Willie Soon

Willie Wei-Hock Soon


  • Ph.D., Aerospace Engineering, University of Southern California (1991). [1]
  • M.Sc. University of Southern California (1987). [1]
  • B.Sc. University of Southern California (1985). [1]


Willie Wei-Hock Soon is an aerospace engineer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Since 1992, Dr. Soon has been an astronomer at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Soon is also a receiving editor with the journal New Astronomy. [2]

Soon is a prominent climate change skeptic who has received much of his research funding from the oil and gas industry.

According to David Suzuki:

U.S. oil and coal companies, including ExxonMobil, the American Petroleum Institute, Koch Industries, and the world’s largest coal-burning utility, Southern Company, have contributed more than $1 million over the past decade to his research. According to Greenpeace, every grant Dr. Soon has received since 2002 has been from oil or coal interests.” [3]

Stance on Climate Change

“The evidence in my paper is consistent with the hypothesis that the Sun causes climatic change in the Arctic … It invalidates the hypothesis that CO2 is a major cause of observed climate change – and raises serious questions about the wisdom of imposing cap-and-trade or other policies that would cripple energy production and economic activity, in the name of 'preventing catastrophic climate change'.” [4]

Key Quotes

December 8, 2016

Speaking at “At the Crossroads II,” a conference co-hosted by the Heritage Foundation and the Texas Public Policy Foundation, Willie Soon said:

I have never said this in public, so I’ll say it for the first time: that ultimately, that version that published in Climate Research was a hoax. (Speaking of his 2003 paper, after which three editors resigned in protest). [67]

I want to remind you what climate actually is. What kind of expertise [you need to study it]. If you want to study climate just because of carbon dioxide, I’m sorry, it’s still not enough to study only the atmosphere. You’ve got to know all of this bunch of stuff. This is part of the reason why the struggle for answer is so hard. We may never know the answer, but then we’ve got to keep trying and follow the scientific method, please.” [67]

“Even [Michael] Mann and [Peter] Gleik have published in PNAS and they clearly have conflicts of interest in terms of the subject, in terms of the stuff that they are receiving money for doing what their work is.” [67]

In 2004, David Legates and I releazed there’s something seriously wrong with Michael Mann’s Work, another aspect of it, which is the instrumental temperature record,  how he smoothed the data. […] The sweetest thing about this climate gate is that there is proof that Michael Mann did that.” [67]

My basic conclusion is very simple. That you have this dark cloud of censorship and intimidation [that] has really inundated the climate science for a long time now. And climate science as we know it has been dangerously corrupted by scientism, all these bullies of censorship including the scientists, the scientific institution, even the funding agency—continue to hijack science with their own gain. So they must be stopped. I hope we can stop of course. Hopefully, with a political win, which is shown that depends on politics, that we can do something about this.”  [67]

May, 2016

“In the realm of climate scientism, the rule seems to be: If the facts don’t support your argument, talk louder, twist the facts, and insult your opponents. That’s certainly what self-styled global warming “experts” like Al Gore and Bill Nye are doing. Rather than debating scientists who don’t accept false claims that humans are causing dangerous climate change, they just proclaim more loudly […]” [58]

“However, even burning all the economically available fossil fuels would not likely even double current atmospheric CO2 levels – to just 0.08% carbon dioxide, compared to 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 0.9% argon and 0.1% for all other gases except water vapor. And doubling CO2would get us away from the near-famine levels for plants that have prevailed for the past tens of millions of years. [58]

Carbon dioxide is absolutely essential for plant growth – and for all life on Earth. Volumes of research clearly demonstrate that crop, garden, forest, grassland and ocean plants want more CO2, not less. The increased greening of our Earth over the past 30 years testifies to the desperate need of plants for this most fundamental fertilizer. The more CO2 they get, the better and faster they grow.” [58]

June, 2014

Willie Soon is one of three “Global Warming Skeptics” to be recognized and given an award at the Heartland Institute's Ninth International Conference on Climate Change for “speaking truth to power, whistleblowing, and the defense of science.” Referencing the recognition and award, Soon states:

“Science and its practice are no longer free and willing today but instead are constantly terrorized by research funding gravy trains and group thinking. This is why science needs defending and it takes courage to cleanse science from those cancerous elements and to bring her forward in its rightful place again. I am humbled and honored by this recognition.” [31]

April, 2013

“Since 2004. have not received a single penny from the government. […] Since 2004, I'm unable and then…first unable then I decided to not take even the money anymore, because it's just very bad for me. My own personal viewpoint–to take money from government to do such work. So I've been trying to get funding from whoever, you know, foundation–anybody wants to give me money. Coal, anything–I don't care. Really, I don't. I don't, because I know that I'm not being influenced by money.” [36]

“I don't like to claim that I am an expert on anything, but I have enough knowledge about climate science and climate system to be able to write scientific papers and go to meetings and talk about monsoon systems and talk about any other things that you want to discuss about climate science issues. I'm as qualified as anybody that you know on this planet on this topic.” [20]

February, 2013

“There is no experimental data that exists that supports the view that the Earth’s climate is changing in any dangerous way. [19]


“For polar bears… you do want to watch out for ice. Too much ice is really bad for polar bears. […] I would suggest that the current [ice] condition today is nowhere optimal for the polar bear, which means it can grow a little bit warmer.” [57]

July, 2003

“I am here today to testify that the climate of the 20th century is neither unusual nor the most extreme. Around 1,000 years ago, the temperature over many parts of the world was warm. A widespread cooling then set in for several centuries, followed by a recovery to 20th century warming.” [5]

Key Deeds


The IPA announced that Wilie Soon would be a contributor to their upcoming “Climate Change: The Facts 2017.” Climate Change: The Facts 2017 will be released by the Institute for Public Affairs (IPA) and edited by Jennifer Marohasy. While investigating the authors, DeSmog noted that one of the IPA's listed “leading experts” involved in the book is New Zealand’s Ken Ring, who in addition to being a described “long range weather forecaster” has written “two, possibly three, books about cats” including Pawmistry: How to Read Your Cat’s Paws in 1998. [63], [74] 

According to the book description[75]

Climate Change: The Facts 2017 brings together contributions on the latest climate science from some of the world’s leading experts in the field including John Abbot, Sallie Baliunas, Paul Driessen, Tony Heller, Craig Idso, Clive James, Pat Michaels, Jo Nova, Ian Plimer, Tom Quirk, Peter Ridd, Ken Ring, Nicola Scafetta, Willie Soon, Roy Spencer, and Anthony Watts.

