Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF)
The Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) is a United Kingdom think tank founded by climate change denialist Nigel Lawson with the purpose of combating what the foundation describes as “extremely damaging and harmful policies” designed to mitigate climate change. The group was established on November 22 2009, just three days after the first set of “Climategate” emails were released on the University of Tomsk's server. , 
Nigel Lawson describes the GWPF as an “all-party and non-party think-tank and a registered educational charity which, while open-minded on the contested science of global warming, is deeply concerned about the costs and other implications of many of the policies currently being advocated.” Although Lawson claims to be “open minded” on global warming, the GWPF website has a banner depicting a short-term temperature graph that suggests the world is not warming. 
In an interview with The Register, Nigel Lawson said that the Global Warming Policy Foundation “will certainly be actively involved in monitoring what is being said, in correcting errors where the are errors. The only thing we will not be actively engaged in is what are the causes of the temperature changes on the planet: how much is CO2, how much is solar radiation, how much is cosmic rays. We won't be getting into all that.” The article also notes that the average age of the Trustees at the time of the group's formation was 74. 
Bob Ward, the policy and communications director at the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at the London School of Economics said that “Some of those names [on the GWPF's Academic Advisory Council] are straight from the Who's Who of current climate change sceptics … To me, this is pretty much indistinguishable from the websites that are run by rightwing, free-market think tanks in the US. It's just going to be a way of pumping material into the debate that hasn't been through scrutiny,” reports The Guardian. 
The Global Warming Policy Forum
The similarly-named Global Warming Policy Forum (thegwpf.com) describes itself as “a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Global Warming Policy Foundation.” The Global Warming Policy Forum” and is a “London-based think tank which conducts campaigns and activities which do not fall squarely within the Global Warming Policy Foundation’s remit as an educational charity.” Its director is Dr Benny Peiser, the same as the Global Warming Policy Foundation. 
The reason for the formation of the Global Warming Policy Forum as a seperate entity can be traced to a report by the UK Charity Commision (PDF) that looked into the Global Warming Policy Foundation when “Concerns were raised with the commission that the charity was promoting views that were of a political rather than an educational nature.” 
The Commision examined the GWPF's website, blog, and publications, and came to the conclusion that the GWPF lacked its claimed neutrality, as it “promoted a particular position on global warming.” The Charity Commission also ruled that the GWPF did not constitute as an educational resource: “The [GWPF] website could not be regarded as a comprehensive and structured educational resource sufficient to demonstrate public benefit. In areas of controversy, education requires balance and neutrality with sufficient weight given to competing arguments. The promotion of a particular view or position would not equate to education.” (Emphasis added). 
Stance on Climate Change
According to Benny Peiser, director of the GWPF, “We are certainly not taking a critical stance on the basic science of the greenhouse effect or the fact that CO2 emissions in the atmosphere are having an effect on the climate.” He said the foundation exists to help restore a less “hysterical” and “emotional” debate on the subject and promote what he calls a more “flexible and long-term approach” to the problem. 
The following are excerpts from a 2015 GWPF “Report” on Climate Change by Andrew Montford:
“Policies to ‘stop climate change’ are based on climate models that completely failed to predict the lack of warming for the past two decades. Observational data show clearly that the predictions of unacceptable warming caused by more carbon dioxide are wrong. Economic discount rates aside, policies designed to save the planet from more carbon dioxide are based on failed computer models.
[…] Human emissions of carbon dioxide, a transparent, odorless, non-toxic gas, essential for plant growth and contained at about 40,000 parts per million (ppm) in our own breaths. Carbon dioxide has been mercilessly demonized as ‘carbon pollution’, when in fact it is a benefit to the planet. Agricultural production has increased substantially and the Earth is greener today with the 400 ppm current levels of carbon dioxide than it was with preindustrial levels of about 280 ppm. And two or three times higher levels would be even better. 
The Global Warming Policy Foundation is registered as a charity in the UK (Number 1131448), which gives it certain tax advantages. Below are its financial details at the UK Charity Commision (charitycommission.gov.uk) as of August, 2015: 
According to the GWPF, “We are funded entirely by voluntary donations from our Members and Supporters.” They describe their members as “part of a growing international community of like-minded people who are helping to restore balance and accuracy to the climate debates.” They suggest that by becoming a paying member, one can “actively help to inform and shape these debates.” 
