Western States Petroleum Association

Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA)

Background

The Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA), founded in 1907, describes itself as the oldest petroleum trade association in the United States. WSPA maintains headquarters in Sacramento, California with additional offices across the western states.

Membership of WSPA includes large petroleum and energy companies such as Chevron, BP, ConocoPhillips, Exxon, Shell, and numerous others. [1]

WSPA President Catherine Reheis-Boyd is former chair of the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) Initiative Blue Ribbon Task Force designed to create “marine protected areas in Southern California.” Counterpunch wrote these areas, created under her leadership, “fail to protect the ocean from fracking, offshore oil drilling, oil spills, pollution, military testing, energy projects and all human impacts on the ocean other than sustainable fishing and gathering.” [2]

While WSPA's official climate policy statement supports “market mechanisms” such as a cap-and-trade program, the organization has fought against bills designed to reduce GHG emissions through a cap and trade system. For example, leaked documents revealed the WSPA's plan to create a network of “citizen activist” groups combatting California’s AB 32 Low Carbon Fuel Standards (LCFS) in California, Oregon and Washington State. [4]

WSPA projects have included the California Drivers Alliance, a group claiming to represent the “voice of consumers, farmers, small businesses and fuel suppliers in California” while focusing on opposing Senate Bill 350, which would reduce petroleum use in California by 50% while increasing renewables. The group's website, Californiadriversalliance.org, appears to have ceased operating in the summer of 2017. [5], [6], [7], [8]

The independent UK-based non-profit InfluenceMap gives the WSPA a poor, or “F” score on climate policy, noting it has specifically lobbyied against policy in U.S state legislatures in California, Oregon, and Washington. [3]

Stance on Climate Change

2017

According to its website, WSPA supports cap-and-trade programs while opposing any direct regulations of greenhouse gas emissions: [9]

WSPA supports market mechanisms such as a well-designed cap-and-trade program as a cost-effective approach to reducing emissions and achieving stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction goals […]

WSPA opposes direct command-and-control regulations which have a tendency to drive up compliance costs while having less environmental benefit.”

Notably, while WSPA has publicly presented this position, leaked documents show they have also rallied to fight against California’s AB 32, which would establish a cap and trade system. [4]

Funding

WSPA's membership has included some of the largest oil, pipeline, and energy companies in the United States such as BPChevronConocoPhillipsExxonMobilMarathon OilShellValero and numerous others. View all member companies below.

990 Forms

Lobbying

WSPA has been described as the most powerful corporate lobbying group in Sacramento, spending over $14 million between January 2015 and August 2016. [2]

The WSPA was at the top of the list of California lobbying groups in 2017, spending almost $1.4 million in the first quarter. [10]

The Sacramento Bee noted that a majority of the WSPA's lobbying expenditures were “under a catch-all 'other' category that requires no detailed disclosure showing who benefited or how the money was spent.” [11]

Below is a summary of Lobbying data, based on disclosures at the California Secretary of State's website: [12]

Session Total Lobbying
2015-2016 $18,718,663
2013-2014 $13,553,943
2007-2008 $10,587,795
2011-2012 $9,972,581
2009-2010 $9,345,305
2005-2006 $6,651,219
2003-2004 $5,400,673
2001-2002 $5,160,449
2017-2018 $3,916,353
1999-2000 $1,899,179
Grand Total

$95,124,367

WSPA Lobbying Year over Year

According to a sample 2018 lobbing report filed at California Secretary of State, WSPA's lobbying focus from January to April 2018 included bills AB378 and implementation of AB398, the former regarding the social cost of carbon emissions due to greenhouse gases and the latter which added statements to the Health and Safety Code including that “Global warming poses a serious threat to the economic well-being, public health, natural resources, and the environment of California.” Among numerous other bills, WSPA also lobbied on the low carbon fuel standard rulemaking and cap and trade regulations. [30]

