall Street Journal. The EPA had estimated the climate bill would only cost U.S. households “About a postage stamp a day.”[113]

    June 26, 2009

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce lobbied against climate change legislation to be introduced by congress (namely the Waxman-Markey Climate Bill). In a statement, the Chamber said it favors “mainstream, common sense views” on climate change but opposes the carbon-capping bill that the House of Representatives passed on June 26. [40]

    “The last thing this country needs is fourteen hundred new job-killing regulations and mandates,” said the Chamber’s Senior Vice President of Environment, Technology and Regulatory Affairs William Kovacs in a press release. “The Chamber hopes, at some point, that Congress will find a way to balance the need for a strong U.S. economy while still addressing global climate change. Unfortunately, Congress has fallen short with this bill.” [41]

    The Chamber also wrote a letter (PDF) to all members of the House “expressing concern over the bill and suggested ways that the bill could be modified.” [42[

    As of September, 2009, the Chamber's actions and stance on climate change had caused a rift in its own membership with prominent member Exelon Corp announcing it would not renew its membership, following similar departures from PG&E Corp and PNM Resources Inc. Nike also announced its disagreement with the Chamber's stance in a September 22 statement. [40]

    Johnson & Johnson also criticized the chamber earlier in the year for failing to “reflect the full range of views” of its members on climate change. At the time, Exelon, Duke Energy, PG&E and PNM were all members of the corporate and environmental coalition U.S. Climate Action Partnership, which favors federal law requiring “significant reductions of greenhouse gas emissions.” [40]

    June, 2009

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce submitted comments to the Environmental Protection Agency questioning the science behind climate change: [43]

    The US Chamber of Commerce's submitted comments (PDF) conclude: there are “profound and wide-ranging scientific uncertainties” about climate change and its impacts on health and welfare that are “vehemently controverted among scientists and technicians of numerous stripes.” [44]

    The Chamber also submitted a supporting document, “Detailed Review of EPA’s Health and Welfare Scientific Evidence” (PDF) that included a number of additional statements: [45]

    “Humans have become less susceptible to the effects of heat due to a combination of adaptations, particularly air conditioning. The availability of air conditioning is expected to continue to increase.”

    “Reduced exposure to cold days is a significant factor in the increased life expectancy experienced in the U.S. over the past 30 years. This benefit from reduced exposure to cold can be further attributed to people migrating to warmer climates.”

    “Overall, there is strong evidence that populations can acclimatize to warmer climates via a range of behavioral, physiological, and technological adaptations.”

    “[T]he scientific evidence is clear that cold is a more potent hazard than heat.”

    April 20, 2007

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce launched a website titled myenergypolicy.com designed to “help educate businesses and the general public about ways to help protect the environment.”

    “Economic growth and environmental progress are not incompatible pursuits,” said William Kovacs, Chamber vice president of environmental policy. “A strong economy gives us the resources to protect our environment.” [46]

    November, 2007

    The US Chamber of Commerce released a video titled “Wake Up to Climate Change Legislation!” that called for US voters to tell their Senator to “vote NO on the Lieberman-Warner Climate Bill.” [47]

    The description reads as follows:

    “If this bill becomes law, 3.4 million Americans will lose their jobs. American GDP will decline by $1 trillion. And American consumers will be forced to pay as much as $6 trillion to cope with carbon constraints.*

    The only way to address the climate change challenge is through technology and energy efficiency. This bill avoids both.”

    See video below:

    Transcript: “Climate legislation being considered by congress could make it too expensive to heat our homes, power our lives, and drive our cars. Is this really how Americans want to live? Washington politicians should not demand what technology cannot deliver. Urge your senator to vote 'No' on the Lieberman-Warner Climate Bill.”

    March, 2008

    PR Daily reports that general James L. Jones, former Supreme Allied Commander of NATO forces in Europe, joined the U.S. Chamber of Commerce as a lobbyist to head the new Institute for Energy. [48]

    “Jones will head the Institute for Energy, which is to present itself as a grassroots organization. The Chamber went a similar path with the creation of the Institute for Legal Reform.”

    The Institute would focus on global warming and seek “to 'unify energy stakeholders behind a common strategy' to produce affordable and secure supplies while protecting the environment.” 