There are also essays by Matt Ridley, and Bjørn Lomborg on the economics of climate change, and by Simon Breheny on how the freedom to discuss climate change science is under threat.”

Prior versions of the book featured contributions from a range of prominent climate change deniers, and describes mainstream climate change research as “pseudo-science.” [76]

April/May, 2017

Soon is listed as a co-author of a paper in the Hydrological Sciences Journal on the “Re-calibration of Arctic sea ice extent datasets using Arctic surface air temperature records.” Other authors listed were Ronan Connoly and Michael Connolly, with acknowledgement to Professor Genrikh Alekseev of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute for sea ice estimates. The accepted paper was published online on April 29, 2017 and fuly published online May 22, 2017. [78]

The paper concluded that “current climate models are still quite poor at modelling past sea ice trends” after including a graph showing a decline in sea ice starting at the beginning of the “satellite era” in 1979. [78]

While the study by Soon and the other authors noted that they “agree with previous studies that have noted a general decrease in Arctic sea ice extent (for all four seasons) since the start of the satellite era (1979),” they suggest that it followed a general increase in prior sea ice. [78]

The Heartland Institute was quick to republish the paper, putting the initially submitted manuscript online as early as April 30, 2017, pointing to it as proof that “The recent decline in Arctic sea ice is not unique.” [79]

In the disclosure statement section of the paper, it notes that “No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.” [78]

March 23, 2017

Soon was a member of the “Climate Science” panel at the Heartland Institute's 12th International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC12). He also introduced Lunch Keynotes by Patrick Michaels and Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas).[73]

Panel 1B) Climate Science

February 23, 2017

Willie Soon was a signatory of a petition (PDF) organized by Richard Lindzen of the Cato Institute urging President Donald Trump to pull the United States out of the United Nations international convention on climate change (UNFCCC). [71]

In just a few weeks, more than 300 eminent scientists and other qualified individuals from around the world have signed the petition below,” Lindzen wrote in the letter. [71]

DeSmog investigated the list, and found that only a small handful of the signatories could be considered “even remotely ‘qualified’ or ‘eminent’ — but not in the field of climate science.” The list included individuals “interested in climate,” and one signatory who only identified as an “emailer who wished to sign the petition” while some signers provided no affiliation or address whatsoever. [72]

January 5, 2017

Willie Soon was a signatory to a Cornwall Alliance open letter supporting Scott Pruitt for EPA Administrator under the Trump administration. [68]

Mr. Pruitt has also demonstrated understanding of and open-mindedness toward scientific insights crucial to the formulation and implementation of environmental regulation. He is prepared to hear all sides in debates over the risks and benefits of various activities that come under the purview of the EPA,” reads the letter.

On January 12, 2017, Senate Democrats raised conflict of interest concerns regarding Scott Prutt's fossil fuel ties. Pruitt had spent years working to combat the Obama Administration's Clean Power Plan. [69]

In an open letter to the Office of Government Ethics, members of the Senate's environmental panel commented:

During his tenure as Attorney General of Oklahoma, Mr. Pruitt has blurred the distinction between official and political actions, often at the behest of corporations he will regulate if confirmed to lead EPA,” the letter said. “Public reporting based on documents produced by Freedom of Information Act requests illustrate how Mr. Pruitt and members of his staff have worked closely with fossil fuel lobbyists to craft his office's official positions.”

Pruitt was further grilled on his fossil fuel ties at his confirmation hearing on January 18[70]

Some notable signatories of the Cornwall Alliance letter, as of January 5, 2017, included:

December 8, 2016

Willie Soon was a speaker at the “At the Crossroads III Energy and Climate Summit,” an event co-hosted by the Heritage Foundation and the Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF). The event was billed as “the premier energy-and-climate policy event in America,” and attracted a range of prominent climate change deniers as well as a range of names connected to Donald Trump and his transition team. Video and choice quotes below. [65]

I’ve been living under the dark cloud of censorship and intimidation as soon as I started my post-doc career at the Center for Astrophysics in 1992.“ [60:17]

Speaking of Greenpeace: “But, as my mom taught me as a young kid, that you forgive all the bad people but then you never forget.” [60:26]

Speaking of his 2003 paper:  “Actually, I didn’t really want to write this paper. But as a professional scientist, the phenomenon that happened in between, let’s say, 2001 to 2003 is highly strange. When you tried to publish a paper at those times, if you don’t cite those famous papers like the famous hockey stick paper properly, and you will actually be taken to task, rather seriously actually, or else your paper will be rejected. This is the kind of coercion that should not be allowed in open science. But unfortunately they prevailed, so I decided I had to do something about it and so I wrote a paper.” [64:24]

I have never said this in public, so I’ll say it for the first time: that ultimately, that version that published in Climate Research was a hoax. […] It is really as if I give a damn about having another paper in publication.” [68:32]

I’m sick and tired of this system of collusion and coercions.” [69:13]

And then, you know the real reason why they need some kind of attack on me? It was mainly because guys like this—ok, shall be nameless, you read it yourself [points to slide with images of David Halpern, NASA and Mark Eakin NOAA]—Who at that time was actually working for NOAA and NASA and was funding some of those guys like Michael Mann and all that on paleoclimate study was saying, look man, we need some kind of cogent reply, some kind of serious critical discussion so they could pass on to somebody in OSTP. OSTP, as I hope most of you know, right, Office of Science and Technology of the President. And to say that ‘oh, we’ve got to have something going, let’s go and attack this Willie Soon.’ Really?”  [69:18]