Key People

Name 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Description
Kevin Buchan Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Manager, Bay Area Region
Suzanne Noble Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director, Production Operations
Jodie Muller Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Vice President of Government & External Affairs
Steve Slakey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Chief Financial Officer
Catherine Reheis-Boyd Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y President
William Ferrari Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director, Information Technology
Patty Senecal Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director, Southern California Operations
Kris Hollinger Y Y Y Y Y Manager, Finance and Accounting
Jessica Spiegel Y Y Y Y Manager, Northwest Climate Change & Legislative Policy
Tiffany Roberts Y Y Y Y Director, Regulatory & Legislative Policy
Tom Umenhofer Y Y Y Y Vice President, Operations
Bob Brown Y Y Y Director, Bay Area Operations
Bob Poole Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director, Production State & Coastal Issues
Bridget McCann Y Y Manager, Southern California Region
Julie Berge Y Y Manager, Public Relations
Kara Siepmann Y Y Manager, Media Relations
Kevin Slagle Y Y Vice President, Strategic Communications
Oyango Snell Y Y General Counsel
Argelia León Y Manager, Strategic Partnerships
Luis Sanchez Y Manager, California Policy Advocate
Margo Parks Y Manager, California Policy Advocate
Sophie Ellinghouse Y Associate Counsel
Frank Holmes Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director, Northwest Operations
Jenifer Pitcher Y Y Y Y Senior Coordinator, San Joaquin Valley Region
Brenna Butler Garcia Y Y Manager, Association Marketing & Constituencies Development
Henry T. Perea Y Senior Vice President, Policy and Strategic 
Barbara Chichester Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Senior Analyst, Finance and Accounting
Elaine Delgadillo Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Administrative Assistant, South Coast Region and Associates
Gina Grey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Vice President, Strategic Policy, Fuels, Southwest and Hawaii Regions
Joey Martinelli Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Executive Assistant, Headquarters
Lisa Venegas Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Executive Assistant, Government Affairs and Leadership
Michael D. Wang Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Manager, Cross Regional Issues and Legal Affairs
Sherlee Bailey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Administrative Assistant and SJV External Affairs Assistant
Tupper Hull Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Vice President, Strategic Communications
Marti Tennant Y Y Y Y Y Y Administrative Assistant, Northwest Region
Guy Bjerke Y Y Y Y Manager, Bay Area Region and State Safety Issues
Lisa Hom Y Y Y Administrative Assistant, Headquarters
Nick Ortiz Y Y Y Manager, Production Regions and Property Tax Issues
Sandra Burkhart Y Y Y Senior Coordinator, Coastal Region, State Marine and Waste Issues
Joe Sparano Y Y Y Y Y Executive Advisor to the Chairman of the Board
Michaeleen Mason Y Y Y Director, Climate Change Policy
Steve Schuyler Y Y Senior Coordinator, South Coast Region Environmental Marketing
Dennis Bolt Y Y Y Y Manager, Bay Area Region
John Quirk Y Y Y Coordinator, Finance and Accounting
State Waste Issues Y
Ronald Wilkniss Y Y Senior Coordinator, South Coast Issues
Springer Chandler Y Y Administrative Assistant
Steven Arita Y Y Director of Operations and Cross Regional Issues
Jeffrey B. Wilson Y Manager, External Affairs and South Coast Advocacy

Board of Directors

The following is based on publicly available 990 forms:

Name 2004 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Description
Catherine Reheis-Boyd Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Suzanne Noble Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y VP Chief of Staff
Todd Stevens Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Jodie Muller Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y VP Gov Affairs
Max Ocansey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Steve Slakey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Officer
Frank Holmes Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Manager
Brant Fish Y Y Y Director
Dan Yoder Y Y Y Director
Jay Churchill Y Y Y Y Director
Bob Allendorfer Y Y Director
Christina Sistrunk Y Y Chairman
David Sanders Y Y Vice Chair
John McGinnis Y Y Director
Keith Casey Y Y Director
Bob Poole Y
Jeff Dill Y Director
Tom Rizzo Y Director
Tom Umenhofer Y Manager
Michael Barr Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Gina Grey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y VP Strategic Pol
Michael Wang Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Manager-Cross Reg
R Tupper Hill Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Officer
Aamir Farid Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Barry McMahan Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Gaurdie Banister Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Jeff Pitzer Y Y Director
Lane Riggs Y Y Director
Brian Coffman Y Director
Mike Kenney Y Director
Gary Yesavage Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Alan J. Cabodi Y Y Y Y Y Y Director
Chris Chandler Y Director
Dan Romasko Y Director
Crystal Ashby Y Y Y Y Y Director
Bill Bodnar Y Y Director
Jean Bernier Y Y Director
Rand Swenson Y Y Director
Joe Sparano Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Will Ferrari Y Y Manager NW
Steve Rathweg Y Y Y Y
Lynn Westall Y Y Y Vice Chair
Doug Comeau Y Y
Thomas Moeller Y Y Director
Larry Ziemba Y Y Y Director
Sal Viscontini Y Director
Tupper Hull Y Director of Communications
Thomas A. Markin Y Y Y
Rich Marcogliese Y Y Y
J.W. “Bill” Haywood Y Y Y
Thomas C. Temple Y Y Y
Bill Albrecht Y
Paul Richmond Y
Eugene J. Voiland Y Y
Ian Scoble Y Y
Ken Dillon Y
Carmine Falcone Y
John Allen Y
Phillip Gobe Y
William Hauschildt Y