    November 10, 1999

    A leaked memo obtained by DeSmog revealed efforts as early as 1999 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) lobbyist Phil A. Cooney to campaign against the regulation of CO2 and other Greenhouse Gases. The API memo invites a range of industry representatives ,including Robin Conrad/Bill Kovacs of the US Chamber, to meet to discuss a petition by environmentalists for the EPA to regulate CO2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, and HFCs. [126], [127]

    “We would like to invite you to attend a breakfast meeting at API to exchange infonnation on this petition and to discuss preliminarily options for responding, on a joint or individual basis,” the invitation reads. It was addressed to the following: [126]

    • Julie Becker (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers)
    • Jan Amundson/Mark Whitenton (NAM)
    • Robin Conrad/Bill Kovacs (US Chamber of Commerce)
    • Sharon Kneiss (American Forest & Paper Association)
    • Bruce Steiner (American Iron and Steel Institute)
    • Glenn Kelly (Global Climate Coalition)
    • Alan Schaeffer/Fem Abrams (American Trucking Association)
    • John Wetzel (American Association of Railroads)
    • Connie Holmes/Harold Quinn (National Mining Association)
    • Bob Strieter (Aluminum Association)
    • Ed Merlis (Air Transport Association)
    • Tom Parker (Chemical Manufacturers Association)
    • Maurice McBride/Bob Decaprio (NP & RA)
    • John Huber (PMAA)
    • Bill Fang/Paul Bailey (Edison Electric Institute)
    • Dennis Stolte/Adam Sharpe (American Farm Bureau Federation)
    • Joe Cox (Chamber of Shipping of America)
    • Tom Allegretti (American Waterways Operators)
    • Bill Fay (American Highway Users Association)
    • Martin Whitmer (American Road and Transportation Builders Association)
    • Tracy Norberg (Rubber Manufacturers Association)
    • Ivette Rivera (National Automobile Dealers Association)
    • Bob Stewart/Bob Moran (National Ocean Industries Association)
    • Glenn Keller (Engine Manufacturers Association)
    • Thomas Tate (Aerospace Industries Association of America)
    • David D'Onofrio (National Small Business United)
    • Andy O'Hare (American Portland Cement Alliance)
    • Gary Evans (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association)
    • Diane Bateman (The Fertilizer Institute)
    • Fred Palmer (Western Fuels Association)
    • Kevin Belford (American Gas Association)

    April 29, 1998

    According to an invitation letter retrieved from Greenpeace research archives, the United States Chamber of Commerce hosted a “major national conference on the proposed Kyoto climate change protocol.” [103]

    “While much has been said and written about the science of climate change and the economic implications of the proposed Kyoto Protocol, little attention has been given to the effect of this sweeping and hastily drafted treaty on the sovereignty and national security of the United States,” read the the letter from R. Bruce Josten, the Chamber's Executive Vice President of Government Affairs, to Representative Lois Caps.

    The conference was titled “The Kyoto Climate Treaty: American Sovereignty and Security at Risk.” View a promotional flyer below:

    1998 US Camber Kyoto Conference

    Image via Greenpeace research archives.

    US Chamber of Commerce Contact & Location

    As of May, 2016, the US Chamber of Commerce listed the following contact information on their website: [59]

    Chamber of Commerce of the
    United States of America
    1615 H Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20062-2000
    Main Number: 202-659-6000
    Customer Service: 1-800-638-6582

    Related Organizations

    Affiliates and Programs

    Other Organizations

    Yucca Energy Solutions

    Yucca Energy Solutions (YES) is described in the 2005 annual report (PDF) of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce as being a “200-member coalition was formed by the U.S. Chamber to advocate for congressional approval of, and funding for, Yucca Mountain as the site of a permanent federal repository for nuclear waste.” [56]

    Particulate Matter Coalition

    The Particulate Matter Coalition is described in the 2005 annual report (PDF) of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce as being “made up of industries concerned with EPA’s continued revision of the particulate matter air quality standards. The U.S. Chamber is a member of the steering committee and plays a lead role in managing the coalition’s activities.” [56]

    American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)

    According to files on record at the Center for Media and Democracy's Sourcewatch, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce has been a member of a number of the American Legislative Exchange Council's task forces including: [57]

    • The Civil Justice Task Force,
    • the Education Task Force,
    • the International Relations Task Force,
    • and the the Telecommunications and Information Technology Task Force

    The following is also taken from CMD's Sourceawtch records:

    ALEC Civil Justice Task Force Meeting (2011)

    Sourcewatch reports Page Faulk, Chamber Vice President, presented “The Promoting Merit in 'Merit Selection' Act” model legislation at Civil Justice Task Force Meeting at ALEC's 2011 meeting.