Soon describes the “wall of shame” as “Tom Wigley, Phil Jones, so on and so forth. And then, the most important name I want you to remember is Ellen Mosley-Thompson.” Soon's presentation slide features Wigley, Jones, Hulme, Briffa, Hansen, Santer, Tenberth, Karl, Bradley, MacCracken, Ellen Mosley-Thompson (editor of Eos), and Pachauri, who he calls the “choo choo train guy.” [70:00]

Speaking on Mann’s rebuttal to his paper: “It doesn’t matter. You see? They still published that with the result in there, because you know Michael Mann was able to presuade all of them, ‘just give me your signature.’ Ok. This is how science works right. Because Wilie Soon is so bad that no matter what the cause is, even a giant bad result you should publish.” [71:18]

Steve McinTyre of Canada […] actually was able to find out you know, the AR5, which is one of those United Nations reports, was published in 2013, actually was able to confirm that we are kind of right, right? But then of course you must not let anybody know about this. Don’t ever cite Soon and Balliunas or Soon and Legates at all.” [72:44]

I want to remind you what climate actually is. What kind of expertise [you need to study it]. If you want to study climate just because of carbon dioxide, I’m sorry, it’s still not enough to study only the atmosphere. You’ve got to know all of this bunch of stuff. This is part of the reason why the struggle for answer is so hard. We may never know the answer, but then we’ve got to keep trying and follow the scientific method, please.” [74:28]

Since 2004, I just consciously do not want to get any more funding from the federal government so I stopped replying to NASA, NSF, and all those things. I quit. Put it that way. I rather seek all my funding from private sources, private donation, then by 2012, this particular reality sink in. In the sense I could no longer work on anything on sun and climate together, but I can work on the sun only. Ok. And this is the reality that sinks in. I fully accept that, but I want to tell you, if you want to study anything about climate, if you don’t study sun-climate, I don’t know, what am I supposed to study right?” [75:15]

I want to talk about this big bully in the National Academy of Science. In 2015, who are writing a small little note, correcting something that we think is not right. It doesn’t matter the content—if you want to know, of course, ask me and David Legates, and Willis Eschenbach, one of the volunteers actually. He had no proper science title, but he’s a good scientist. So we work on this stuff and guess what happened? We claim, as you know, this is a free time work, of course this only take like only less than a day. So we wrote this letter, it got published. Then you have this editor-in-chief appear, NAS. Sending me some kind of warning. That, you know, but you didn’t tell the truth. You didn’t declare. Let me blow this up [magnifies slide]. Trying to put a yellow star on my jacket. He’s trying to say, you know, we’re going to put this note in by saying you have not disclosed your conflict of interest. That you were funded by funding from Southern Company, for example. Things like that, okay.” [76:00]

I have never actually been able to have the opportunity to publicly thank my lawyer, which is Gordon Todd […] so this guy work for free for me, of course, obviously—I have no money, please. There’s no legal defense fund. So on and so forth. But then they fire back by saying ‘please don’t do that.’ Because I have told them that this is a short time work, it’s just a letter, it was not funded by anything, it is a volunteer work. Call it a service to science, because I care about science. ” [77:27]]

“Even [Michael] Mann and [Peter] Gleik have published in PNAS and they clearly have conflicts of interest in terms of the subject, in terms of the stuff that they are receiving money for doing what their work is. […] Peter Gleik is another guy that is such a disgraceful, disgraceful guy. ” [78:22]

In 2004, David Legates and I releazed there’s something seriously wrong with Michael Mann’s Work, another aspect of it, which is the instrumental temperature record,  how he smoothed the data. […] The sweetest thing about this climate gate is that there is proof that Michael Mann did that […] and we caught him with his pants down.” [80:07]

My basic conclusion is very simple. That you have this dark cloud of censorship and intimidation [that] has really inundated the climate science for a long time now. And climate science as we know it has been dangerously corrupted by scientism, all these bullies of censorship including the scientists, the scientific institution, even the funding agency—continue to hijack science with their own gain. So they must be stopped. I hope we can stop of course. Hopefully, with a political win, which is shown that depends on politics, that we can do something about this.” [82:12]

Doug Domenech, director of the Texas Public Policy Foundation's “Fueling Freedom” project, wrote about the proceedings at The HillDomenech outlined the common climate change denial message shared among the speakers: “Is climate change real? Yes, it has happened in the past and will happen in the future. Is man making an impact on the climate? Perhaps but in very small ways. But the overarching consensus remains the climate change we are experiencing is by no means catastrophic.” [66]

Speakers included:

December 3, 2016

Willie Soon is listed as a speaker at Freedom Force International's “3rd Congress” event titled “Global-Warming; an Inconvenient Lie.” Freedom Force describes the event as “a gathering of the world’s top experts on this subject who will put an end, once-and-for-all, to the myth of anthropogenic (man-caused) global-warming.” [64]

Soon's speech is titled “Man vs. Sun; Put Your Money on the Sun.” The complete speaker list is below: [64]

  • Lord Christopher Monckton – Global Warming Is A Monstrous Hoax
  • William Happer  – The Real Inconvenient Truth; More CO2 Benefits the Earth
  • Tim Ball – Global Warming Is the Biggest Deception in History 
  • G. Edward Griffin – Why Do They Deceive?
  • Holly Swanson – They Call It Education; Global Warming and Political Indoctrination
  • Dan Happel  – They Call It Green; Global Warming and Agenda-21
  • Patrick Wood – They Call it Science; Global Warming and Technocracy
  • Alex Newman – They Call It News; Global Warming and Propaganda
  • Debbie Bacigalupi – They Call It Smart Growth: Global Warming and The Depopulation of Rural America
  • Elaine Willman – Native Americans – Pawns in the Agenda-21 game
  • Jim Lee – Geoengineering, Weather Modification, and the Weaponization of Nature
  • Michael Shaw – Agenda-21; Bringing the Soviet System to America
  • Willie Soon – Man vs. Sun; Put Your Money on the Sun
  • Istvan MarkoCO2 Is Not Pollution. It is Our Friend.