According to SourceWatch, The Global Warming Policy Foundation will not reveal its funding sources. Lord Lawson, when interviewed by BBC Radio 4, said that he relied on his friends who “tend to be richer than the average person and much more intelligent than the average person.” , , 
The GWPF has rejected FoI (Freedom of Information) requests on at least four different occasions. Bob Ward of the Grantham Research Institute on climate Change and the Environment comments:
“These [FoI] documents expose once again the double standards promoted by…the GWPF, who demand absolute transparency from everybody except themselves…The GWPF was the most strident critic during the 'Climategate' row of the standards of transparency practised by the University of East Anglia, yet it simply refuses to disclose basic information about its own secretive operations, including the identity of its funders.” 
GWPF has defended their funding secrecy, claiming that “the soil we till is highly controversial, and anyone who puts their head above the parapet has to be prepared to endure a degree of public vilification. For that reason we offer all our donors the protection of anonymity.” According to a 2011 article in The Guardian, its total income for the period up to 31 July 2010 was £503,302, of which only £8,168 (or 1.6%) came from membership contributions. 
This leaves the question of who provides the rest of their funding. The foundation charges a minimum annual membership fee of £100. According to The Guardian, the foundation received £12,161 from membership fees in the year ending 31 July 2012. That would suggest a membership of 120 members at the most. The GWPF's main source of income remains donations, having received over £1m in the past three years. The Guardian investigated further, and found that one of the foundation's secret donors is Michael Hintze, a businessman who has also given large sums of money to the Conservative party. , 
In 2014, Niel Record, the founding chairman of his own specialist currency management company, and trustee of the free market Institute of Economic Affairs think tank, was named for the first time as a financial backer.
DeSmog UK also reported that Lord Vinson, who was instrumental in the rise to power of the late Margaret Thatcher, was also a backer of GWPF. He donated at least £15,000 to the Global Warming Policy Foundation in the first five years through his own charity, according to documents submitted to the Charity Commission. 
- Benny Peiser — Director.
Board of Trustees
- Lord Nigel Lawson — Chairman
- Bernard Donoughue
- Robert Fellowes
- Rt Rev Peter Forster — Bishop of Chester since 1996.
- Sir Martin Jacomb
- Peter Lilley — Conservative MP*
- Charles Moore
- Emma Nicholson — Liberal Democrat, MP for Devon West and Torridge 1987-97
- Graham Stringer — Labour MP*
- Andrew Turnbull
Academic Advisory Council
- Professor Ross McKitrick — Chairman 
- Adrian Berry
- Sir Samuel Brittan
- Sir Ian Byatt
- Professor Robert Carter
- Professor Vincent Courtillot
- Professor Freeman Dyson
- Professor Christopher Essex
- Christian Gerondeau
- Dr Indur Goklany
- Professor William Happer
- Professor David Henderson
- Professor Terence Kealey
- Professor Deepak Lal
- Professor Richard Lindzen
- Professor Robert Mendelsohn
- Professor Ian Plimer
- Professor Paul Reiter
- Dr Matt Ridley
- Sir Alan Rudge
- Professor Nir Shaviv
- Professor Philip Stott
- Professor Henrik Svensmark
- Professor Richard Tol
- Professor Fritz Vahrenholt
- Dr David Whitehouse — Previously listed as “Science Editor.” 
- Lord Barnett — Former trustee 
- Henri Lepage — Former trustee 
- Anthony Kelly — Former Member, Academic Advisory Council (as of 2011)
- Alan Peacock — Former Member, Academic Advisory Council (as of 2011)
- B P Radhakrishna — Former Member, Academic Advisory Council (as of 2011)
- Hal Lewis — Former Member, Academic Advisory Council (According to Sourcewatch)
10 Upper Bank StreetLondon E14 5NPUnited Kingdom
An undercover Greenpeace investigation revealed details on the Global Warming Policy Foundation's peer review process. Professor William Happer, who sits on the Academic Advisory Council of the GWPF, was asked by undercover reporters if he could put a (fictional) oil-industry-funded report through the same peer review process as previous GWPF foundation reports that had been called “thoroughly peer reviewed.” 