    ALEC Education Task Force Meeting (2011)

    Stanton D. Anderson, Senior Counsel to the President and Chief Executive Officer, issued remarks on the “Free Enterprise Education Act” model legislation, and Roberta Philips sponsored discussion and voting on the act.

    Telecommunications and Information Technology Task Force Meeting (2011)

    Mark Elliot, Executive Vice President, and Andrew Kovalcin, Director of Stakeholder Advocacy, both of the Chamber's Global Intellectual Property Center, introduced the “Resolution in Support of Federal Efforts to Address Rogue Internet Sites that Sell Counterfeit Products and Facilitate Digital Theft” at the Telecommunications and Information Technology Task Force Meeting.

    International Relations Task Force Meeting (2011)

    He also presented on the “Erosion of Intellectual Property” and introduced the “ALEC Resolution to Counter Rogue Internet Sites” model policy at the International Relations Task Force Meeting at the 2011 meeting.

    The Chamber's International Division joined ALEC's International Relations Task Force on July 3, 2013, according to ALEC board materials.

    American Crossroads

    Sourcewatch reports that American Crossroads and the Chamber are closely tied, and closely coordinated their efforts in the 2010 midterm elections.

    According to Think Progress:

    “At every turn, from the operatives running the two organizations to their targeted races to their media firms, American Crossroads and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce are bound to one another…the two groups have exhibited uncanny coordination in their election targeting. In a number of Senate races, the Chamber and American :Crossroads coordinated their advertisements – one group put up ads in a race as the other group pulled its own down – in :order to ensure attack ads were always running against the Democratic candidate.” [58]

    Resources

    1. About the U.S. Chamber,” Archived February 26, 2016.

    2. Leadership,US Chamber of Commerce. Archived February 26, 2016.

    3. Board of Directors,” US Chamber of Commerce. Archived February 26, 2016.

    4. “Chamber’s Energy Institute Unveils Comprehensive New Energy Works for US Platform,” Institute for 221st Century Energy. Archived February 26, 2016. 

    5. Message From The President,” Institute for 21st Century Energy. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    6. Gretchen Goldman. “Who Stands with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce on Climate Change? New Data Says Few (Still),” Union of Concerned Scientists (Blog), January 20, 2015. Archived February 26, 2016

    7. “Dear Commissioner Shulman and Ms. Downing” (PDFMehri & Skalet PLLC, September 10, 2010. Retrieved from Velvet Revolution. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    8. Re: Chamber of Commerce Whistleblower Letter” (PDF), Velvet Revolution, August 4, 2010. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    9. Ben Geman. “Here Is Exactly What the Chamber of Commerce Thinks About Global Warming,” The Atlantic, March 13, 2014. Archived February 26, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    10. Blueprint: Invest in Climate Science to Guide Energy, Economic, and Environmental Policy,” Institute for 21st Century Energy. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    11. Climate Change,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived February 6, 2013. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    12. Tilde Herrera. “U.S. Chamber's Climate Stance At Odds With Some Members: Report,” Reuters, May 6, 2009. Archived May 11, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. 

    13. Mitchell Anderson. “US Chamber of Commerce Implodes on Climate Policy,” DeSmogBlog, May 20, 2009.

    14. Pete Altman. “The U.S. Chamber Split Grows Wider: Now Local Chambers Are Going Their Own Way,” Switchboard (NRDC Staff Blog), May 18, 2009. Archived February 26, 2016. 

    15. Matthew Murray, Kate Ackley and Anna Palmer. “K Street Files: PhRMA’s Take,” Roll Call, May 18, 2009. Archived February 26, 2016.

    16. Coal,” Institute for 21st Century Energy. Archived February 27, 2016

    17. Renewables,” Institute for 21st Century Energy. Archived February 27, 2016.

    18. Nuclear,”Institute for 21st Century Energy. Archived February 27, 2016.

    19. ERIC LIPTON, MIKE McINTIRE and DON VAN NATTA Jr. “Top Corporations Aid U.S. Chamber of Commerce Campaign,” The New York Times, October 21, 2010. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    20. US Chamber of Commerce,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed February 25, 2016.

    21. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation,” Uschamberfoundation.org. Archived February 27, 2016.

    22. U.S. Chamber of Commerce” OpenSecrets Profile. Accessed September 14, 2017.

    23. U.S. Chamber Files Opening Brief in Case Against EPA Power Plant Rule,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, February 22, 2016. Archived February 26, 2016. 