August, 2016

Willie Soon is listed as a “Founding Member” of group named Climate Exit (Clexit) led by climate change denier Christopher Monckton. According to Clexit's founding statement (PDF), “The world must abandon this suicidal Global Warming crusade. Man does not and cannot control the climate.” [59][60]

Desmog reports on how the group grew in the wake of the UK's decision to leave the EU. A key member of Clexit's “60 well-informed science, business and economic leaders” is Hugh Morgan, a former board member of the Reserve Bank of Australia and former CEO of Western Mining Corporation with close ties to Australia's Liberal party. [61][62]

According to Clexit's founding statement

If the Paris climate accord is ratified, or enforced locally by compliant governments, it will strangle the leading economies of the world with pointless carbon taxes and costly climate and energy policies, all with no sound basis in evidence or science […]” [60]

July 8 - 10, 2016

Willie Soon was a speaker at 34th Annual Meeting of Doctors for Disaster Preparedness, co-sponsored by Access to Energy, the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, and Physicians for Civil Defense. [55]

Willie Soon's talk was titled on “Beethoven’s Ice Cream, Tolstoy’s Fire, Happer’s Picosecond Pedestal—and Climate” (video below):

DDP listed the following speakers at their event: [55]

June 13, 2016

Willie Soon was among individuals listed as creditors in Peabody Energy's 2016 bankruptcy filings, reports the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD/PRWatch). [51]

While the available bankruptcy documents do not list the scale or dates of funding, they outline Peabody Energy's financial ties to a large network of groups promoting climate change denial. [52]

Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Richard LindzenRoy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for ProsperityAmerican Legislative Exchange CouncilCFACTInstitute for Energy ResearchState Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. [53]

The Guardian also analysed and reported on the Peabody bankruptcy findings: [54]

These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”

The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]

Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]

The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.

We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”

Notable organizations also listed as creditors in the bankruptcy documents include:

April 5, 2016

Despite a new transparency policy by the Smithsonian Institution, Willie Soon obtained $65,000 in “dark money” to fund an undisclosed research project, reports InsideClimate News. Soon obtained the grant form Donors Trust (DT). [56]

The Smithsonian's new policy requires researchers to disclose the sources of their funding.  Smithsonian officials said the Donors Trust disclosure was sufficient to satisfy its new policy. [56]

“It is as transparent as we can be,” said John Gibbons, the Smithsonian spokesman. “What we ask is: 'Is the money coming from a legal entity?'” he said. “That's as far as we can look into it.” [56]

December 7, 2015

Willie Soon appeared at the United Nation’s Conference on Climate Change, COP21, in Paris, France with the Heartland Institute, the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT), and the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) to “hold a ‘counter-conference’ … called the Day of Examining the Data.” [49] Other notable climate science deniers that were in attendance at the “counter-conference,” included: Robert CarterS. Fred Singer, Christopher Essex, James Taylor, Patrick MooreWolfgang Müller, James Inhofe, and Christopher Monckton. [50]

Watch Willie Soon's “counter-conference” presentation with the Heartland Institute, below (Willie Soon's presentation begins at 2:01:35):

June 11-12, 2015

Willie Soon was a speaker on Panel 1: “Climate Science,” at the Heartland Institute’s Tenth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC10) in Washington, D.C., with Patrick Michaels and David Legates. [47]

View Willie Soon’s Panel 1 presentation at the Heartland Institute’s ICCC10, below: [48]

June, 2015

Willie Soon weighted in on Pope Francis's encyclical on the environment in an article at Breitbart titled “Gas of Life: Pope Encyclical on Climate Change Ignores Science on Carbon Dioxide.”

According to Soon, “Any attempt to stop the use of available fossil fuels for life and all human activities will cause far more harm and lead to more deaths than the theological belief in future catastrophic disasters endorsed by the encyclical.”

”[…] The world’s weather and climate will not be adversely affected by the prudent and appropriate use of fossil fuels to enhancing everyone’s lives. The release of the carbon dioxide gas to the atmosphere is a necessary result of life on Earth – carbon dioxide is a gas of life. Additional carbon dioxide in the air will enhance all forms of biological activity and life overall. The relative greening of the Earth for the past several decades is one positive example.” [46]

March, 2015

Willie Soon is one of several climate change skeptics cc'd on an email from S. Fred Singer in hopes of countering the documentary film “Merchants of Doubt,” which exposes the network of climate change skeptics and deniers trying to delay legislative action on climate change.  

The October, 2014 email was leaked to journalists before the documentary was released. “Can I sue for damages?” Singer asked in the email. “Can we get an injunction against the documentary?”

InsideClimate News reports in their article “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” how “Many of those copied on the email thread, such as Singer and communications specialist Steven Milloy, have financial ties to the tobacco, chemical, and oil and gas industries and have worked to defend them since the 1990s.” [41]

InsideClimate News also documented all those who were cc'd on the email, including the following skeptics and groups:

DeSmogBlog covered the emails here: “Merchants of Doubt Film Debuts, Textbook Denial Attack Campaign Led By Fred Singer Ensues” and DeSmogBlog also archived a full copy of the Singer email thread (PDF).