Actions

July 2017

WSPA president Catherine Reheis-Boyd discussed some of her group's positions in an interview with Oregon Business. Some excerpts below: [13]

On the renewable fuel standard (RFS)

“I hate the low carbon fuel standard. A low carbon fuel standard requires you to blend in gasoline a fuel that has a lower carbon intensity. Right now it's ethanol. But as the standard ramps up, the low carbon fuel will be harder and harder to find. Because we haven’t cracked the nut. We can’t figure out what’s less carbon intensive than what we have. The minute you can’t get to the next increment — you’re going to pay more. The low carbon fuel standard is a regulation, and it’s not a regulation you can comply with.” [13]

On cap and trade:

“We would support discussing a cap and trade. You can have a well-designed cap and trade and a poorly designed cap and trade. It could be designed worse than the low carbon fuel standard. If Oregon goes down the cap and trade route we hope they will take look at low carbon fuels standard. Because otherwise it is duplicative.” [13]

On a carbon tax:

“We have members in both camps: cap and trade and carbon tax. We won’t support both.” [13]

January 10, 2017

WSPA President Catherine Reheis-Boyd released a statement on Governor Brown’s proposal of continued authorization of a cap-and-trade program in California beyond 2020. According to Reheis-Boyd, achieving GHG reductions targets set in 2016 for California “will be difficult and costly” while “achieving the reductions through a well-designed cap-and-trade program will minimize those costs.” [14]

“Where today’s proposal falls short is that it simply layers the cap-and-trade program on top of costly and counter-productive command-and-control measures, disregarding the increasingly important role of cost containment,” she said. [14]

September 16, 2016

WSPA released a statement suggesting methane emissions regulations proposed by California Air Resources Board (CARB) be extended by at least one year. WSPA also recommended annual as opposed to quarterly inspections of oil and gas production facilities. [15] 

August 2015

WSPA released mailers and radio spots to fight against California bill SB 350 (De León-Leno), or the Clean Energy and Pollution Reduction Act of 2015. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists' (UCS) Adrienne Alvord, who described the WSPA's campaign as “one of the most extreme examples of fossil fuel-interest misinformation I’ve ever seen,” the bill was designed to increase California's share of renewable energy sources to 50%, increase building energy efficiency 50%, and cut California's usage of oil in half. The mailer was attributed to “California Drivers Alliance,” one of the WSPA's “many well-documented astroturf groups.” [16]

WSPA also co-signed a letter to members of the California State Senate to oppose the bill, calling it a “job killer” and claiming it would make Californian business less competitive. [17]

East Bay Express reported the California Drivers Alliance campaign included “conspiracy theories of mostly false and misleading claims about SB 350, […] designed to scare voters and get them to contact the moderate Dems so that they'll vote 'no' on the climate bill.” [18]

California Senate leader Kevin de Leon accused the campaign of “fear-mongering,” The Los Angeles Times reported: [19]

There is a major campaign of fear-mongering that is very visceral. That’s driven at an emotional level,” he said. [19]

The Sacramento Bee reported that WSPA's lobbying expenditures topped $6.7 million, more than double what it spent in the past two quarters, during the final section of the Legislature's calendar. It was around this time that WSPA was actively fighting against SB 350 and running its ad campaign. [20]

April 17, 2015

WSPA signed on to a letter with other California business groups opposing the California Global Solutions act of 20016 (SB 32, Pavley). The letter claimed the bill, which would mandate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, took “no consideration of the economic side effects.” [21]