    24. U.S. Chamber to File Lawsuit Challenging EPA's Latest Ozone Standard,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, December 23, 2015. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    25. U.S. Chamber’s Harbert Urges Senate Panel to Lift Oil Export Ban,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, June 9, 2015. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    26. U.S. Chamber’s Donohue Comments on Presidential Veto of Keystone XL Pipeline Legislation,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, February 24, 2015. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    27. U.S. Chamber’s Keystone XL Pipeline Lost Opportunity Tour Kicks Off Today in Montana,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, September, 2014. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    28. Focus Turns to Nebraska For U.S. Chamber’s Keystone XL Pipeline Lost Opportunity Tour,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, September, 2014. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    29. “America’s New Energy Future: The Unconventional Oil and Gas Revolution and the US Economy” (PDF), IHS, September, 2013. Arhived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    30. Final Phase of U.S. Chamber Sponsored Study Details Jobs Created by Shale in Manufacturing Sector Third Volume of IHS Report Also Shows that Increased Regulations on Shale Could Hamper Job Growth,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, September 4, 2013. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    31. Zack Colman. US Chamber, oil-and-gas lobby go grassroots in Keystone pipeline battle,” The Hill, October 10, 2013. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    32. U.S. Chamber’s Energy Institute Launches 'Shale Works for US' campaign,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, July 26, 2012. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    33. U.S. Chamber Files Brief to Allow Continued Exploration in the Gulf,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, November 28, 2011. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    34. Josh Voorhees. “Chamber: Worry about regs, kids,” Politico, October 19, 2010. Archived February 27, 2016

    35. U.S. Chamber Calls for Lifting Ban on Gulf Oil Drilling,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, June 28, 2010. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    36. The Prospects for Copenhagen: More Realism Can Smooth the Way” (PDF), Institute for 21st Century Energy, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    37. Energy Institute Calls for Achievable Global Climate Agreement,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, November 12, 2009. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    38. Harbert: Realistic Approach that Includes Business Needed for Climate Deal,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, November 18, 2009. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    39. Governor Manchin, Senator Alexander Address International Business Executives As U.S. Chamber Climate Summit Kicks Off,“ Institute for 21st Century Energy, September 21, 2009. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    40. Deborah Zabarenko. “Rift at U.S. Chamber of Commerce over climate change,” Reuters, September 30, 2009. Archived February 27, 2016

    41. U.S. Chamber Calls House Climate Change Bill Wrong Approach to Slowing Emissions,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, June 26, 2009. Archived February 27, 2016.

    42. R. Bruce Josten. TO THE MEMBERS OF THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES:” (PDF), Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, June 24, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    43. Kate Sheppard. “Chamber: Global Warming Is Good for You,” Mother Jones, October 2, 2009. Archived February 27, 2016

    44. “Petition of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America for EPA to Conduct Its Endangerment Finding Proceeding On The Record Using Administrative Procedure Act §§ 556 and 557” (PDF), April 24, 2009. Retrieved from Mother Jones. Archived .pdf on file at DeSMogBlog.

    45. ATTACHMENT 1: Detailed Review of the Health and Welfare Science Evidence and IQA Petition for Correction” (PDF) retrieved from Mother Jones. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    46. “Chamber Launches Web site on Energy and Environment,” Institute for 21st Century Energy, April 20, 2007. Archived February 27, 2016. 

    47. Wake Up to Climate Change Legislation!US Chamber of Commerce, November, 2007. Archived February 4, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    48. Jones Works Energy Front,” O'Dwyer's PR Daily (sub req'd), March 5, 2007.

    49. About Us,” Institute for 21st Century Energy. Archived February 27, 2016.

    50. WELCOME TO THE ALLIANCE FOR ENERGY & ECONOMIC GROWTH WEBSITE,” YourEnergyFuture.org. Archived February 18, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    51. About EWIC,” The Essential Worker Immigration Coalition. Archived February 28, 2016.

    52. Who We Are,” Global Intellectual Property Center. Archived February 28, 2016.

    53. “Remarks of Deborah Platt Majoras, Chairman, Federal Trade Commission before the U.S. Chamber of Commerce on the launch of its Global Regulatory Cooperation Project” (PDF), The Federal Trade Commission, July 17, 2007. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    54. Institute for a Competitive Workforce (ICW), US Chamber of Commerce,” National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability. Archived February 28, 2016. 

    55. WELCOME TO INSTITUTE FOR ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. Archived February 28, 2016.

    56. “Environment, Technology & Regulatory Affairs: Annual Report 2005” (PDF), US Chamber of Commerce. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    57. U.S. Chamber of Commerce,” Sourcewatch profile. Accessed February 27, 2016. 