Happer said the GWPF's peer review process consisted of members of the Advisory Council and other selected scientists reviewing the work, rather than presenting it to an academic journal.
“I would be glad to ask for a similar review for the first drafts of anything I write for your client. Unless we decide to submit the piece to a regular journal, with all the complications of delay, possibly quixotic editors and reviewers that is the best we can do, and I think it would be fine to call it a peer review,” Happer wrote in an email to undercover reporters. 
“I know that the entire scientific advisory board of the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) was asked to submit comments on the first draft. I am also sure that most were too busy to respond,” he said. 
“That might greatly delay publication and might require such major changes in response to referees and the journal editor that the article would no longer make the case that CO2 is a benefit, not a pollutant, as strongly as I would like, and presumably as strongly [as] your client would also like,” he said. 
Internal documents released under the Freedom of Information Act show that the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) may have been “wasting taxpayers' money through the inappropriate use of parliamentary questions,” DeSmog UK reports. 
Lord Donoughue, a member of the GWPF board of trustees, put forward a total of 25 questions over 15 months to the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) relating to obscure climate models. 
June 30, 2015
The Global Warming Policy Foundation's Indur Goklany (member of their Academic Advisory Council) authored a GWPF paper titled “The Pontifical Academies' Broken Moral Compass” (PDF) in response to Pope Francis's Encyclical on the Environment. 
According to the GWPF's press release, the paper “finds the Vatican is being led astray by its advisors by statements on climate change that are scientifically lacking and ethically dubious.” They also conclude that using fossil fuels is beneficial to the environment “the beneficial impact of fossil fuels has not only been on human well-being but also on nature, because fossil fuel use has allowed more intensive use of land, thus reducing the amount of wilderness that has to be diverted to agricultural use. This means that the Vatican’s backing of reductions in fossil fuel use would actually reduce human well-being and increase the human impact on the planet” 
Goklany said, “The academies say that sustainability and resilience are being destroyed by over-consumption and that fossil fuels are to blame, yet almost every indicator of human well-being from life-expectancy to health to standard of living has improved beyond measure largely because of our use of fossil fuels.”“[…]Climate change is a moral and ethical issue, but it is a strange ethical calculus that would justify wiping out the gains we have made in human well-being over the last few centuries at the same time devastating the natural world. The Vatican’s advisors appear to have lost their way.”
June 15, 2015
According to her presentation notes (PDF), her main message was to emphasise the uncertainty in the climate change science: “The punch line is this,” she said in the House of Lords, “Any impact of human caused global warming is lost in the noise of climate variability.”
“Many people have found the extent of adjustments to the data surprising. While we believe that the 20th century warming is real, we are concerned by claims that the actual trend is different from – or less certain than – has been suggested. We hope to perform a valuable public service by getting everything out into the open.” 
- Terence Kealey (chairman)
- Petr Chylek
- Richard McNider
- Roman Mureika
- Roger A Pielke Sr
- William van Wijngaarden
March 1, 2015
The Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) issued a briefing paper titled “The Small Print: What the Royal Society Left Out” (PDF) that accuses the Royal Society of “presenting a misleading picture of climate science.” 
“As an example, the Royal Society addresses the question of why Antarctic sea ice is growing,” says Prof Ross McKitrick, the chairman of the GWPF’s Academic Advisory Council, “but in doing so they present a recently proposed hypothesis as if it were settled science. Failing to admit when the answer to an important question is simply not known does a disservice to the public. We believe that this new paper does a much better job of presenting the whole picture to the public.” 
The paper was written/endorsed by the following “experts”:
- Prof Robert Carter
- Prof Vincent Courtillot
- Prof Freeman Dyson
- Prof Christopher Essex
- Dr Indur Goklany
- Prof Will Happer
- Prof Richard Lindzen
- Prof Ross McKitrick
- Prof Ian Plimer
- Dr Matt Ridley
- Sir Alan Rudge
- Prof Nir Shaviv
An analysis by DeSmog UK found that Peabody Energy had cited the March, 2015 report at least 16 times in an official submission to the White House addressing the company's concerns regarding new policies on greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. 
Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) Chairman Nigel Lawson accused the BBC of silencing the debate on global warming. He wrote his criticisms in an article in the Daily Mail titled “'I've been banned by the BBC!': Ex-Chancellor Lord Lawson, a passionate climate change sceptic, accuses BBC bosses of silencing debate on global warming.“ 
In his article, Lawson wrote: “If there is to be a ban on non-scientists discussing climate change issues (which I do not, of course, support), this should in the best BBC tradition be an even-handed one. That is to say, they should also ban non-scientists such as energy secretary Ed Davey, Ed Miliband, Lord Deben (chairman of the government’s climate advisory committee), Lord Stern (former adviser to the government on the economics of climate change and development) and all the others who are regularly invited to appear.” 
“Nigel Lawson has not been banned and nor is there a ban on non-scientists discussing climate change. We have also not apologised for putting him on air. The BBC is absolutely committed to impartial and balanced coverage, whatever the subject, and would not bow to pressure from any quarter whatever the story. This ruling found a false balance was created in that the item implied Lord Lawson’s views on climate science were on the same footing as those of Sir Brian Hoskins.“Our position continues to be that we accept that there is broad scientific agreement on climate change and we reflect this accordingly. We do however on occasion offer space to dissenting voices where appropriate as part of the BBC’s overall commitment to impartiality.”
May 14, 2014
The Global Warming Policy Foundation released a press release titled, “Lennart Bengtsson Resigns: GWPF voices shock and concern at the extent of intolerance within the climate science community.” Three weeks prior to this announcement, Bengtsson had just joined the GWPF, but due to what he wrote in his letter of resignation as “enormous group pressure,” and “no limit and end to what will happen,” he decided that there was “no other way out therefore than resigning from GWPF.” 
In response to Bengtsson's letter of resignation, Benny Peiser replied, “The Foundation, while of course respecting Professor Bengtsson’s decision, notes with deep concern the disgraceful intolerance within the climate science community which has prompted his resignation.” 
David Henderson echoed similar sentiments: “Your resignation is not only a sad event for us in the Foundation: it is also a matter of profound and much wider concern. The reactions that you speak of, and which have forced you to reconsider the decision to join us, reveal a degree of intolerance, and a rejection of the principle of open scientific inquiry, which are truly shocking. They are evidence of a situation which the Global Warming Policy Foundation was created to remedy.” 
May 7, 2014
John Howard, former prime minister of Australia, spoke at the GWPF's Annual Lecture, contending that those who believe that global warming could be catostrophic have adopted a “substitute religion.” 
The Global Warming Policy Foundation published a pamphlet critical of the Stern Review (PDF) — an influential report on the economics of climate change published in October 2006. The GWPF pamphlet, titled “What is wrong with Stern?” was written by Peter Lilley, the Conservative Party Member of Parliament. Peter Lilley was one of 5 MPs (out of 646) who voted against the UK Climate Change Bill in 2008 which would have set legal targets for reducing emissions. 
According to a critical review (PDF) by Bob Ward at the London School of Economics and Political Science, the GWPF pamphlet uses a “combination of misrepresentation, bad economics and fundamentally flawed science, and simply recycles erroneous allegations that were made, and debunked, six years ago.” A number of experts agree that Lilley's pamphlet makes a number of errors and assumptions in an attempt to make a case against the Stern report. 
The GWPF distributed a leaflet (PDF) written by their “Academic Advisor” Matt Ridley (with a forward written by AGW skeptic Freeman Dyson) promoting the supposed benefits of shale gas. According to the report's summary, the development of shale gas would be superior to the development of renewable resources.
Ridley writes that “A surge in gas production and use may prove to be both the cheapest and most effective way to hasten the decarbonisation of the world economy, given the cost and land requirements of most renewables.”
April 14, 2011
The blog Carbon Brief analyzed these papers and found that nine of the top ten authors had ties to ExxonMobil. They also discovered that prominent scientists featured on the list didn't agree that their work supported skepticism about anthropogenic global warming. 
Additionally, the most-cited journal on the list was Energy and Environment, a journal with a very low impact factor, and whose editors are AGW skeptics. 
December 2010 – February 2011
According to records of the Public Relations Consultants Association (PDF), the GWPF retained the lobbying services of Bell Pottinger, a group that gas generated controversy for its claims of influence over senior government members. It is unclear what these services were. 