March 2, 2015

Willie Soon released a statement via the Heartland Institute’s website following a complaint from the Climate Investigations Center that Soon “failed to disclose financial conflicts of interest in a newly released paper,” which he co-wrote with Christopher Monckton, David R. Legates, and William M. Briggs. [35] [38]

In his official statement, Soon wrote that he has “been the target of attacks in the press by various radical environmental and politically motivated groups” and that the “effort should be seen for what it is: a shameless attempt to silence my scientific research and writings, and to make an example out of me as a warning to any other researcher who may dare question in the slightest their fervently held orthodoxy of anthropogenic global warming.” [38]

Soon states that he has “never been motivated by financial gain to write any scientific paper, nor [has he] ever hidden grants or any other alleged conflict of interest.” A DeSmogBlog report, using data compiled by the Climate Investigations Center, found that Soon has “solicited more than $1.5 million since 2001 from fossil fuel companies and conservative foundations.” [39]

February, 2015

As reported at InsideClimate News, emails and related documents regarding Willie Soon's funding were obtained by Greenpeace through a Freedom of Information Act Request. Communications show that Soon had called a number of his research papers “delieverables” and had received funding in return from fossil fuel companies. [42]

InsideClimate News details “11 times Willie Soon failed to Disclose Fossil Fuel Funding”, with the primary contributor being Southern Company, which generates power for nine states (largely from coal). The studies in question are summarized below, as reported on at Inside Climate News: [43]

Topic Journal Date Additional Funders
Response to a critique of a 2007 paper co-authored by soon on polar bears and climate change Ecological Complexity1 July, 2008 Southern Company
Modeling changes in rainfal patterns from monsoons Journal of Climate1 Sept. 2008 Southern Company
Review of government reports on polar bear populations Interfaces1 Sept. - Oct. 2008 Southern Company
How changes in sun's intensity explain the Artic's changing climate Physical Geography1 March, 2009 Southern Company
Cycles of 20 active stars Astronomy & Astrophysics1 May, 2009 Southern Company
Validity of the United Nations' climate change studies International Journal of Forecasting1 Oct.-Dec 2009 Southern Company
How policymakers should consider potential climate change regulations Ecological Law Currents2 2010 Southern Company
Surface air temperatures in China during the 20th century Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics2,3,4 Aug. 2011 Southern Company
India's summer monsoons and solar activity Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 2,3,4 Aug. 2011 Southern Company
Air temperatures and Solar Activity Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics4 Feb. 2013 Southern Company
How India's summer monsoons are affected by the sun New Astronomy4,5 Feb. 2015 Southern Company
  1. Deliverable Listed in Soon's Jan 2009 report for Southern Company
  2. Deliverable Listed in Soon's May 2011 report for Southern Company
  3. Deliverable Listed in Soon's Jan 2012 report for Donors Trust, Inc.
  4. Deliverable Listed in Soon's Nov 2012 report for Southern Company
  5. Soon's 2012 report to Southern Compnay said study had been submitted to Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

The documents were made public by Greenpeace on February 21. Greenpeace suggests that Soon “may have violated several scientific journals’ ethical guidelines by failing to disclose these conflicts of interest.” [44]

As of April, 2015, after supplying Soon with nearly $470,000 for research, Southern Company decided it will no longer fund Soon's work. [45]

In an interview with InsideClimate News, Stephen Smith, executive director of Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, said a Southern Company executive told him the company did not want to be associated with Soon's research any longer:

“They claim they do not want to influence the [climate change] science,” Smith said. “What I was hearing is that they should not be seen as having a corporate policy on this kind of thing.” 

January 26, 2015

Willie Soon failed to disclose financial conflicts of interest in a newly released paper, according to a complaint from a climate watchdog group the Climate Investigations Center as reported by The Boston Globe in their January 26, 2015 article, “Climate change skeptic accused of violating disclosure rules.” [35] Soon, “who has relied on grants from fossil-fuel energy interests,” co-wrote the paper with Christopher Monckton, David R. Legates, and William M. Briggs. [35]

The end of the paper, under the “Conflict of interest” header, stated “The authors declare that they have no conflict.” [35] Kert Davies, the executive director of the Climate Investigations Center, disagreed, saying “Soon’s long track record of accepting energy-industry related grants indicates otherwise and might constitute a violation of Science Bulletin’s disclosure policy.” [35] Science Bulletin, the Chinese Journal that published the study, “imposes a strict conflict of interest policy on authors, obligating contributors to disclose any received funding, financial interests, honors, or speaking engagements that might affect their work.” [35]

December, 2014

Willie Soon is a contributor to the book Climate Change: The Facts published by the Institute of Public Affairs and featuring “22 essays on the science, politics and economics of the climate change debate.” The Institute of Public Affairs, while not revealing most of its funders, is known to have received funding from mining magnate Gina Rinehart and at least one major tobacco company.  [40]

The book includes essays and articles from a range of climate change skeptics, with contributors including the following:

November 5, 2014

The Heartland Institute's “environmental science and policy experts” published comments following the release of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) “Synthesis Report,” completing the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). [34]

Willie Soon asked in his comment if the “United Nations IPCC people [were] really serious about alarming the world, yet again, that we will all die if we do not stop emitting CO2 immediately,” and wrote the IPCC is “not entitled to their own facts, no matter how many times they continue to cry wolf about our common future … Our wonderful planet is not IPCC's private casino parlor.” [34]

September 18, 2014

Willie Soon and Christopher Monckton co-author an opinion piece in The Washington Times titled, “Boycotting the U.N. climate summit; Awareness grows that faulty science would keep millions in the dark.” 

Soon and Monckton state Narendra Modi, India's Prime Minister, “is right to have no more to do with such murderous nonsense. It is time to put an end to climate summits,” also noting the President of China and the Chancellor of Germany “likewise intend to skip the event”: [33]

“The spiritual yet down-to-earth Mr. Modi knows that 300 million Indians still have no electricity. His priority is to turn on the lights all over India. In Bihar, four homes in five are still lit by kerosene … The world’s governing elites, however, no longer care about poverty. Climate change is their new focus.” [33]

July 7 - 9, 2014

Willie Soon was a speaker at the Heartland Institute’s Ninth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC9) in Las Vegas, Nevada. [32]

DeSmogBlog has done in-depth research on the other speakers and sponsors from Heartland's ICCC9, which can be found here.