    58. Scott Keyes. “Kissing Cousins: How The U.S. Chamber Of Commerce And American Crossroads Hook Up To Elect Republicans,” ThinkProgress, October 7, 2010. Archived February 27, 2016

    59. Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America - Contact Us,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived May 28, 2016.

    60. Danny Hakim. “U.S. Chamber Out of Step With Its Board, Report Finds,” The New York Times, June 14, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    61. Danny Hakim. “U.S. Chamber of Commerce Works Globally to Fight Antismoking Measures,” The New York Times, June 30, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    62. Coral Davenport and Julie Hirschfeld Davis. “Move to Fight Obama’s Climate Plan Started Early,” The New York Times, August 3, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    63. (Press Release). “Senators ask U.S. Chamber of Commerce board member companies about the Chamber's Big Tobacco lobbying efforts,” Elizabeth Warren US Senator for Massachusetts. 

    64. Dear CEO:,” warren.senate.gov, July 9, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    65. Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,” PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016

    66. In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud.

    67. Farron Cousins. “Court Documents Show Coal Giant Peabody Energy Funded Dozens Of Climate Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, June 13, 2016.

    68. Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016

    69. Ben Adler. “U.S. Chamber of Commerce joins anti-solar crusade,” Grist, June 15, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016.

    70. Board of Directors,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived July 21, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/Uga9G

    71. Leadership: Senior Management Committee,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived March 16, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/lCC3w

    72. Leadership: Senior Management Committee,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived July 17, 2014. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Kj0MI

    73. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Senior Management Committee & Board of Directors,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived December 8, 2013. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/78YLW

    74. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Senior Management Committee & Board of Directors,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived June 29, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/M7vhl

    75. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Senior Management Committee,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived May 23, 2011. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/NWn47

    76. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Senior Management Committee,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived September 1, 2010. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/ROi3x

    77. Senior Management Team,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived February 18, 2009. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/sUUAw

    78. Senior Management Team,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived May 4, 2008. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/yR9Ak

    79. Senior Management Team,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived June 27, 2007. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/If6Gz

    80. Senior Management Team,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived July 1, 2006. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/VOHPA

    81. Senior Management Team,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived May 7, 2005. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/h1j8v

    82. Senior Management Team,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived June 28, 2004. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/yHUjB

    83. Senior Management Team,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Archived July 1, 2003. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/zrQfW

    84. U.S. Chamber Policy Priorities for 2017” (PDF), US Chamber of Commerce, February 8, 2017.

    85. Dave Anderson. “'Hell to pay' if Trump targets EPA climate science, says U.S. Chamber official,” Energy and Policy Institute. Archived September 13, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/sJVYN

    86. “'Hell To Pay' If Trump Targets EPA Climate Science, Says U.S. Chamber Official,” DeSmog, February 21, 2017.

    87. ANNUAL KENTUCKY ENERGY MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE AGENDA,” Kentucky Chamber. Archived September 13, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/doJSK

    88. Steve Horn. “Here's the PR Firm Behind 'Your Energy America' Front Group Pushing Atlantic Coast Pipeline,” DeSmog, June 14, 2017.

    89. “Select Client List” (PDF), DDC. Archived at DeSmog.

    90. Graham Readfearn. “Tobacco To Fossil Fuels: Tracing the Roots of Trump's Claims on Paris Climate Deal,” June 1, 2017.

    91. Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Regulations On the Industrial Sector” (PDF)NERA Economic Consulting, March 2017.

    92. Bernard J. Reddy. “Does Advertising Affect Cigarette Consumption? A Critical Review of the Literature,” N/E/R/A, December 19, 1990. Retrieved from Truth Tobacco Industry documents library. Bates No. 2500081233-2500081586.

    93. GROUP MEETING/UPDATE,” August 17, 1990. Retrieved from Truth Tobacco Industry Documents library. Bates No. 2500081231-2500081232.