2014

The California Drivers Alliance launched a campaign titled “Stop the Hidden Gas Tax,” which warned motorists that gas prices could rise by as much as 76 cents per gallon when provisions under California's climate law came into effect. UCS noted that, despite these claims, gas prices actually went down on January 1 due, in part, to other factors. [16]

November 11, 2014

A leaked PowerPoint presentation crafted by the WSPA, a copy which was obtained by Bloomberg Businessweek, revealed the group's plans to throttle AB 32 (the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006) as well as efforts to fight low carbon fuel standards (LCFS) in California, Oregon, and Washington State. [22][4]

The presentation deck, by WSPA President Catherine Reheis-Boyd, lays out an astroturf campaign with the creation of orchestrated “grassroots” groups such as the Oregon Climate Change Campaign, Washington Consumers for Sound Fuel Policy, and AB 32 Implementation Group. [22]

The environmental community is used to sky-is-falling analysis from fossil fuel interests in response to clean energy initiatives, so that part isn’t surprising,” commented Tim O’Connor, a senior attorney at the Environmental Defense Fund to whom Bloomberg sent a copy of the presentation. “But it’s eye-opening to see the lengths [the WSPA] has gone to push back rather than move forward. I don’t think anybody knew how cross-jurisdictional, cross-border, and extensive their investment is in creating a false consumer backlash against [climate legislation].” [22]

January 20, 2012

WSPA, the American Petroleum Institute, and the National Petroleum Refiners Association (now American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers or AFPM) filed a petition with the EPA, asking to retroactively waive the 2011 biofuel requirement made under the renewable fuel standard (RFS). [23]

In June 2012, WSPA and AFPM went on to file a lawsuit against the EPA's RFS, challenging their mandate to blend domestic fuel with ethanol. [24]

Related Organizations

WSPA Member Companies

Company 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2017 2018
AERA Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Alaska Tanker Company Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Andeavor Y Y
ARCO Y Y
Arguello, Inc. Y Y Y Y
Ashland Oil Company Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Berry Petroleum Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Big West of California, LLC Y Y
BP Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
BP/Olympic Pipeline Company Y Y Y
CALNEV Pipe Line Company Y Y Y
CENCO Refining Company Y Y Y
Chevron Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Chevron Pipelines Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Chevron Products Company Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Chevron Shipping Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Conoco Inc./Yellowstone Pipe Line Company Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
ConocoPhillips Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Equilon Enterprises LLC Y Y Y
Exxon Y Y
ExxonMobil Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
ExxonMobil Pipelines Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
GATX Terminals Corporation Y Y
Giant Industries Inc. Y Y Y
HollyFrontier Y
Kinder Morgan Energy Partners Y Y
Kinder Morgan LP/Santa Fe Pacific Pipeline Co Y Y Y
Lloyd Properties Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Marathon Oil Company Y Y Y
Mobil Oil Corporation Y Y
Navajo Refining Company Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Noble Energy, Inc. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Nuevo Energy Company Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Occidental of Elk Hills, Inc. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Occidental Oil and Gas Corporation Y Y Y Y Y Y
Olympic Pipeline Company Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Pacific Operators Offshore Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
PBF Energy Y Y
Pennzoil Company Y Y
Phillips 66 Y Y Y
Plains Exploration and Production Company Y Y Y Y Y Y
Polar Tanker, Inc. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Poseidon Petroleum, LLC Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Samedan Oil Corporation Y Y Y Y
Santa Fe Pacific Pipeline Company/Kinder Morgan Y
Santa Maria Energy Y Y
Santa Maria Pacific Y
Sante Fe Pacific Pipeline Company Y Y
SeaRiver Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Seneca Resources Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Shell Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Shell Pipeline Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Texaco Exploration & Production, Inc. Y Y Y
Torch Operating Company Y Y
Tosco Corporation Y Y Y
U.S. Oil & Refining Company Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Corporation Y Y Y
US Oil & Refining Y Y Y
Valero Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Venoco, Inc. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Western Refining Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Yellowstone Pipe Line Company Y
Tesoro Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
California Resources Corporation Y Y
Plains All American Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Contact & Address

Western States Petroleum Association [29]
1415 L Street, Suite 600
Sacramento, CA 95814

Phone: (916) 498-7750

Media Contacts

Kara Siepmann
Manager, Media Relations
(916) 325-3110
[email protected]
@karasiepmann

Kevin Slagle
Director, Strategic Communications
(916) 498-9203
[email protected]
@kslagle