November 5, 2013

Willie Soon gave a Powerpoint presentation at a scholarly conference in Houston, Texas, on behalf of the Harvard Smithsonian Center, continuing to sow the seeds of doubt on man-made climate change. Soon, having collected over $1.2 million over the last dozen years in research funding from ExxonMobil, Southern Company, and the American Petroleum Institute, states that, “No amount of money can influence what I have to say and write, especially on my scientific quest to understand how climate works, all by itself.” [29]

September 23, 2013

Willie Soon asked about his fossil fuel funded research at a Heritage Foundation event [30]:

September 18, 2013

Dr. Soon appeared with Joseph Bast, of the Heartland Institute, on the Fox News Channel's “Special Report with Bret Baier” to discuss Heartland's release of Climate Change Resonsidered II: Physical Science. [28]

March - April, 2013

Collegians for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT Campus) is bringing “Harvard Astrophysicist” Willie Soon to college campuses throughout the Midwest US. While many publications have suggested otherwise, Willie Soon is not actually employed by Harvard University, but rather the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (separate from the Harvard campus and not officially affiliated with the university). 

On April 2, during his lecture in Madison, Soon became defensive after receiving the following question regarding his funding by fossil fuel interests: [21]

“You have received over one million dollars in funds from coal and oil interests. The last grant you received from a funder with no ties to the energy industry was in 2002. That's over a decade ago. So Dr. Soon, why should we trust someone without credentials in climate science whose work is only funded by coal and oil interests?”

View his response below:

Video highlights:

  • 00:41-1:43 — “I have received funding from [the] Federal Government, but I stopped receiving. I have [not received a] penny of money from the government since 2004 or so. And I have been receiving money from whoever that wants to give me money. […] I have received money from ExxonMobil, but ExxonMobil will no longer give me any money for a long time. American Petroleum Institute, anything you wish for, from Southern Company, from all these companies. […] If they choose to fund me, I'm happy to receive it.”
  • 01:48-02:18 — “I don't like to claim that I am an expert on anything, but I have enough knowledge about climate science and climate system to be able to write scientific papers and go to meetings and talk about monsoon systems and talk about any other things that you want to discuss about climate science issues. I'm as qualified as anybody that you know on this planet on this topic.”
  • 02:24-02:33 — “I do not want to take any more questions of this kind, unless you have a science question.”
  • 02:31.5-02:57 — “The answer could be answered yourself if you had a bit of intelligence. I was trying to conspire to bring down IPCC, right, yes? Is that what you're trying to imply? So be it. Let it be known that I do not like IPCC, because IPCC does not stand for science, it is corrupting science. period.”
  • 5:14 — “I really want to thank her, because she's receiving the electricity used for her house, she's driving cars, she's doing all of these things because you are funding me. It's not an oil or coal company. They are a company that provides a service to humanity–to people who want to use electricity.”

May 21 - 23, 2012

Willie Soon was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's 7th International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC7).

DeSmogBlog researched the co-sponsors behind Heartland's ICCC7 and found that they had collectively received over $67 million from ExxonMobil, the Koch Brothers and the conservative Scaife family foundations.

June 30 - July 1, 2011

Willie Soon was a speaker at the Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. [6]

May, 2010

Willie Soon was a speaker (PDF) at the Heartland Institute's 2010 International Conference on Climate Change. [7]

March 8-10, 2009

Speaker at the Heartland Institute's International Conference on Climate Change (2009). [8], [9]

July 13, 2008

Spoke at the 26th Annual Meeting of Doctors for Disaster Preparedness, a conference in Tucson Arizona co-sponsored by Access to Energy, Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine and Physicians for Civil Defense.

His speech was titled “Endangering the Polar Bear: How Environmentalists Kill.” [8]

March 2-4, 2008

Speaker at the Heartland Institute's International Conference on Climate Change (2008). [8]

March, 2007

Willie Soon co-authored a “viewpoint” article published in the journal Ecological Complexity (Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp. 73-84) announcing that global warming was not threatening polar bear populations. Other authors included climate change skeptics Sallie Baliunas, David Legates and Tim Ball.

July 29, 2003

Testified (PDF) before the U.S. Committee on Environment and Public Works on the subject of climate change. [5]

January 31, 2003

Soon co-published a controversial review article titled “Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years” (Climate Research, 2003) with Sallie Baliunas. The article claims that the twentieth century was not the warmest century in the past 1,000 years and that the climate has not changed significantly during this time. Senator James Inhofe used this article as proof that climate change is caused by natural variability, not human activity. 

After the article was published, three of the editors of Climate Research resigned in protest, including incoming editor-in-chief Hans von Storch. Storch declared the article was seriously flawed because “the conclusions [were] not supported by the evidence presented in the paper.” In addition to the resignations, thirteen of the scientists cited in the paper published rebuttals stating that Soon and Baliunas had misinterpreted their work. 

According to the Union of Concerned Scientists' 2007 report, “Smoke, Mirrors, and Hot Air,” the National Research Council recently published research concluding that the “global mean surface temperature was higher during the last few decades of the 20th century than during any comparable period in the preceding four centuries.”



According to Google Scholar, Willie Soon has published some articles on the connection between solar activity and climate change. [18]

Many of these articles were not published in peer-reviewed journals, but were rather published by organizations skeptical of climate change such as the Fraser Institute (here and here), The George C. Marshall Institute (here and here), and in the skeptical science journal Energy & Environment (here).

Key Publications

  • Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas. “Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years” (PDF), Climate Research, Vol. 23 (January 31, 2003) page 89–110.