Lord Nigel Lawson of the GWPF backed Price Philip after he branded wind farms as “absolutely useless”: 
“If you tried to devise the most costly and inefficient means of generating electricity imaginable, you would choose wind power,” Lawson said. He continues, stating that wind power is “an environmental monstrosity, desecrating ever more of our English landscape. And the cost of all this – to no benefit except to the wind power industry itself – is paid by all electricity consumers, including the poorest, and damages the British economy which is fragile enough as it is.”
When the three British Government enquiries into the CRU emails were completed, Dr Benny Peiser of the Global Warming Policy Foundation immediately announced that he wanted to investigate further. Independent reviews had already exonerated the CRU scientists from any misdeads, and found that climate scientists involved in the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit had not “manipulated and suppressed key climate data” as some climate change skeptics had claimed.
Even though the panel concluded that the allegations were unfounded, the GWPF would not accept the findings. Peiser stressed that “the issue would not go away with the report,” and that “We (the Global Warming Policy Foundation) have now commissioned our own inquiry into the way these three inquiries have been set up and run.” 
The GWPF commissioned Andrew Montford, author behind the Hockey Stick Illusion and the man behind the skeptic blog Bishop Hill, to write the “enquiry” into the Climategate emails. Montford was paid £3000 for his efforts. The results were released in September 2010 — See the GWPF's full report here (PDF). , , 
According to Sourcewatch, Montford criticized the official enquiries for not including known skeptics on their panels. This is not entirely true, however, as the Parliamentary Enquiry included Graham Stringer, a man who has consistently voted very strongly against laws to respond to climate change. , 
Montford knew this, as evidenced by a recorded conversation he had with Stringer on his blog, Bishop Hill, where he describes Stringer as a “dissenter from the majority opinion represented by the report.” 
May 12, 2010
After the UK general election in May 2010, the Global Warming Policy Foundation began lobbying the Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government to stop subsidies for alternatives fuels and encouraged the government to abandon the UK's emissions reductions targets.
“At the very least, given the financial and economic state we are in, the new Government should phase out all energy subsidies of all kinds, and suspend unilateral targets until such time as all other major nations have signed up to the same course,” said GWPF Chairman Nigel Lawson. 
November 22, 2009
In an Op-Ed in The Times announcing the GWPF launch, Nigel Lawson called for “A high-level independent inquiry” into the e-mails stolen from the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit (CRU). 
- The Heartland Institute — (For example, David Henderson has been both a Heartland Institute Fellow and chair of GWPF)
- Global Warming Policy Forum — “Wholly-owned subsidiary of the Global Warming Policy Foundation.” 
- Institute of Economic Affairs — Has a “long history of association” with the GWPF. 
“Ed Miliband clashes with Lord Lawson on global warming,” BBC News, December 6, 2009. Archived August 17, 2015.
“COPENHAGEN WILL FAIL – AND QUITE RIGHT TOO,” The Global Warming Policy Forum, November 22, 2009. Archived August 17, 2015.
“GWPF Launched Today!” The Global Warming Policy Foundation, November 23, 2009. Archived January 4, 2012.
“Nigel Lawson: Climate science has turned into religion,” The Register, November 25, 2009. Archived August 17, 2015.
Caroline Davies and Suzanne Goldenberg. “The voices of climate change sceptics,” The Guardian, November 24, 2009. Archived August 17, 2015.
“Who We Are,” The Global Warming Policy Forum. Archived August 17, 2015.
Operational Case Report: The Global Warming Policy Foundation (1131448). The Charity Commission, September 30, 2014.
James Randerson. “Climate sceptics: are they gaining any credence?“ The Guardian, December 4, 2009. Archived August 17, 2015.
Andrew Montford. Unintended Consequences of Climate Change Policy. Global Warming Policy Foundation, January 2015. Archived August 17, 2015.
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Ben Lucas. “UK Climate Deniers Invite American Sceptic Judith Curry to Speak in the House of Lords,” DeSmog UK, June 16, 2015.
Susan Crockford. THE ARCTIC FALLACY: Sea ice stability and the polar bear (PDF). The Global Warming Policy Foundation, June, 2015.
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