Social Media

Resources

  1. About,” WSPA. Archived September 28, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/RtC49

  2. Dan Bacher. “Western States Petroleum Association Continues to Top CA Lobbying Expenses,” CounterPunch, August 19, 2016. Archived September 28, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/o3Q6R

  3. Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA),” InfluenceMap.org. Archived September 30, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/ZsPTd

  4. Bradford Wieners. “Leaked: The Oil Lobby's Conspiracy to Kill Off California's Climate Law,” Bloomberg Businessweek, November 25, 2014. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  5. Homepage, California Driver's Alliane. Archived February 9, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/ugOkl

  6. About,” California Driver’s Alliance, Archived January 1, 2015.

  7. About,” California Drivers Alliance. Archived January 1, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/npn7t

  8. http://www.californiadriversalliance.org/” Internet Wayback Machine snapshot.

  9. Climate Change,” WSPA. Archived September 29, 2017. Archive.is URL: http://archive.is/q2fWY

  10. Dan Bacher. “Western States Petroleum Association Leads Lobbying Spending This Year,” Daily KOS, May 15, 2017. Archived September 28, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/zutdN

  11. Oil industry doubled spending on lobbying in California last year,” The Sacramento Bee, February 4, 2015. Archived September 29, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/sWFlK

  12. Lobbying Activity: WESTERN STATES PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION,” California Secretary of State Alex Padilla. Accessed September 29, 2017.

  13. Linda Baker. “'Projections don't match aspirational goals',” Oregon Business, July 25, 2017. Archived October 7, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/c0bVM

  14. “President’s Statement on Cap and Trade – Governor’s Proposal,” WSPA, January 10, 2017. Archived October 7, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/9YzGn

  15. WSPA Comments On Clean Air Rule,” WSPA, September 27, 2016. Archived September 29, 2017. Archive.is URL: http://archive.is/87ni2

  16. Adrienne Alvord. “WSPA Lies: Oil Companies Are At It Again… And California Is The Target,” Union of Concerned Scientists, August 19, 2015. Archived October 6, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/eQFmR

  17. SB 350 (DE LEON) CLEAN ENERGY AND POLLUTION REDUCTION ACT OF 2015 OPPOSE - JOB KILLER,” Amy Mmagu, California Chamber of Commerce et al, June 3, 2015. Retrieved from CapitolTrack.

  18. Robert Gammon. “California's Missing Climate Hawk,” East Bay Express, September 2, 2015. Archived October 7, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/f9WqX

  19. Patrick McGreevy. “California Senate leader says oil industry 'fear-mongering' on SB 350,” The Los Angeles Times, August 19, 2015. Archived October 7, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/NPPRv

  20. Jeremy B. White. “Oil industry’s spending surged as it fought California climate bill,” The Sacramento Bee, November 2, 2015. Archived October 7, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/OJFwI

  21. SB 32 (PAVLEY) CALIFORNIA GLOBAL SOLUTIONS ACT OF 2006 SET FOR HEARINGAPRIL 29, 2015  OPPOSE/JOB KILLERAS AMENDED MARCH 16, 2015” (PDF), California Chamber of Commerce et al, April 17, 2015. Retrieved from CapitolTrack.

  22. WSPA Priority Issues” (PDF), Western States Petroleum Association, November 11, 2014. Retrieved from Influencemap.org.

  23. Kris Bevill. “EPA denies oil's request to waive cellulosic RFS, lawsuit pending,” Ethanol Producer Magazine, May 30, 2012. Archived October 6, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/2SEq3

  24. RENEWABLE FUELS STANDARDS (RFS) CHALLENGES UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2007,” Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. Archived October 6, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/DnNPk

  25. Members,” Washington Consumers for Sound Fuel Policy. Archived December 3, 2014. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/bJKIa

  26. Members,” Oregonians for Sound Fuel Policy. Archived March 16, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/NS1fQ

  27. ABOUT US,” Californians for Energy Independence. Archived October 7, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/t9oT6

  28. Homepage, Californians Against Higher Taxes. Archived October 7, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/LSD5T

  29. Contact,” WSPA. Archived October 8, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/dxLAr

  30. Western States Petroleum Association Form 635 for January 1 2018 to April 31, 2018. Retrieved from California Secretary of State.

Other Resources