  • Willie Soon, Sallie L. Baliunas, Arthur B. Robinson, Zachary W. Robinson. Global Warming: A Guide to the Science. Fraser Institute, November 30, 2002.

Other Publications

There is a list of Soon's Publications at the Marshall Institute, and SourceWatch also maintains a list of Soon's presentations and publications. Some samples are listed below:L

  • Arthur B. Robinson, Sallie L. Baliunas, Willie Soon, and Zachary W. Robinson.”Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide” (PDF), Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, January 1998.
  • Willie W. -H Soon. “Variable solar irradiance as a plausible agent for multidecadal variations in the Arctic-wide surface air temperature record of the past 130 years” (PDF), Geophysical Research Letters, Vol 32 (August 2005).

Related DeSmogBlog Posts


  1. Research Staff Listing: Willie Soon,” Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Archived July 6, 2011. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/KG4q

  2. New Astronomy Editorial Board,” Elsevier. Archived August 19, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/pHm3

  3. David Suzuki. “Investigation hits at climate change denier's 'science',” Canoe.ca, July 13, 2007. Archived September 13, 2011. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/bihip

  4. “It’s the Sun, stupid!”, Iceagenow.com. March 5, 2009. Archived August 19, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Zwg6q

  5. “Climate History and the Science Underlying Fate, Transport, and Health Effects of Mercury Emissions,” Summary (PDF) of Hearing Before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, July 29, 2003. Page 6.

  6. Willie SoonICCC6 website, courtesy of the Heartland Institute. Archived November 12, 2011. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/i636G

  7. “4th International Conference on Climate Change” (PDF), The Heartland Institute. Retrieved February 17, 2012, from the homepage of Laurence I. Gould, hosted on the University of Hartford's web server.

  8. Willie Soon,” SourceWatch Profile. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/oRmQP

  9. 2009 International Conference on Climate Change,” The Heartland Institute, February 1, 2009. Republished by Instituto Liberdade. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/AVBHL

  10. Scientific Advisors,” The Greening Earth Society. Archived February 20, 1999. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/sN3tY

  11. Author Details: Willie Soon,” The Fraser Institute. Archived April 11, 2009. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/KwUp1

  12. Personnel,” The Science and Public Policy Institute. Archived June 15, 2010. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/BYgIs

  13. “About the Authors,” P. 29 of “Lessons & Limits of Climate History: Was the 20th Century Climate Unusual?” (PDF), The George C. Marshall Institute, 2003. Archived October 12, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  14. Heartland Experts: Willie Soon,” Archived March 5, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/a6gyA

  15. TCS Daily: Authors: Willie Soon,” TCS Daily. Archived April 9, 2009. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/nUVLg

  16. Editors and Contributors,” World Climate Report. Archived July 3, 2003. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/AJAXW

  17. CASE STUDY: Dr. Willie Soon, a Career Fueled by Big Oil and Coal,” Greenpeace. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/R5oai

  18. Google Scholar search of articles for keyword “Climate,” written by “Willie Soon,” completed November 17, 2011.

  19. Nikki Wentling. “Legislature considering delays in renewable energy standards,” Lawrence Journal World, February 5, 2013. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/OnLCh

  20. Climate change denier Willie Soon questioned over Koch, Exxon funding at CFACT Campus event” (YouTube video), uploaded by PolluterWatch, April 8, 2013.

  21. Exxon- and Koch-funded scientist Willie Soon confronted at University of Wisconsin over discredited climate research,” Polluterwatch, April 8, 2013. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/eefAF

  22. Greenpeace Investigations on Willie Soon.

  23. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: Willie Soon. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/jN2A2

  24. Articles by Willie Soon,” TCS Daily. Archived August 19, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/gjzB3

  25. Willie Soon and Paul Driessen. “The myth of killer mercury,” The Wall Street Journal (opinion), May 25, 2011. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/RIUdo

  26. How Soon is now?RealClimate.org, July 7, 2011. Archived August 19, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/3uUpn

  27. John Vidal. “Climate sceptic Willie Soon received $1m from oil companies, papers show,” The Guardian, June 28, 2011. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/pPkvN

  28. Joe Bast, Willie Soon talking 'Climate Change Reconsidered' on Fox News,” The Heartland Institute, September 19, 2013. Archived August 19, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/gw0g7

  29. Researcher helps sow climate-change doubt,” The Boston Globe, November 5, 2013. Archived August 19, 2016.

  30. Boston Globe Exposes Climate Denier Willie Soon,” Greenpeace, November 5, 2013.

  31. Joseph Bast. “Three Global Warming Skeptics Win Awards,” Watts Up With That, June 19, 2014. August 19, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/jryD8

  32. Return of Climate Denial-a-Palooza: Heartland Institute Hitches Anti-Science Wagon to Vegas FreedomFest,” DeSmogBlog, July 7, 2014. Archived July 14, 2014.

  33. Willie Soon and Christopher Monckton. “Boycotting the U.N. climate summit; Awareness grows that faulty science would keep millions in the dark,” The Washington Times, September 18, 2014. Archived September 23, 2014. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/PqqCY

  34. Heartland Institute Experts Comment on Latest United Nations Climate Report,” Heartland Institute, November 5, 2014. Archived November 11, 2014. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/CBLqi

  35. Climate change skeptic accused of violating disclosure rules,” The Boston Globe, January 26, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/1liME

  36. Interview with Simon Schuster, State News, Michigan State University, April 7, 2013.

  37. Willie Soon, PolluterWatch profile, February 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/jREDc

  38. Willie Soon. “Statement by Dr. Willie Soon,” Heartland Institute, March 2, 2015.

  39. Was Climate Science Denialist Willie Soon Funded To Do Science Or Was It Just PR Cash From The Fossil Fuel Industry?,” DeSmogBlog, March 1, 2015.