    94. Message From The President,” Global Energy Institute. Archived September 13, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/6dTvO

    95. “'Hot Button' Climate Issue Spotlights How U.S. Chamber Sets Policy,” The New York Times, October 6, 2009. Archived September 13, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/2bJgF

    96. Climate Denier Defends the U.S. Chamber of Commerce,” The Huffington Post, October 21, 2009. Archived January 11, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/2MIZW

    97. Fredrick D. Palmer. “So, what about this global warming?” Population Research Institute, December 1, 1998. Archived January 13, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/2WpR4

    98. Jim Tankersley. “U.S. Chamber of Commerce seeks trial on global warming,” Los Angeles Times, August 25, 2009. Archived September 13, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/VQsNd 

    99. Brad Johnson. “US Chamber Gets Its ‘Scopes Monkey Trial Of The 21st Century’ Against Climate Science,” ThinkProgress, February 29, 2012. Archived September 13, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/VpfVe

    100. COALITION FOR RESPONSIBLE REGULATION, et al., Petitioners, v. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND LISA P. JACKSON, ADMINISTRATOR, Respondents” (PDF), November 14, 2011. 

    101. Global Climate Coalition,” SourceWatch.

    102. Carmelo Ruiz. “Slandering the Environmentalists” (PDF). Retrieved from Greenpeace research archives.

    103. Backlash_Miscellaneous_US Chamber of Commerce.pdf,” Greenpeace investigations. Archived by Greenpeace June 11, 2007.

    104. GENERAL INFORMATION,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation, Institute. Archived September 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/M4oA0

    105. Who We Are,” U.S. Chamber Litigation Center, Archived September 14, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/lMW2f

    106. About IRL,” US Chamber Institute for Legal Reform. Archived September 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/H9OBT

    107. Background on CIPE,” CIPE. Archived September 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/XXY21 

    108. Meeting Record,” White House Office of Management and Budget, August 16, 2011. Archived May 4, 2012. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/qF8fF

    109. Phil Radford. “Dear Mr. Gerard” (PDF), Greenpeace, August 12, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. 

    110. Kevin Grandia. “Leaked Memo: Oil Lobby Launches Fake 'Grassroots' Campaign,” DeSmog, August 13, 2009.

    111. Alex Kaplun, “'Energy Citizens' Take Aim at Climate Legislation,” The New York Times, August 12, 2009. Archived Aug 11, 2015.

    112. Jon Gingerich. “The Politics of Climate Change,” O'Dwyer's, February 2010. Archived January 17, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/sDAlF

    113. Ian Talley. “Lobby Groups to Use Town Hall Tactics to Oppose Climate Bill,” The Wall Street Journal, August 11, 2009. Archived January 17, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/qfxfV

    114. Cosponsors: H.R.4775 — 114th Congress (2015-2016),” Congress.gov. Archived July 4, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/4NCgk

    115. H.R.4775 - Ozone Standards Implementation Act of 2016,” Congress.gov. Archived July 4, 2017. Archive.is URL:  https://archive.is/UvtW1

    116. Coalition Letter Supporting H.R. 4775, the Ozone Standards Implementation Act,” U.S. Chamber of Congress, April 18, 2016. Archived July 4, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/ZIM0u

    117. Community Letter in Opposition of the Ozone Standards Implementation Act (H.R. 4775),” NRDC, April 14, 2017. Archived July 4, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/4uTbY

    118. Tom DiChristopher. “US Chamber of Commerce may sue Obama administration over Arctic drilling ban,” CNBC, December 22, 2016. Archived September 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/QqdjE

    119. PETITION FOR REVIEW No. 15-1382 (October 23, 2015)USCA Case #15-1382 Document #1579899.  Retrieved from consideringthegrid.com. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

    120. Press Release). “Smith: Paris Climate Agreement a Bad Deal for Americans,” Congressman Lamar Smith, February 2, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/PaALb

    121. Catanzaro, Michael J,” OpenSecrets.org. Accessed September, 2017.

    122. “Energy Institute Report Finds That Potential New Environmental Protection Agency Carbon Regulations Will Damage U.S. Economy” (PDF), U.S. Chamber of Commerce, May 28, 2014. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

    123. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Report on Clean Power Plan,” Union of Concerned Scientists, March 12, 2015. Archived September 15, 2107. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/tyBVP

    124. Glenn Kessler. “GOP lawmakers rush to cite study to discredit new EPA rule, but study assumed EPA rule would be tougher,” The Washington Post, June 3, 2014. Archived September 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/WjVng

    125. Steve Contorno. “Fact-checking Obama's rules on carbon and coal plants,” Politifact, August 14, 2014. Archived September 15, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/AyvWk

    126. FOR ACTION - AGENDA ITEM #7 API CLIMATE CHANGE STEERING GROUP NOVEMBER 10, 1999” (PDF). On file at DeSmog.

    127. Richard Littlemore. “EPA Decision Repudiates White House Position,” DeSmog, April 3, 2007.

    Other Resources