  40. Institute of Public Affairs,” SourceWatch. Accessed May 27, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/WWdgR

  41. Katherine Bagley. “Leaked Email Reveals Who's Who List of Climate Denialists,” InsideClimate News. March 12, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/CVOi5

  42. David Hasemyer. “Documents Reveal Fossil Fuel Fingerprints on Contrarian Climate Research,” InsideClimate News, February 21, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/5TTsv

  43. Lisa Song. “A Guide To Willie Soon's Climate Research Funded by Fossil Fuel Companies,” InsideClimate News, February 23, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/YOHqz

  44. New documents reveal Koch, Exxon, Southern Company influence behind climate change denier scientist Dr. Willie Soon called his research and congressional testimony 'deliverables' to corporate funders, may have violated IRS rules and scientific journals’ ethical guidelines,” Greenpeace (Media Release), February 23, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/Lac4S

  45. David Hasemyer. “Utility Giant Cuts Ties With Willie Soon,” InsideClimate News, April 7, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/wDh9z

  46. Dr. Wei-Hock Soon. “Gas of Life: Pope Encyclical on Climate Change Ignores Science on Carbon Dioxide.” Breitbart. June 19, 2015. Archived July 3, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/XYShy

  47. Speakers,” Heartland Institute. Archived June 30, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/lpiqu

  48. Panel 1: Climate Science with Willie Soon, Ph.D., David Legates, Ph.D., and Patrick Michaels, Ph.D.,” Heartland Institute, June 11, 2015. Archived July 16, 2015.

  49. PARIS COP-21: Day of Examining the Data with The Heartland Institute, CFACT, and CEI,” Heartland Institute, December 7, 2015.

  50. Bringing Climate Realism to Paris at COP-21,” Heartland Institute, December 7, 2015. Archived February 10, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/NIkCy

  51. Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,” PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/DR5pv

  52. In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/QGKCb

  53. Farron Cousins. “Court Documents Show Coal Giant Peabody Energy Funded Dozens Of Climate Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, June 13, 2016.

  54. Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Oibzy

  55. DDP 34th Annual Meeting – July 2016,” Doctors for Disaster Preparedness. Archived July 22, 2016. Backup archive url: http://archive.is/oRn3j

  56. Smithsonian Gives Nod to More 'Dark Money' Funding for Willie Soon,” InsideClimate News, April 5, 2016. Archived August 19, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/CHxiU

  57. Willie Soon: 'Too Much Ice Is Really Bad for Polar Bears',” InsideClimate News, February 24, 2015. Archived August 20, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/KzQ3n

  58. Willie Soon. “Bill Nye the Scientism Guy,” Townhall.com, May 27, 2016. Archived August 20, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/XmKMX

  59. The Clexit Committee comprises” (PDF), Clexit.net. Archived.pdf on file at Desmog.

  60. After Brexit, Clexit” (PDF), Clexit.net. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

  61. Graham Readfearn. “After Brexit, Climate Science Denialists Form New Group to Call for a Clexit,” Desmog, August 3, 2016.

  62. Hugh Morgan AO,” Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived February 22, 2002. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/1ObOB

  63. Donate to Climate Change: The Facts 2017,” Institute of Public Affairs. Archived October 31, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/KpLZh

  64. The 3rd Congress of Freedom Force,” Freedom Force International. Archived December 2, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/xuWxA

  65. At the Crossroads III: Energy and Climate Policy Summit,” Heritage Foundation, December 8, 2016. Archived December 22, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/AKaKq

  66. Doug Domenech. “Climate change: Speaking truth to power,” The Hill, December 13, 2016. Archived December 21, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/zAEH5

  67. Part 4 - At the Crossroads III: Energy and Climate Policy Summit,” YouTube video uploaded by user The Heritage Foundation, December 9, 2016. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.

  68. Open Letter Supporting Scott Pruitt for EPA Administrator,” Cornwall Alliance, January 5, 2017. Archived January 19, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/xMash

  69. Ben Jervey. “Mapping EPA Nominee Scott Pruitt's Many Fossil Fuel Ties,” DeSmog, January 13, 2017.

  70. Ben Jervey and Steve Horn. “EPA Nominee Scott Pruitt Gets Grilled on Fossil Fuel Ties at Confirmation Hearing,” DeSmog, January 18, 2017.

  71. PETITION” (PDF), February 23, 2017. Richard Lindzen. PDF Archived at DeSmog.

  72. Graham Readfearn. “Climate Science Denier Richard Lindzen's List of 300 “Scientists” Sent to Trump Is the Usual Parade of Non-Experts,” DeSmog, February 27, 2017.

  73. WILLIE SOON,” Climateconferences.heartland.org. Archived April 5, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/m8SZr

  74. Graham Readfearn. “Australian Climate Denial Think Tank Picks Cat Author and Moonman Ken Ring as Climate Expert,” DeSmog, April 9, 2017.

  75. Register your interest now and be the first to hear about the publication of Climate Change: The Facts 2017,” Institute of Public Affairs. Archived April 10, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/kvAFK

  76. Climate Change: The facts 2014,” Catallaxyfiles.com. Archived October 31, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Trs4Y

  77. Robert Nilsson. “Environmental Tobacco Smoke Revisited: The reliability of the evidence for risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular desease,” The European Science and Environment Forum, March 1998. Retrieved from Truth Tobacco Industry Documents library. Bates Number : 518988738-518988770.

  78. Ronan Connolly, Michael Connolly & Willie Soon (2017). “Re-calibration of Arctic sea ice extent datasets using Arctic surface air temperature records” (PDF)Hydrological Sciences Journal, DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2017.1324974

  79. Willie Soon. “RE-CALIBRATION OF ARCTIC SEA ICE EXTENT DATASETS USING ARCTIC SURFACE AIR TEMPERATURE RECORDs,” Heartland Institute, April 30, 2017. Archived May 27, 2017. View full PDF paper here. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/alxBc

Profile image screenshot from YouTube video, Willie Soon at Heartland Institute's 12th International Conference on Climate Change.